6,505,741 results match your criteria Cell Division [Journal]

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Nanotoxicity Assessment Using Embryonic Zebrafish.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:331-343

Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.

The emergence of nanomaterials in industrial processing and consumer products has generated an increased presence of nano-enabled products in the environment and now pose an increased risk of exposure to living organisms. However, assessing the risks of nanomaterials is a challenging task because of a large variety and great variability in their properties. Here, we describe a methodology for assessing toxicity and evaluate potential risks posed by nanomaterials using zebrafish embryos as a model organism. Read More

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January 2019

Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Nanoparticles by Bronchoalveolar Lavage.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:313-322

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Nanoparticles can enter the body via the lungs, the digestive tract, and the skin. The pulmonary effects of nanoparticles and the underlying mechanisms may be investigated by histopathological examination, immunostaining, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and so on. BAL is a simple, fast, and inexpensive method that is commonly used to investigate the immune cells and acellular components in the lungs, which reflect the health state of the lungs. Read More

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January 2019
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Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Nanoparticles in Mouse Models.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:301-312

Cancer Research Center, University at Albany, State University of New York, Rensselaer, NY, USA.

Owing to new and unique properties, engineered nanoparticles (NPs) likely pose different risks than their constituent chemicals and these risks need to be understood. In particular, it is important to assess genotoxicity, since genotoxicity is a precursor to carcinogenicity. Here we describe a battery of tests for the assessment of genotoxicity of NPs in vivo in mice. Read More

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January 2019
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Methods to Quantify Nanomaterial Association with, and Distribution Across, the Blood-Brain Barrier In Vivo.

Authors:
Robert A Yokel

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:281-299

Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Kentucky Academic Medical Center, Lexington, KY, USA.

The role and functional anatomy of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is summarized to enable the investigator to appropriately address evaluation of nanomaterial interaction with, and distribution across, it into brain tissue (parenchyma). Transport mechanisms across the BBB are presented, in relation to nanomaterial physicochemical properties. Measures and test substances to assess BBB integrity/disruption/permeation are introduced, along with how they are used to interpret the results obtained with the presented methods. Read More

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January 2019

Application of Electron Microscopes in Nanotoxicity Assessment.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:247-269

Department of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

In this chapter, we highlight the applications of electron microscopes (EMs) in nanotoxicity assessment. EMs can provide detailed information about the size and morphology of nanomaterials (NMs), their localization in cells and tissues, the nano-bio interactions, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced by NMs exposure. Here, we share with the readers how we prepare the tissue sample, and the different types of EMs used among the nanotoxicologists. Read More

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January 2019

DNA Methylation Analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:181-227

Institute of Occupational Diseases, Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences, Hangzhou, P. R. China.

DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to cytosine or adenine. DNA methylation can change the activity of the DNA molecule without changing the sequence. Methylation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, and it is a very important epigenetic modification event, which can regulate gene activity and influence a number of key processes such as genomic imprinting, cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, and chromatin remodeling. Read More

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January 2019

Quantification of Mitochondrial Genome Transcription in Male Reproductive Cells by Real-Time PCR.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:171-180

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Mitochondria are organelles that play a key role in the regulation of cell energy metabolism, biosynthesis, and cell death. Mitochondria are also involved in important physiological processes, such as the three-carboxylic acid cycle, the oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids, and calcium ion homeostasis. The energy demands of male germ cells during mitosis and meiosis are higher than those of somatic cells, suggesting that mitochondria play a critical role in sperm. Read More

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January 2019
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Analysis of Nanomaterial Toxicity by Western Blot.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:161-169

Department of Gastroenterology, Affiliated Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China.

Western blot is a routine biochemical technique for the immunodetection of proteins in cells and tissues exposed to nanomaterials (NMs). It is a sensitive method for protein analysis that involves the solubilization and separation of proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), transferring and immobilizing proteins onto a solid support, and targeted immunoprobing of a specific antigen. As a convenient and reliable research tool, the western blot plays an irreplaceable role in the era of proteomics together with mass spectrometry and protein chip. Read More

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January 2019
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Measurement of Nanoparticle-Induced Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Alterations.

Authors:
Salik Hussain

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:123-131

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Robert C. Byrd Health Science Center, School of Medicine,, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Mitochondria hold a critical role in cell metabolism and homeostasis. Mitochondrial injury plays central part in deciding cell fate especially in programmed cell death pathways. Various nanomaterials lead to different cell death modalities by inducing mitochondrial injury. Read More

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January 2019

In Vitro Approaches for Assessing the Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:83-122

Department of Chemical and Product Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Berlin, Germany.

Genotoxicity is associated with serious health effects and includes different types of DNA lesions, gene mutations, structural chromosome aberrations involving breakage and/or rearrangements of chromosomes (referred to as clastogenicity) and numerical chromosome aberrations (referred to as aneuploidy). Assessing the potential genotoxic properties of chemicals, including nanomaterials (NMs), is a key element in regulatory safety assessment. State-of-the-art genotoxicity testing includes a battery of assays covering gene mutations, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations. Read More

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January 2019

Methods for Evaluation of Ovarian Granulosa Cells with Exposure to Nanoparticles.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:73-81

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Factors and Cancer, School of Public Health, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, People's Republic of China.

Increasing evidence demonstrates that a substantial number of chemicals including nanoparticles have potential toxic effects on human and wildlife reproductive health. Ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), the functional unit of the ovary, play a pivotal role in the regulation of ovarian reproductive health in females. They are considered to be the main target by the chemicals at all stages of their development. Read More

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January 2019
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Deriving Neural Cells from Pluripotent Stem Cells for Nanotoxicity Testing.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:57-72

College of Veterinary Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into all lineages under defined control condition. Stem cell neuronal differentiation can faithfully recapitulate stages of neural development and generate neuronal progenitors, mature neurons, and glial cells. Stem cell technology will largely allow for the replacement of animal studies and reduce costs, and will provide a new paradigm for in toxic genomics, bioinformatics, systems biology, and epigenetics studies. Read More

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January 2019

Preparation and Utilization of a 3D Human Liver Microtissue Model for Nanotoxicological Assessment.

Authors:
Ali Kermanizadeh

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:47-55

Nano Safety Research Group, School of Engineering and Physical Science, Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.

The liver is the principal detoxification center of the body, removing xenobiotics and waste products which could potentially include some nanomaterials (NM). With the ever increasing public and occupational exposure associated with accumulative production of nanomaterials, there is an urgent need to consider the possibility of harmful health consequences of engineered NM exposure. It is understood that following exposure via inhalation, ingestion, or direct intravenous injection a fraction of NMs reach the liver. Read More

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January 2019

Methods for Assessing Mast Cell Responses to Engineered Nanomaterial Exposure.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:31-45

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Colorado Center for Nanomedicine and Nanosafety, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Mast cells are key effector cells in inflammatory and allergic immune responses such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Activation of mast cells leads to immediate release of preformed mediators such as histamine and proteases, which can regulate vascular permeability and the function of a number of immune and nonimmune cells. Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) have been utilized for a wide range of applications and introduced into a number of consumer products; yet the consequent increase in human exposure and any potential adverse effects have not been fully evaluated. Read More

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January 2019

In Vitro Methods for Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1894:1-29

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

As a consequence of their increase in annual production and widespread distribution in the environment, nanoparticles potentially pose a significant public health risk. The sought-after catalytic activity granted by their physiochemical properties doubles as a hazard to physiological processes following exposure through inhalation, oral, transdermal, subcutaneous, and intravenous uptake. Upon uptake into the body, their size, morphology, surface charge, coating, and chemical composition augment the response of biological systems to the materials and enhance their toxicity. Read More

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January 2019

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma: single center experience in an Asian population.

Int J Hematol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei, 112, Taiwan.

Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTL) is a rare form of cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma. It is believed that SPTL in patients without hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) follows an indolent course; in contrast, SPTL in patients with HPS has been associated with unfavorable survival. To provide more clinical data on SPTL in Asian populations and to identify optimal therapeutic strategies for SPTL, we assessed the clinicopathological features and long-term follow-up data of 10 Taiwanese SPTL patients diagnosed at a single center. Read More

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December 2018

TrkB Regulates N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Signaling by Uncoupling and Recruiting the Brain-Specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, RasGrf1.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Western University, Medical Sciences Building, Rm 342, 1151 Richmond St. North, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) facilitates multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation and cellular physiology by activating the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB. While it is known that both BDNF and TrkB modulate cellular processes involved in learning and memory, exactly how TrkB cross-talks and modulates signaling downstream of excitatory ionotropic receptors, such as the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), are not well understood. A model that we have investigated involves the signaling molecule RasGrf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for both Ras and Rac. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial Impairment in Oligodendroglial Cells Induces Cytokine Expression and Signaling.

J Mol Neurosci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroanatomy, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Wendlingweg 2, 52074, Aachen, Germany.

Widespread inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system grey and white matter are major hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. The development of full-blown demyelinating multiple sclerosis lesions might be preceded by preactive lesions which are characterized by focal microglia activation in close spatial relation to apoptotic oligodendrocytes. In this study, we investigated the expression of signaling molecules of oligodendrocytes that might be involved in initial microglia activation during preactive lesion formation. Read More

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December 2018

Prevalence and cardiac phenotype of patients with a phospholamban mutation.

Neth Heart J 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Pathogenic mutations in the phospholamban (PLN) gene may give rise to inherited cardiomyopathies due to its role in calcium homeostasis. Several PLN mutations have been identified, with the R14del mutation being the most prevalent cardiomyopathy-related mutation in the Netherlands. It is present in patients diagnosed with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy as well as dilated cardiomyopathy. Read More

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December 2018
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Inferring Gene Regulatory Networks from Multiple Datasets.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:251-282

Department of Statistics and Systems Biology Centre, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Gaussian process dynamical systems (GPDS) represent Bayesian nonparametric approaches to inference of nonlinear dynamical systems, and provide a principled framework for the learning of biological networks from multiple perturbed time series measurements of gene or protein expression. Such approaches are able to capture the full richness of complex ODE models, and can be scaled for inference in moderately large systems containing hundreds of genes. Related hierarchical approaches allow for inference from multiple datasets in which the underlying generative networks are assumed to have been rewired, either by context-dependent changes in network structure, evolutionary processes, or synthetic manipulation. Read More

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January 2019

Network Inference from Single-Cell Transcriptomic Data.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:235-249

Data Mining and Modelling for Biomedicine, VIB Center for Inflammation Research, Ghent, Belgium.

Recent technological breakthroughs in single-cell RNA sequencing are revolutionizing modern experimental design in biology. The increasing size of the single-cell expression data from which networks can be inferred allows identifying more complex, non-linear dependencies between genes. Moreover, the inter-cellular variability that is observed in single-cell expression data can be used to infer not only one global network representing all the cells, but also numerous regulatory networks that are more specific to certain conditions. Read More

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January 2019

Integrative Approaches for Inference of Genome-Scale Gene Regulatory Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:161-194

Wisconsin Institute for Discovery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Transcriptional regulatory networks specify the regulatory proteins of target genes that control the context-specific expression levels of genes. With our ability to profile the different types of molecular components of cells under different conditions, we are now uniquely positioned to infer regulatory networks in diverse biological contexts such as different cell types, tissues, and time points. In this chapter, we cover two main classes of computational methods to integrate different types of information to infer genome-scale transcriptional regulatory networks. Read More

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January 2019

A Multiattribute Gaussian Graphical Model for Inferring Multiscale Regulatory Networks: An Application in Breast Cancer.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:143-160

UMR MIA-Paris, AgroParisTech, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France.

This chapter addresses the problem of reconstructing regulatory networks in molecular biology by integrating multiple sources of data. We consider data sets measured from diverse technologies all related to the same set of variables and individuals. This situation is becoming more and more common in molecular biology, for instance, when both proteomic and transcriptomic data related to the same set of "genes" are available on a given cohort of patients. Read More

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January 2019

Statistical Network Inference for Time-Varying Molecular Data with Dynamic Bayesian Networks.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1883:25-48

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany.

In this chapter, we review the problem of network inference from time-course data, focusing on a class of graphical models known as dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). We discuss the relationship of DBNs to models based on ordinary differential equations, and consider extensions to nonlinear time dynamics. We provide an introduction to time-varying DBN models, which allow for changes to the network structure and parameters over time. Read More

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January 2019

Safety and efficacy of dermal fibroblast conditioned medium (DFCM) fortified collagen hydrogel as acellular 3D skin patch.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Tissue Engineering Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaccob Latiff, Cheras, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Skin substitutes are one of the main treatments for skin loss, and a skin substitute that is readily available would be the best treatment option. However, most cell-based skin substitutes require long production times, and therefore, patients endure long waiting times. The proteins secreted from the cells and tissues play vital roles in promoting wound healing. Read More

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December 2018

Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Fonsecaea nubica: First Report in Northern China and Literature Review.

Mycopathologia 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatovenereology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, No. 37, Guo Xue Xiang, Wuhou District, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan Province, China.

Chromoblastomycosis is found worldwide with higher incidence in tropical and subtropical regions. Fonsecaea spp. is one of the major causative agents of this disease. Read More

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December 2018

Nerve grafting for peripheral nerve injuries with extended defect sizes.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Artificial and non-artificial nerve grafts are the gold standard in peripheral nerve reconstruction in cases with extensive loss of nerve tissue, particularly where a direct end-to-end suture or an autologous nerve graft is inauspicious. Different materials are marketed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for peripheral nerve graft reconstruction. The most frequently used materials are collagen and poly(DL-lactide-ε-caprolactone). Read More

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December 2018
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Diagnosis using deep-learning artificial intelligence based on the endocytoscopic observation of the esophagus.

Esophagus 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

AI Medical Service Inc., Tokyo, Japan.

Background And Aims: The endocytoscopic system (ECS) helps in virtual realization of histology and can aid in confirming histological diagnosis in vivo. We propose replacing biopsy-based histology for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) by using the ECS. We applied deep-learning artificial intelligence (AI) to analyse ECS images of the esophagus to determine whether AI can support endoscopists for the replacement of biopsy-based histology. Read More

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December 2018

Red cell distribution width and prognosis in acute heart failure: ready for prime time!

Intern Emerg Med 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Service de Cardiologie, Département Coeur-Vaisseaux, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Université de Lausanne, BU44_07_2208, Rue du Bugnon 44, 1011, Lausanne, Switzerland.

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December 2018

Experimental exposure to gasohol impairs sperm quality with recognition of the classification pattern of exposure groups by machine learning algorithms.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Graduate Program in Environment and Regional Development, University of Western São Paulo - UNOESTE, Presidente Prudente, SP, 19067-175, Brazil.

Contamination caused by leakage at gas stations leads to possible exposure of the general population when in contact with contaminated water and soil. The present study aimed to evaluate the reproductive effects of exposure of adult male rats to gasohol and evaluate the performance of machine learning (ML) algorithms for pattern recognition and classification of the exposure groups. Rats were orally exposed to 0 (control), 16 (EA), 160 (EB), or 800 mg kg bw day of gasohol (EC), for 30 consecutive days. Read More

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December 2018

The bacteriology in adult patients with pneumonia and parapneumonic effusions: increased yield with DNA sequencing method.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Medicine, Solna, Infectious Diseases Unit, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

The aim of this study was to use a 16S rDNA sequencing method in combination with conventional culture in patients with parapneumonic effusions (PPE) to evaluate the methods, study the microbiological spectrum, and examine the presence of bacteria within the different stages of PPE. Adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and PPE (n = 197) admitted to the Departments of Infectious Diseases at four hospitals in Stockholm County during 2011-2014 were prospectively studied. All patients underwent thoracentesis. Read More

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December 2018

Freshwater neotropical oligochaetes as native test species for the toxicity evaluation of cadmium, mercury and their mixtures.

Ecotoxicology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Federal University of São Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luís, km 235, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.

The toxicity of metals, whether isolated or in mixtures, involves changes in biochemical processes as well as in cell membranes, which may lead to deleterious short- and long-term effects on the affected organisms. Among metals, cadmium and mercury stand out due to their abundance in nature, frequent use for industrial activities and biological accumulation, with high levels of residence in trophic chains. Benthic communities are particularly prone to metal pollution since metals usually accumulate in sediments. Read More

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December 2018

Extension of longevity and reduction of inflammation is ovarian-dependent, but germ cell-independent in post-reproductive female mice.

Geroscience 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Center for Integrated BioSystems, School of Veterinary Medicine, Utah State University, 4700 Old Main Hill, Logan, UT, 84322, USA.

Cardiovascular disease, rare in premenopausal women, increases sharply at menopause and is typically accompanied by chronic inflammation. Previous work in our laboratory demonstrated that replacing senescent ovaries in post-reproductive mice with young, actively cycling ovaries restored many health benefits, including decreased cardiomyopathy and restoration of immune function. Our objective here was to determine if depletion of germ cells from young transplanted ovaries would alter the ovarian-dependent extension of life and health span. Read More

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December 2018

Melanoma tumour vasculature heterogeneity: from mice models to human.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

UMR Inserm 1066, CNRS 6021, Université d'Angers, CHU, IBS, IRIS, MINT, UNIV Angers, INSERM, CNRS, Université Bretagne Loire, IBS-CHU, 4, rue Larrey, 49933, Angers, France.

Tumour angiogenesis is defined by an anarchic vasculature and irregularities in alignment of endothelial cells. These structural abnormalities could explain the variability in distribution of nanomedicines in various tumour models. Then, the main goal of this study was to compare and to characterize the tumour vascular structure in different mouse models of melanoma tumours (B16F10 and SK-Mel-28) and in human melanomas from different patients. Read More

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December 2018
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Phase I dose-escalation study of F14512, a polyamine-vectorized topoisomerase II inhibitor, in patients with platinum-refractory or resistant ovarian cancer.

Invest New Drugs 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institut Claudius Regaud, IUCT-Oncopole, Departement d'Oncologie Medicale, Toulouse, France.

Purpose To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of F14512, a topoisomerase II inhibitor designed to target cancer cells through the polyamine transport system, (three-hour daily infusion given for 3 consecutive days every 3 weeks) in platinum-refractory or resistant ovarian cancer. Other objectives were safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), PK/pharmacodynamics relationship, and efficacy. Methods This was an open-label, dose-escalation, multicenter phase I study. Read More

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December 2018

Undiagnosed cardiac deficits in non-small cell carcinoma patients in the candidate population for anti-cachexia clinical trials.

Support Care Cancer 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Oncology, Division of Palliative Care Medicine, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1Z2, Canada.

Purpose: Currently, there is no approved therapy for cancer cachexia. According to European and American regulatory agencies, physical function improvements would be approvable co-primary endpoints of new anti-cachexia medications. As physical functioning is in part dependent on cardiac functioning, we aimed to explore the cardiac status of a group of patients meeting current criteria for inclusion in cachexia clinical trials. Read More

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December 2018

The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in Hair Loss: A Review.

Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 1475 NW 12th Ave. Suite 2175, Miami, FL, 33136, USA.

People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Read More

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December 2018
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Primary hypophysitis and other autoimmune disorders of the sellar and suprasellar regions.

Rev Endocr Metab Disord 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Medicover GmbH, Berlin/Hannover, Germany.

The pituitary gland and the hypothalamus can be affected by autoimmune-mediated structural and functional disruption. These autoimmune-mediated diseases occur more commonly in females and are often found during pregnancy or in the post-partum period. Autoimmune diseases can either affect parts of the pituitary or hypothalamus, or can involve both sellar and suprasellar structures. Read More

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December 2018
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Effects of carbendazim and astaxanthin co-treatment on the proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Biophysics, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey.

There has been a controversy in the oncology field about the use of antioxidants along with chemotherapeutics in cancer treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a potent antioxidant (astaxanthin) co-treatment with a promising anti-cancer drug (carbendazim), which is in phase I clinical trials, on MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation. MCF-7 cells were treated with carbendazim, astaxanthin, or their combinations and incubated for 24 h. Read More

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December 2018
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Pterostilbene exerts a protective effect via regulating tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse preimplantation embryos.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Animal Science, Agricultural College, Yanbian University, Yanji, 133002, Jilin, China.

Pterostilbene (PTS) mainly enriched in small fruits such as berries and grapes exerts an antioxidant effect. However, the protective effects of PTS against endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) have not yet been elucidated in mouse preimplantation embryo. ERS plays an important role in regulating the pathological and physiological processes, including embryonic development. Read More

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December 2018
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Microparticulate P2X7 and GSDM-D mediated regulation of functional IL-1β release.

Purinergic Signal 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 473 W 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

The pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β is a secreted protein that is cleaved by caspase-1 during inflammasome activation upon recognition of internal and external insults to cells. Purinergic receptor P2X7 has been described to be involved in the release pathway of bioactive mature IL-1β by activated immune cells. Microparticle (MP) shedding has also been recently recognized as a manner of cytokine IL-1β release. Read More

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December 2018
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Frequent discordance in PD-1 and PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and their matched distant metastases.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, PO Box 85500, 3508 GA, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Programmed death-1 (PD-1) is an immune checkpoint that is able to inhibit the immune system by binding to its ligand programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). In many cancer types, among which breast cancer, prognostic and/or predictive values have been suggested for both PD-1 and PD-L1. Previous research has demonstrated discrepancies in PD-L1 expression between primary breast tumors and distant metastases, however data so far have been scarce. Read More

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December 2018

Polyphenol-associated oxidative stress and inflammation in a model of LPS-induced inflammation in glial cells: do we know enough for responsible compounding?

Inflammopharmacology 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department Physiological Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch, 7602, South Africa.

Cyanidin and chlorogenic acid are polyphenols from plant origin that are present in many common fruits, particularly in berries. To corroborate the protective or detrimental effects of both compounds from a neuro-inflammatory perspective, in vitro experiments were carried out in human astrocytes (U-373). Astrocytes were pre-treated with a range of concentrations of either cyanidin, chlorogenic acid or a combined treatment for a period of 30 min, before exposure to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge for 23. Read More

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December 2018

The impacts of laser zona thinning on hatching and implantation of vitrified-warmed mouse embryos.

Lasers Med Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

National Engineering Laboratory for Animal Breeding and Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Beijing Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Improvement, College of Animal Science and Technology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Embryo vitrification has advantages in assisted reproduction yet it also induces zona hardening. Laser zona thinning (LZT) is considered as a solution yet its efficacy and security have not been well studied. In this study, we used vitrified-warmed morulae from 2-month-old and 10-month-old ICR female mice as model to investigate the impacts that LZT treatment brings to the in vitro hatching process and implantation by analyzing hatching rate, implantation rate, and blastocyst quality. Read More

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December 2018
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The Influence of a Xanthine-Catechin Chemical Matrix on in vitro Macrophage-Activation Triggered by Antipsychotic Ziprasidone.

Inflammation 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Postgraduate Program of Pharmacology, Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

Ziprasidone (ZIP) is an effective antipsychotic with low side effects than other second-generation antipsychotics. Despite this, there are reports of adverse events and previous studies associating the use of ZIP the inflammatory response. It is possible to infer that bioactive molecules present in some foods could attenuate peripheral inflammatory and oxidative stress potentially triggered ZIP. Read More

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December 2018

Isolation of living apical and basal cell lineages of early proembryos for transcriptome analysis.

Plant Reprod 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China.

Plant zygotes usually undergo asymmetrical cell division, giving rise to the formation of two daughter cells with distinct developmental cell fate. The small apical cell will develop into the major part of embryo proper, whereas the larger basal cell will divide to form a transient suspensor. Thus, the apical and basal cell lineages are an excellent model to study cell fate determination in relation to zygote polarity. Read More

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December 2018

Glaucoma - Next Generation Therapeutics: Impossible to Possible.

Pharm Res 2018 Dec 13;36(2):25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Ophthalmology Research, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, 22 Windsor Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02139, USA.

The future of next generation therapeutics for glaucoma is strong. The recent approval of two novel intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering drugs with distinct mechanisms of action is the first in over 20 years. However, these are still being administered as topical drops. Read More

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December 2018

Long-term outcome of a dilated cardiomyopathy patient after mitral valve surgery combined with tissue-engineered myoblast sheets-report of a case.

Surg Case Rep 2018 Dec 13;4(1):142. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka, 565-0871, Japan.

Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a life-threatening heart muscle disease characterized by progressive heart failure, which often requires left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation or heart transplantation (HTx). A tissue engineering strategy using cell sheets for end-stage heart failure has emerged in recent years.

Case Presentation: Here, we describe a 50-year-old DCM patient with severe symptoms of heart failure with severe mitral regurgitation (MR) who was not a candidate for LVAD or HTx. Read More

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December 2018
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Bone marrow cell homing to sites of acute tibial fracture: Zr-oxine cell labeling with positron emission tomographic imaging in a mouse model.

EJNMMI Res 2018 Dec 13;8(1):109. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Molecular Imaging Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, NIH, Building 10, Room B3B406, Bethesda, MD, 20892-1002, USA.

Background: Bone fracture healing is dependent upon the rapid migration and engraftment of bone marrow (BM) progenitor and stem cells to the site of injury. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 plays a crucial role in recruiting BM cells expressing its receptor CXCR4. Recently, a CXCR4 antagonist, plerixafor, has been used to mobilize BM cells into the blood in efforts to enhance cell migration to sites of injury presumably improving healing. Read More

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December 2018

Increases in cytosolic Ca induce dynamin- and calcineurin-dependent internalisation of CFTR.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK.

The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-regulated, apical anion channel that regulates ion and fluid transport in many epithelia including the airways. We have previously shown that cigarette smoke (CS) exposure to airway epithelia causes a reduction in plasma membrane CFTR expression which correlated with a decrease in airway surface hydration. The effect of CS on CFTR was dependent on an increase in cytosolic Ca. Read More

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December 2018
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