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    220 results match your criteria Cell Division [Journal]

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    Subunits of human condensins are potential therapeutic targets for cancers.
    Cell Div 2018 20;13. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    3Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, K1N 6N5 Canada.
    The main role of condensins is to regulate chromosome condensation and segregation during cell cycles. Recently, it has been suggested in the literatures that subunits of condensin I and condensin II are involved in some human cancers. This paper will first briefly discuss discoveries of human condensins, their components and structures, and their multiple cellular functions. Read More

    Phasing in on the cell cycle.
    Cell Div 2018 25;13. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    1Department of Neurosciences, Experimental Neurology and Leuven Research Institute for Neuroscience and Disease (LIND), KU Leuven-University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Just like all matter, proteins can also switch between gas, liquid and solid phases. Protein phase transition has claimed the spotlight in recent years as a novel way of how cells compartmentalize and regulate biochemical reactions. Moreover, this discovery has provided a new framework for the study of membrane-less organelle biogenesis and protein aggregation in neurodegenerative disorders. Read More

    The emerging roles of CDK12 in tumorigenesis.
    Cell Div 2017 27;12. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Chemistry and Toxicology, Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 296/70, Brno, 621 00 Czech Republic.
    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulators of both cell cycle progression and transcription. Since dysregulation of CDKs is a frequently occurring event driving tumorigenesis, CDKs have been tested extensively as targets for cancer therapy. Cyclin-dependent kinase 12 (CDK12) is a transcription-associated kinase which participates in various cellular processes, including DNA damage response, development and cellular differentiation, as well as splicing and pre-mRNA processing. Read More

    Proteins associated with the doubling time of the NCI-60 cancer cell lines.
    Cell Div 2017 29;12. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, 2128 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 USA.
    The varied nature of human cancers is recapitulated, at least to some extent, in the diverse NCI-60 panel of human cancer cell lines. Here, I used a basic, continuous variable of proliferating cells, their doubling time, to stratify the proteome across the NCI-60 cell lines. Among >7000 proteins quantified in the NCI-60 panel previously, the levels of 84 proteins increase in cells that proliferate slowly. Read More

    Multiple molecular interactions redundantly contribute to RB-mediated cell cycle control.
    Cell Div 2017 14;12. Epub 2017 Mar 14.
    London Regional Cancer Program, London, Canada.
    Background: The G1-S phase transition is critical to maintaining proliferative control and preventing carcinogenesis. The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor is a key regulator of this step in the cell cycle.

    Results: Here we use a structure-function approach to evaluate the contributions of multiple protein interaction surfaces on pRB towards cell cycle regulation. Read More

    Systematic epistatic mapping of cellular processes.
    Cell Div 2017 6;12. Epub 2017 Jan 6.
    German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division Signaling and Functional Genomics and Heidelberg University, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine Mannheim, Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany ; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Genetic screens have identified many novel components of various biological processes, such as components required for cell cycle and cell division. While forward genetic screens typically generate unstructured 'hit' lists, genetic interaction mapping approaches can identify functional relations in a systematic fashion. Here, we discuss a recent study by our group demonstrating a two-step approach to first screen for regulators of the mitotic cell cycle, and subsequently guide hypothesis generation by using genetic interaction analysis. Read More

    The Irr1/Scc3 protein implicated in chromosome segregation inhas a dual nuclear-cytoplasmic localization.
    Cell Div 2017 3;12. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5A, 02-106 Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Correct chromosome segregation depends on the sister chromatid cohesion complex. The essential, evolutionarily conserved regulatory protein Irr1/Scc3, is responsible for the complex loading onto DNA and for its removal. We found that, unexpectedly, Irr1 is present not only in the nucleus but also in the cytoplasm. Read More

    Electrostatic forces drive poleward chromosome motions at kinetochores.
    Cell Div 2016 28;11:14. Epub 2016 Oct 28.
    Departments of Physics and Biology, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ 08102 USA.
    Background: Recent experiments regarding Ndc80/Hec1 in force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted speculation about possible models for interactions between positively charged molecules at kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules.

    Discussion: A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive. The current paradigm of molecular cell biology requires that specific molecules, or molecular geometries, for force generation be identified. Read More

    Erratum to: The loop-lessCdc34 E2 mutant defective polyubiquitination in vitro and in vivo supports yeast growth in a manner dependent on Ubp14 and Cka2.
    Cell Div 2016 6;11:13. Epub 2016 Oct 6.
    Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63104 USA.
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/1747-1028-6-7.]. Read More

    The CSL proteins, versatile transcription factors and context dependent corepressors of the notch signaling pathway.
    Cell Div 2016 27;11:12. Epub 2016 Sep 27.
    Centro Multidisciplinario de Estudios en Biotecnología (CMEB) de la Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Posta Veterinaria, Km. 9.5 Carretera Morelia-Zinapécuaro, Col. La Palma, C. P. 58890 Tarímbaro, Mich. México.
    The Notch signaling pathway is a reiteratively used cell to cell communication pathway that triggers pleiotropic effects. The correct regulation of the pathway permits the efficient regulation of genes involved in cell fate decision throughout development. This activity relies notably on the CSL proteins, (an acronym forBF-1/RBPJ-κ in/respectively,uppressor of Hairless in,ag-1 in) which is the unique transcription factor and DNA binding protein involved in this pathway. Read More

    Interferon gamma-induced apoptosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is connected to indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase via mitochondrial and ER stress-associated pathways.
    Cell Div 2016 2;11:11. Epub 2016 Aug 2.
    Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 USA ; Clinic of Operative Dentistry, Periodontology and Preventive Dentistry, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 100, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany ; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, University of Strasbourg, 67000 Strasbourg, France ; Cancer Institute, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39216 USA.
    Background: Tumor response to immunotherapy is the consequence of a concerted crosstalk between cytokines and effector cells. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is one of the common cytokines coordinating tumor immune response and the associated biological consequences. Although the role of IFNγ in the modulation of tumor immunity has been widely documented, the mechanisms regulating IFNγ-induced cell death, during the course of immune therapy, is not described in detail. Read More

    Rpl22 is required for IME1 mRNA translation and meiotic induction in S. cerevisiae.
    Cell Div 2016 29;11:10. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Department of Molecular Biology, Rowan University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Two Medical Center Dr., Stratford, NJ 08055 USA.
    Background: The transition from mitotic cell division to meiotic development in S. cerevisiae requires induction of a transient transcription program that is initiated by Ime1-dependent destruction of the repressor Ume6. Although IME1 mRNA is observed in vegetative cultures, Ime1 protein is not suggesting the presence of a regulatory system restricting translation to meiotic cells. Read More

    Insights into APC/C: from cellular function to diseases and therapeutics.
    Cell Div 2016 13;11. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, 5117 Centre Avenue, Hillman Cancer Center, HCC2.6c, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.
    Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multifunctional ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets different substrates for ubiquitylation and therefore regulates a variety of cellular processes such as cell division, differentiation, genome stability, energy metabolism, cell death, autophagy as well as carcinogenesis. Activity of APC/C is principally governed by two WD-40 domain proteins, Cdc20 and Cdh1, in and beyond cell cycle. In the past decade, the results based on numerous biochemical, 3D structural, mouse genetic and small molecule inhibitor studies have largely attracted our attention into the emerging role of APC/C and its regulation in biological function, human diseases and potential therapeutics. Read More

    Cullin-RING ligases in regulation of autophagy.
    Cell Div 2016 10;11. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Key Laboratory of Combined Multi-organ Transplantation, Ministry of Public Health, the First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 79 Qing-Chun Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310003 People's Republic of China ; Institute of Translational Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 268 Kai-Xuan Road, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029 People's Republic of China.
    Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), the largest E3 ubiquitin ligase family, promote ubiquitination and degradation of various cellular key regulators involved in a broad array of physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, transcription, cardiomyopathy, and tumorigenesis. Autophagy, an intracellular catabolic reaction that delivers cytoplasmic components to lysosomes for degradation, is crucial for cellular metabolism and homeostasis. The dysfunction of autophagy has been proved to associate with a variety of human diseases. Read More

    The structure and regulation of Cullin 2 based E3 ubiquitin ligases and their biological functions.
    Cell Div 2016 23;11. Epub 2016 May 23.
    Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA.
    Background: Cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes play a central role in targeting cellular proteins for ubiquitination-dependent protein turnover through 26S proteasome. Cullin-2 is a member of the Cullin family, and it serves as a scaffold protein for Elongin B and C, Rbx1 and various substrate recognition receptors to form E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Main Body Of The Abstract: First, the composition, structure and the regulation of Cullin-2 based E3 ubiquitin ligases were introduced. Read More

    The T-box transcription factor TBX3 drives proliferation by direct repression of the p21(WAF1) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor.
    Cell Div 2016 22;11. Epub 2016 Apr 22.
    Division of Cell Biology, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925 South Africa.
    Background: TBX3, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors, is essential in development and has emerged as an important player in the oncogenic process. TBX3 is overexpressed in several cancers and has been shown to contribute directly to tumour formation, migration and invasion. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its role in development and oncogenesis because there is a paucity of information regarding its target genes. Read More

    Cul3-KLHL20 ubiquitin ligase: physiological functions, stress responses, and disease implications.
    Cell Div 2016 1;11. Epub 2016 Apr 1.
    Institute of Biological Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan ; Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases are the largest Ubiquitin ligase family in eukaryotes and are multi-protein complexes. In these complexes, the Cullin protein serves as a scaffold to connect two functional modules of the ligases, the catalytic subunit and substrate-binding subunit. KLHL20 is a substrate-binding subunit of Cullin3 (Cul3) ubiquitin ligase. Read More

    New insights into posttranslational modifications of Hippo pathway in carcinogenesis and therapeutics.
    Cell Div 2016 31;11. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
    Department of Cell Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, 5117 Centre Avenue, HCC2.6c, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA.
    PTMs (posttranslational modifications) such as ubiquitylation, sumoylation, acetylation and protein methylation are pivotal modifiers that determine the activation, deactivation or subcellular localization of signaling proteins, facilitating the initiation, amplification and transduction of signaling. Accumulating evidence suggest that several key signaling molecules in Hippo signaling pathway are tightly regulated by various types of PTMs. Malfunction of these critical signaling modules such as YAP/TAZ, MAT1/2 and LATS1/2 due to deregulated PTMs has been linked to a variety of human diseases such as cancer. Read More

    Mitochondria-cytoskeleton associations in mammalian cytokinesis.
    Cell Div 2016 18;11. Epub 2016 Mar 18.
    Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, McGill University, Montreal, QC Canada.
    Background: The role of the cytoskeleton in regulating mitochondrial distribution in dividing mammalian cells is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that mitochondria are transported to the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis in a microtubule-dependent manner. However, the exact subset of spindle microtubules and molecular machinery involved remains unknown. Read More

    C1D family proteins in coordinating RNA processing, chromosome condensation and DNA damage response.
    Cell Div 2016 9;11. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117597 Singapore ; National University Health System (NUHS), Singapore, 119228 Singapore ; NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 119228 Singapore.
    Research on the involvement of C1D and its yeast homologues Rrp47 (S. cerevisiae) and Cti1 (S. pombe) in DNA damage repair and RNA processing has remained mutually exclusive, with most studies predominantly concentrating on Rrp47. Read More

    The role of cullin 5-containing ubiquitin ligases.
    Cell Div 2016 9;11. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 Japan.
    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) box consists of the BC box and the cullin 5 (Cul5) box, which interact with Elongin BC and Cul5, respectively. SOCS box-containing proteins have ubiquitin ligase activity mediated by the formation of a complex with the scaffold protein Cul5 and the RING domain protein Rbx2, and are thereby members of the cullin RING ligase superfamily. Cul5-type ubiquitin ligases have a variety of substrates that are targeted for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Read More

    Curcumin and tumor immune-editing: resurrecting the immune system.
    Cell Div 2015 12;10. Epub 2015 Oct 12.
    Division of Molecular Medicine, Bose Institute, P-1/12, CIT Scheme VII M, Kolkata, 700054 India.
    Curcumin has long been known to posses medicinal properties and recent scientific studies have shown its efficacy in treating cancer. Curcumin is now considered to be a promising anti-cancer agent and studies continue on its molecular mechanism of action. Curcumin has been shown to act in a multi-faceted manner by targeting the classical hallmarks of cancer like sustained proliferation, evasion of apoptosis, sustained angiogenesis, insensitivity to growth inhibitors, tissue invasion and metastasis etc. Read More

    COP9-Signalosome deneddylase activity is enhanced by simultaneous neddylation: insights into the regulation of an enzymatic protein complex.
    Cell Div 2015 11;10. Epub 2015 Aug 11.
    The Rheumatology Unit, The Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer, affiliated with the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Hashomer, Israel.
    Background: Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are regulated by neddylation, which is a post translation modification of the Cullin family proteins. Neddylation of Cul1 activates the ligase through some means of biochemical mechanisms. The rate of neddylation and its extent are regulated by 2 opposing enzymatic processes: neddylation by an enzymatic cascade, and deneddylation by COP9-Signalosome (CSN) complex protein. Read More

    Sumo and the cellular stress response.
    Cell Div 2015 20;10. Epub 2015 Jun 20.
    Institute for Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Sognsvannsveien 20N-0027, Oslo, Norway.
    The ubiquitin family member Sumo has important functions in many cellular processes including DNA repair, transcription and cell division. Numerous studies have shown that Sumo is essential for maintaining cell homeostasis when the cell encounters endogenous or environmental stress, such as osmotic stress, hypoxia, heat shock, genotoxic stress, and nutrient stress. Regulation of transcription is a key component of the Sumo stress response, and multiple mechanisms have been described by which Sumo can regulate transcription. Read More

    Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability in cancer: a jackpot to chaos.
    Cell Div 2015 20;10. Epub 2015 May 20.
    Institute for Medical Biology (IMB), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, 138648 Singapore ; School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637551 Singapore ; Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, NUS, Singapore, 117597 Singapore.
    Genomic instability (GIN) is a hallmark of cancer cells that facilitates the acquisition of mutations conferring aggressive or drug-resistant phenotypes during cancer evolution. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a form of GIN that involves frequent cytogenetic changes leading to changes in chromosome copy number (aneuploidy). While both CIN and aneuploidy are common characteristics of cancer cells, their roles in tumor initiation and progression are unclear. Read More

    Mutations in the PCNA-binding site of CDKN1C inhibit cell proliferation by impairing the entry into S phase.
    Cell Div 2015 28;10. Epub 2015 Mar 28.
    Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, University of California, Los Angeles, 695 Charles E. Young Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA ; Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA ; Department of Urology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
    CDKN1C (also known as P57 (kip2) ) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that functions as a negative regulator of cell proliferation through G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Recently, our group described gain-of-function mutations in the PCNA-binding site of CDKN1C that result in an undergrowth syndrome called IMAGe Syndrome (Intrauterine Growth Restriction, Metaphyseal dysplasia, Adrenal hypoplasia, and Genital anomalies), with life-threatening consequences. Loss-of-function mutations in CDKN1C have been identified in 5-10% of individuals with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), an overgrowth disorder with features that are the opposite of IMAGe syndrome. Read More

    Cyclin E2 is the predominant E-cyclin associated with NPAT in breast cancer cells.
    Cell Div 2015 19;10. Epub 2015 Feb 19.
    The Kinghorn Cancer Centre and Cancer Research Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, NSW Australia ; St Vincent's Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine UNSW, Sydney, Australia.
    Background: The cyclin E oncogene activates CDK2 to drive cells from G1 to S phase of the cell cycle to commence DNA replication. It coordinates essential cellular functions with the cell cycle including histone biogenesis, splicing, centrosome duplication and origin firing for DNA replication. The two E-cyclins, E1 and E2, are assumed to act interchangeably in these functions. Read More

    Polar electrostatic forces drive poleward chromosome motions.
    Cell Div 2014 30;9. Epub 2014 Dec 30.
    Department of Biology, Rutgers The State University of New Jersey, Camden, NJ 08102 USA.
    Recent experiments revealing nanoscale electrostatic force generation at kinetochores for chromosome motions have prompted models for interactions between positively charged molecules in kinetochores and negative charge at and near the plus ends of microtubules. A clear picture of how kinetochores and centrosomes establish and maintain a dynamic coupling to microtubules for force generation during the complex motions of mitosis remains elusive. The molecular cell biology paradigm requires that specific molecules, or molecular geometries, for polar force generation be identified. Read More

    The subunits of the S-phase checkpoint complex Mrc1/Tof1/Csm3: dynamics and interdependence.
    Cell Div 2014 31;9. Epub 2014 Oct 31.
    Institute of Molecular Biology "Roumen Tsanev", Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 21 "Acad. George Bonchev" Str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.
    Background: The S-phase checkpoint aims to prevent cells from generation of extensive single-stranded DNA that predisposes to genome instability. The S. cerevisiae complex Tof1/Csm3/Mrc1 acts to restrain the replicative MCM helicase when DNA synthesis is prohibited. Read More

    Differential expression of centrosome regulators in Her2+ breast cancer cells versus non-tumorigenic MCF10A cells.
    Cell Div 2014 25;9. Epub 2014 Sep 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, C3084, 1365C Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
    Centrosome amplification (CA) amongst particular breast cancer subtypes (Her2+ subtype) is associated with genomic instability and aggressive tumor phenotypes. However, changes in signaling pathways associated with centrosome biology have not been fully explored in subtype specific models. Novel centrosome regulatory genes that are selectively altered in Her2+ breast cancer cells are of interest in discerning why CA is more prevalent in this subtype. Read More

    Smurf2 E3 ubiquitin ligase modulates proliferation and invasiveness of breast cancer cells in a CNKSR2 dependent manner.
    Cell Div 2014 31;9. Epub 2014 Aug 31.
    Research Scholar, Cancer Research, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum 695 014, Kerala, India.
    Background: Smurf2 is a member of the HECT family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that play important roles in determining the competence of cells to respond to TGF- β/BMP signaling pathway. However, besides TGF-β/BMP pathway, Smurf2 regulates a repertoire of other signaling pathways ranging from planar cell polarity during embryonic development to cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and senescence. Expression of Smurf2 is found to be dysregulated in many cancers including breast cancer. Read More

    The DNA repair component Metnase regulates Chk1 stability.
    Cell Div 2014 9;9. Epub 2014 Jul 9.
    Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, 1600 Archer Rd SW, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.
    Chk1 both arrests replication forks and enhances repair of DNA damage by phosphorylation of downstream effectors. Metnase (also termed SETMAR) is a SET histone methylase and transposase nuclease protein that promotes both DNA double strand break (DSB) repair and re-start of stalled replication forks. We previously found that Chk1 phosphorylation of Metnase on S495 enhanced its DNA DSB repair activity but decreased its ability to re-start stalled replication forks. Read More

    Differential distribution of HP1 proteins after trichostatin a treatment influences chromosomal stability in HCT116 and WI-38 cells.
    Cell Div 2014 30;9. Epub 2014 Dec 30.
    Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan)-Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIB), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México, DF 14080 México ; Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Escolar S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, México, DF 04510 México.
    Background: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is important in the establishment, propagation, and maintenance of constitutive heterochromatin, especially at the pericentromeric region. HP1 might participate in recruiting and directing Mis12 to the centromere during interphase, and HP1 disruption or abrogation might lead to the loss of Mis12 incorporation into the kinetochore. Therefore, the centromere structure and kinetochore relaxation that are promoted in the absence of Mis12 could further induce chromosome instability (CIN) by reducing the capacity of the kinetochore to anchor microtubules. Read More

    The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6): a potential oncogene.
    Cell Div 2013 Nov 28;8(1):14. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Biological Cancer Therapy, Xuzhou Medical College, 84 West Huai-hai Road, Xuzhou, Jiangsu, P,R, China.
    CSN6 is one subunit of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), which is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex found in plants and animals and originally described as a repressor of light-dependent growth and transcription in Arabidopsis. CSN is homologous to the 19S lid subcomplex of the 26S proteasome, thus it has been postulated to be a regulator of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. In mammalian cells, it consists of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8). Read More

    Defining a new vision for the retinoblastoma gene: report from the 3rd International Rb Meeting.
    Cell Div 2013 Nov 21;8(1):13. Epub 2013 Nov 21.
    Departments of Pediatrics and Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
    The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor (Rb) pathway is mutated in most, if not all human tumors. In the G0/G1 phase, Rb and its family members p107 and p130 inhibit the E2F family of transcription factors. In response to mitogenic signals, Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) phosphorylate Rb family members, which results in the disruption of complexes between Rb and E2F family members and in the transcription of genes essential for S phase progression. Read More

    Cohesin loading factor Nipbl localizes to chromosome axes during mammalian meiotic prophase.
    Cell Div 2013 Aug 22;8(1):12. Epub 2013 Aug 22.
    IRDB, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London W12 0NN, UK.
    Background: Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Loading of cohesin onto chromosomes is dependent on another protein complex called kollerin, containing Nipbl/Scc2 and Mau2/Scc4. Nipbl is an evolutionarily conserved large protein whose haploinsufficiency in humans causes a developmental disorder called Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Read More

    A pool of peptides extracted from wheat bud chromatin inhibits tumor cell growth by causing defective DNA synthesis.
    Cell Div 2013 6;8:11. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Faculty of Medicin, S.Andrea delle Fratte, 06132, Perugia, Italy.
    Background: We previously reported that a pool of low molecular weight peptides can be extracted by alkali treatment of DNA preparations obtained from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after intensive deproteinization. This class of peptides, isolated from wheat bud chromatin, induces growth inhibition, DNA damage, G2 checkpoint activation and apoptosis in HeLa cells. In this work we studied their mechanism of action by investigating their ability to interfere with DNA synthesis. Read More

    Silencing CDK4 radiosensitizes breast cancer cells by promoting apoptosis.
    Cell Div 2013 Jul 25;8(1):10. Epub 2013 Jul 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA.
    Background: The discovery of molecular markers associated with various breast cancer subtypes has greatly improved the treatment and outcome of breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, breast cancer cells acquire resistance to various therapies. Mounting evidence suggests that resistance is rooted in the deregulation of the G1 phase regulatory machinery. Read More

    Mutually dependent degradation of Ama1p and Cdc20p terminates APC/C ubiquitin ligase activity at the completion of meiotic development in yeast.
    Cell Div 2013 Jul 1;8(1). Epub 2013 Jul 1.
    Department of Molecular Biology, UMDNJ-SOM, 2 Medical Center Drive,, , 08084, USA.
    Background: The execution of meiotic nuclear divisions in S. cerevisiae is regulated by protein degradation mediated by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The correct timing of APC/C activity is essential for normal chromosome segregation. Read More

    To divide or not to divide: revisiting liver regeneration.
    Cell Div 2013 Jun 20;8(1). Epub 2013 Jun 20.
    Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan.
    The liver has a remarkable capacity to regenerate. Even with surgical removal (partial hepatectomy) of 70% of liver mass, the remnant tissue grows to recover the original mass and functions. Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy has been studied extensively since the 19th century, establishing the long-standing model that hepatocytes, which account for most of the liver weight, proliferate to recover the original mass of the liver. Read More

    Cell cycle-dependent localization of CHK2 at centrosomes during mitosis.
    Cell Div 2013 May 16;8(1). Epub 2013 May 16.
    Centre de recherche, Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Hôpital Notre-Dame et Institut du cancer de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Background: Centrosomes function primarily as microtubule-organizing centres and play a crucial role during mitosis by organizing the bipolar spindle. In addition to this function, centrosomes act as reaction centers where numerous key regulators meet to control cell cycle progression. One of these factors involved in genome stability, the checkpoint kinase CHK2, was shown to localize at centrosomes throughout the cell cycle. Read More

    A 2D/3D image analysis system to track fluorescently labeled structures in rod-shaped cells: application to measure spindle pole asymmetry during mitosis.
    Cell Div 2013 27;8. Epub 2013 Apr 27.
    Biomedical Imaging Group, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Background: The yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is frequently used as a model for studying the cell cycle. The cells are rod-shaped and divide by medial fission. The process of cell division, or cytokinesis, is controlled by a network of signaling proteins called the Septation Initiation Network (SIN); SIN proteins associate with the SPBs during nuclear division (mitosis). Read More

    Proteolysis of Xenopus Cip-type CDK inhibitor, p16Xic2, is regulated by PCNA binding and CDK2 phosphorylation.
    Cell Div 2013 Apr 22;8(1). Epub 2013 Apr 22.
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.
    Background: Cell division is positively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) partnered with cyclins and negatively regulated by CDK inhibitors. In the frog, Xenopus laevis, three types of CDK inhibitors have been described: p27Xic1 (Xic1) which shares sequence homology with both p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 from mammals, p16Xic2 (Xic2) which shares sequence homology with p21Cip1, and p17Xic3 (Xic3) which shares sequence homology with p27Kip1. While past studies have demonstrated that during DNA polymerase switching, Xic1 is targeted for protein turnover dependent upon DNA, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), and the ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2, little is known about the processes that regulate Xic2 or Xic3. Read More

    Rad53 homologue forkhead-associated kinase A (FhkA) and Ca2+-binding protein 4a (CBP4a) are nucleolar proteins that differentially redistribute during mitosis in Dictyostelium.
    Cell Div 2013 Apr 12;8(1). Epub 2013 Apr 12.
    Department of Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, 25 Harbord st,, Toronto, ON M5S 3G5, Canada.
    Background: During mitosis most nucleolar proteins redistribute to other locales providing an opportunity to study the relationship between nucleolar protein localization and function. Dictyostelium is a model organism for the study of several fundamental biological processes and human diseases but only two nucleolar proteins have been studied during mitosis: NumA1 and Snf12. Both of them are linked to the cell cycle. Read More

    The novel BTB-kelch protein, KBTBD8, is located in the Golgi apparatus and translocates to the spindle apparatus during mitosis.
    Cell Div 2013 Apr 11;8(1). Epub 2013 Apr 11.
    Institute of Human Genetics, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, 37073, Germany.
    Proteins of the BTB-kelch family are known to be involved in multiple biological processes such as migration, cytoskeleton arrangement, regulation of cell morphology, protein ubiquitination and gene expression. KBTBD8 is a new member of this family. The gene was found in a comparative transcriptome analysis of pluripotent stem cells and was therefore suggested to play a role in the regulation of pluripotency. Read More

    Ndc80 Loop as a protein-protein interaction motif.
    Cell Div 2013 Mar 15;8(1). Epub 2013 Mar 15.
    Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Cancer Research UK, London Research Institute, Lincoln's Inn Fields Laboratories, 44 Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, WC2A 3LY, UK.
    Our understanding of the structure and function of kinetochores has advanced dramatically over the past 10 years, yet how the plus end of spindle microtubules interacts with the kinetochore and establishes amphitelic attachment for proper sister chromatid segregation remains unresolved. However, several recent reports from different organisms have shed new light on this issue. A key player in microtubule-kinetochore interaction is the conserved Ndc80 outer kinetochore complex. Read More

    The role of β-adrenergic receptor signaling in the proliferation of hemangioma-derived endothelial cells.
    Cell Div 2013 Jan 3;8(1). Epub 2013 Jan 3.
    Division of Oncology, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai, 201102, China.

    Background: Infantile hemangioma (IH) is a benign vascular neoplasm that arises from the abnormal proliferation of endothelial cells and enhanced angiogenesis. Recently, propranolol has been found to be effective in the management of IH, suggesting that β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis of IH.

    Results: In the present study, we investigated the β-adrenergic signaling that is associated with hemangioma-derived endothelial cell (HemEC) proliferation. Read More

    Therapeutic targeting of cancer cell cycle using proteasome inhibitors.
    Cell Div 2012 Dec 26;7(1):26. Epub 2012 Dec 26.
    Cell Death Research Laboratory, Division of Endocrinology, CSIR- Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, 226001, India.
    Proteasomes are multicatalytic protease complexes in the cell, involved in the non-lysosomal recycling of intra-cellular proteins. Proteasomes play a critical role in regulation of cell division in both normal as well as cancer cells. In cancer cells this homeostatic function is deregulated leading to the hyperactivation of the proteasomes. Read More

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