328 results match your criteria Cell Discovery[Journal]


Haspin regulates Ras localization to promote Cdc24-driven mitotic depolarization.

Cell Discov 2020 23;6:42. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Cell polarization is of paramount importance for proliferation, differentiation, development, and it is altered during carcinogenesis. Polarization is a reversible process controlled by positive and negative feedback loops. How polarized factors are redistributed is not fully understood and is the focus of this work. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0170-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308332PMC

The pericyte connectome: spatial precision of neurovascular coupling is driven by selective connectivity maps of pericytes and endothelial cells and is disrupted in diabetes.

Cell Discov 2020 16;6:39. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Burke Neurological Institute, White Plains, NY 10605 USA.

Functional hyperemia, or the matching of blood flow with activity, directs oxygen and nutrients to regionally firing neurons. The mechanisms responsible for this spatial accuracy remain unclear but are critical for brain function and establish the diagnostic resolution of BOLD-fMRI. Here, we described a mosaic of pericytes, the vasomotor capillary cells in the living retina. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0180-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296038PMC

Rett mutations attenuate phase separation of MeCP2.

Cell Discov 2020 16;6:38. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100101 Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0172-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296026PMC

Inflammasome activation and regulation: toward a better understanding of complex mechanisms.

Cell Discov 2020 9;6:36. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Immunology Department, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001 Israel.

Inflammasomes are cytoplasmic multiprotein complexes comprising a sensor protein, inflammatory caspases, and in some but not all cases an adapter protein connecting the two. They can be activated by a repertoire of endogenous and exogenous stimuli, leading to enzymatic activation of canonical caspase-1, noncanonical caspase-11 (or the equivalent caspase-4 and caspase-5 in humans) or caspase-8, resulting in secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, as well as apoptotic and pyroptotic cell death. Appropriate inflammasome activation is vital for the host to cope with foreign pathogens or tissue damage, while aberrant inflammasome activation can cause uncontrolled tissue responses that may contribute to various diseases, including autoinflammatory disorders, cardiometabolic diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0167-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280307PMC

A PROTAC peptide induces durable β-catenin degradation and suppresses Wnt-dependent intestinal cancer.

Cell Discov 2020 9;6:35. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

The State Key Laboratory of Membrane Biology, Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China.

Aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been associated with the onset and progression of many types of tumors and thus β-catenin represents one attractive intracellular target for cancer therapy. Based on the Axin-derived peptide that binds to β-catenin, two stapled peptides SAHPA1 and xStAx were reported to enhance or impair Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. In this study, we designed PROTACs (proteolysis targeting chimeras) by coupling SAHPA1 or xStAx with the VHL ligand to achieve efficient β-catenin degradation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0171-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7280531PMC

Single-copy sensitive, field-deployable, and simultaneous dual-gene detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA via modified RT-RPA.

Authors:
Simin Xia Xi Chen

Cell Discov 2020 28;6:37. Epub 2020 May 28.

The HIT Center for Life Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Xidazhi Street 92, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0175-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253471PMC

Autophagosome biogenesis and human health.

Cell Discov 2020 2;6:33. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Genetics, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Osaka, 565-0871 Japan.

Autophagy degrades the cytoplasmic contents engulfed by autophagosomes. Besides providing energy and building blocks during starvation via random degradation, autophagy selectively targets cytotoxic components to prevent a wide range of diseases. This preventive activity of autophagy is supported by many studies using animal models and reports identifying several mutations in autophagy-related genes that are associated with human genetic disorders, which have been published in the past decade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0166-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264243PMC

Emerging roles of ATG proteins and membrane lipids in autophagosome formation.

Cell Discov 2020 26;6:32. Epub 2020 May 26.

Molecular Cell Biology of Autophagy, The Francis Crick Institute, London, NW1 1AT UK.

Autophagosome biogenesis is a dynamic membrane event, which is executed by the sequential function of autophagy-related (ATG) proteins. Upon autophagy induction, a cup-shaped membrane structure appears in the cytoplasm, then elongates sequestering cytoplasmic materials, and finally forms a closed double membrane autophagosome. However, how this complex vesicle formation event is strictly controlled and achieved is still enigmatic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0161-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248066PMC

SARS-CoV-2 detection with CRISPR diagnostics.

Cell Discov 2020 19;6:34. Epub 2020 May 19.

1State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0174-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235268PMC

Interfering with retrotransposition by two types of CRISPR effectors: Cas12a and Cas13a.

Cell Discov 2020 19;6:30. Epub 2020 May 19.

3Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

CRISPRs are a promising tool being explored in combating exogenous retroviral pathogens and in disabling endogenous retroviruses for organ transplantation. The Cas12a and Cas13a systems offer novel mechanisms of CRISPR actions that have not been evaluated for retrovirus interference. Particularly, a latest study revealed that the activated Cas13a provided bacterial hosts with a "passive protection" mechanism to defend against DNA phage infection by inducing cell growth arrest in infected cells, which is especially significant as it endows Cas13a, a RNA-targeting CRISPR effector, with mount defense against both RNA and DNA invaders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0164-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235257PMC

Characterization of a novel type III CRISPR-Cas effector provides new insights into the allosteric activation and suppression of the Cas10 DNase.

Cell Discov 2020 12;6:29. Epub 2020 May 12.

4Microbial Technology Institute and State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, 72 Binhai Road, Jimo, 266237 Qingdao, Shandong China.

Antiviral defense by type III CRISPR-Cas systems relies on two distinct activities of their effectors: the RNA-activated DNA cleavage and synthesis of cyclic oligoadenylate. Both activities are featured as indiscriminate nucleic acid cleavage and subjected to the spatiotemporal regulation. To yield further insights into the involved mechanisms, we reconstituted LdCsm, a lactobacilli III-A system in . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0160-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214462PMC

Immune cell profiling of COVID-19 patients in the recovery stage by single-cell sequencing.

Cell Discov 2020 4;6:31. Epub 2020 May 4.

1National Center for Liver Cancer, Second Military Medical University, 200438 Shanghai, China.

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has recently affected over 1,200,000 people and killed more than 60,000. The key immune cell subsets change and their states during the course of COVID-19 remain unclear. We sought to comprehensively characterize the transcriptional changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the recovery stage of COVID-19 by single-cell RNA sequencing technique. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0168-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197635PMC

Mendelian neurodegenerative disease genes involved in autophagy.

Cell Discov 2020 5;6:24. Epub 2020 May 5.

1Department of Medical Genetics, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, Cambridge, CB2 0XY UK.

The lysosomal degradation pathway of macroautophagy (herein referred to as autophagy) plays a crucial role in cellular physiology by regulating the removal of unwanted cargoes such as protein aggregates and damaged organelles. Over the last five decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate autophagy and its roles in human physiology and diseases. These advances, together with discoveries in human genetics linking autophagy-related gene mutations to specific diseases, provide a better understanding of the mechanisms by which autophagy-dependent pathways can be potentially targeted for treating human diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0158-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198619PMC

Activation and targeting of ATG8 protein lipidation.

Cell Discov 2020 5;6:23. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Max Perutz Labs, University of Vienna, Vienna BioCenter, Dr. Bohr-Gasse 9/5, 1030 Vienna, Austria.

ATG8 family proteins are evolutionary conserved ubiquitin-like modifiers, which become attached to the headgroup of the membrane lipid phosphatidylethanolamine in a process referred to as lipidation. This reaction is carried out analogous to the conjugation of ubiquitin to its target proteins, involving the E1-like ATG7, the E2-like ATG3 and the E3-like ATG12-ATG5-ATG16 complex, which determines the site of lipidation. ATG8 lipidation is a hallmark of autophagy where these proteins are involved in autophagosome formation, the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes and cargo selection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0155-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198486PMC

The anti-influenza virus drug, arbidol is an efficient inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro.

Cell Discov 2020 2;6:28. Epub 2020 May 2.

1State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 430071 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0169-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195821PMC

Efficient generation of mouse models with the prime editing system.

Cell Discov 2020 28;6:27. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

1Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Shaanxi Province, College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0165-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186222PMC

Phosphorylation of cGAS by CDK1 impairs self-DNA sensing in mitosis.

Cell Discov 2020 28;6:26. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism Medical Research Institute, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071 China.

The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a widely used DNA sensor, which detects cytosolic DNA species without a preference of self or non-self microbial DNA in interphase to initiate innate immune response. How cGAS is regulated to avoid self-DNA sensing upon nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) during mitosis remains enigmatic. Here we show that cGAS is mostly localized in the cytoplasm in interphase and rapidly translocated to chromosomes upon NEBD in mitosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0162-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186227PMC

Erratum: Author Correction: "Dysfunctions" induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are concomitant with metabolic improvement independent of weight loss.

Cell Discov 2020 28;6:25. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

1Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/s41421-019-0138-2.]. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0163-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186218PMC

Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals the heterogeneity of liver-resident immune cells in human.

Cell Discov 2020 28;6:22. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

1Institute of Hepatology, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Disease, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518112 China.

The liver plays a critical role in both immune defense and tolerance in the body. The liver-resident immune cells (LrICs) determine the immune properties, but the unique composition and heterogeneity of these cells are incompletely understood. Here, we dissect the diversity of LrICs by a comprehensive transcriptomic profiling using the unbiased single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0157-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7186229PMC

P53 suppresses SENP3 phosphorylation to mediate G2 checkpoint.

Cell Discov 2020 21;6:21. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, Shanghai Key Laboratory for Tumor Microenvironment and Inflammation, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025 Shanghai, China.

In response to DNA damage, p53-mediated signaling is regulated by protein phosphorylation and ubiquitination to precisely control G2 checkpoint. Here we demonstrated that protein SUMOylation also engaged in regulation of p53-mediated G2 checkpoint. We found that G2 DNA damage suppressed SENP3 phosphorylation at G2/M phases in p53-dependent manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0154-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7171148PMC

The Asprosin-OLFR734 module regulates appetitive behaviors.

Cell Discov 2020 14;6:19. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0152-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7154029PMC

In vitro expansion of pancreatic islet clusters facilitated by hormones and chemicals.

Cell Discov 2020 7;6:20. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

1Key Laboratory Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education and Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University, 250012 Jinan, Shandong China.

Tissue regeneration, such as pancreatic islet tissue propagation in vitro, could serve as a promising strategy for diabetes therapy and personalised drug testing. However, such a strategy has not been realised yet. Propagation could be divided into two steps, in vitro expansion and repeated passaging. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0159-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136205PMC

Rapid detection of African swine fever virus using Cas12a-based portable paper diagnostics.

Cell Discov 2020 7;6:18. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Pathology, Frontier Science Center for Immunology and Metabolism, Medical Research Institute, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a dsDNA virus responsible for a severe, highly contagious, and lethal disease affecting both domestic and wild pigs. ASFV has brought enormous economic loss to a number of countries, and effective vaccine and therapy are still lacking. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and field-deployable detection of ASFV is important for disease surveillance and control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0151-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136273PMC

Crystal structures of REF6 and its complex with DNA reveal diverse recognition mechanisms.

Cell Discov 2020 31;6:17. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

1State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, 100193 Beijing, China.

Relative of Early Flowing 6 (REF6) is a DNA-sequence-specific H3K27me3/2 demethylase that contains four zinc finger (ZnF) domains and targets several thousand genes in . The ZnF domains are essential for binding target genes, but the structural basis remains unclear. Here, we determined crystal structures of the ZnF domains and REF6-DNA complex, revealing a unique REF6-family-specific half-cross-braced ZnF (RCZ) domain and two C2H2-type ZnFs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0150-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7105484PMC

Identification of primordial germ cell-like cells as liver metastasis initiating cells in mouse tumour models.

Cell Discov 2020 24;6:15. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

2Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157 USA.

Liver metastasis, characterized by the spread of tumors to the liver from other areas, represents a deadly disease with poor prognosis. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic strategies and/or agents to combat liver metastasis primarily due to the insufficient understanding of liver metastasis. To develop a promising strategy for targeting liver metastasis, understanding of a cell origin responsible for liver metastasis and how this cell can be pharmacologically eliminated are therefore crucial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0145-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7090051PMC

Hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic derivative of chloroquine, is effective in inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro.

Cell Discov 2020 18;6:16. Epub 2020 Mar 18.

1State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 430071 Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0156-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7078228PMC

Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.

Cell Discov 2020 16;6:14. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

1Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195 USA.

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV, also known as SARS-CoV-2), lead global epidemics with high morbidity and mortality. However, there are currently no effective drugs targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Drug repurposing, representing as an effective drug discovery strategy from existing drugs, could shorten the time and reduce the cost compared to de novo drug discovery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0153-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073332PMC

A unique DNA-binding mode of African swine fever virus AP endonuclease.

Cell Discov 2020 17;6:13. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

1State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 200438 Shanghai, China.

African swine fever virus (ASFV) is highly contagious and can cause lethal disease in pigs. ASFV is primarily replicated in the cytoplasm of pig macrophages, which is oxidative and caused constant damage to ASFV genome. ASFV AP endonuclease (AP) catalyzes DNA cleavage reaction at the abasic site and is a key enzyme of ASFV base excision repair (BER) system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0146-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076025PMC

Cytoplasmic mA reader YTHDF3 inhibits trophoblast invasion by downregulation of mA-methylated IGF1R.

Cell Discov 2020 10;6:12. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Clinical and Translational Research Center of Shanghai First Maternity and Infant Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 201204 China.

N-methyladenosine (mA) is one of the important post-transcriptional modifications in RNA and plays an important role in promoting translation or decay of mA-methylated messenger RNA (mRNA), but the "reader" protein and the exact biological role of mA remain to be determined. Here, we identified that nine potential mA "reader" proteins including YTH domain family and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein by mass spectrometry, and among them, YTH domain-containing protein 3 (YTHDF3), could bind directly to mA-carrying RNA. YTHDF3 was then identified to negatively regulate invasion and migration of trophoblast. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0144-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062805PMC

Tumor necrosis factor alpha mediates neuromuscular synapse elimination.

Cell Discov 2020 3;6. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

1School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, 201210 China.

During the development of mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the original supernumerary axon inputs are gradually eliminated, finally leaving each muscle fiber innervated by a single axon terminal. However, the molecular cues that mediate the elimination of redundant axon inputs remain unclear. Here we show that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) expressed in postsynaptic muscle cells plays an important role in presynaptic axonal elimination at the NMJ. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0143-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051980PMC

Comparative genetic analysis of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) receptor ACE2 in different populations.

Cell Discov 2020 24;6:11. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

National Clinical Research Centre for Metabolic Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Clinical Center for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Shanghai Institute for Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 200025 Shanghai, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0147-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040011PMC
February 2020

Phase-adjusted estimation of the number of Coronavirus Disease 2019 cases in Wuhan, China.

Cell Discov 2020 24;6:10. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

1School of Public Health, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 200025 Shanghai, China.

An outbreak of clusters of viral pneumonia due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) happened in Wuhan, Hubei Province in China in December 2019. Since the outbreak, several groups reported estimated of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and generated valuable prediction for the early phase of this outbreak. After implementation of strict prevention and control measures in China, new estimation is needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0148-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039910PMC
February 2020

Structure and plasticity of silent synapses in developing hippocampal neurons visualized by super-resolution imaging.

Cell Discov 2020 25;6. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

1Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 China.

Excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain exhibit diverse functional properties in transmission and plasticity. Directly visualizing the structural correlates of such functional heterogeneity is often hindered by the diffraction-limited resolution of conventional optical imaging techniques. Here, we used super-resolution stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) to resolve structurally distinct excitatory synapses formed on dendritic shafts and spines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0139-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039918PMC
February 2020

Structural and functional insight into the effect of AFF4 dimerization on activation of HIV-1 proviral transcription.

Cell Discov 2020 18;6. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

1Department of Urology, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, and Collaborative Innovation Center for Biotherapy, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 China.

Super elongation complex (SEC) is a positive regulator of RNA polymerase II, which is required for HIV-1 proviral transcription. AFF1/4 is the scaffold protein that recruits other components of SEC and forms dimer depending on its THD domain (TPRL with Handle Region Dimerization Domain). Here we report the crystal structure of the human AFF4-THD at the resolution of 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0142-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026398PMC
February 2020

Lysosome biology in autophagy.

Cell Discov 2020 11;6. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Graduate School and Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan.

Autophagy is a major intracellular degradation system that derives its degradative abilities from the lysosome. The most well-studied form of autophagy is macroautophagy, which delivers cytoplasmic material to lysosomes via the double-membraned autophagosome. Other forms of autophagy, namely chaperone-mediated autophagy and microautophagy, occur directly on the lysosome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-020-0141-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010707PMC
February 2020

A new class of broadly neutralizing antibodies that target the glycan loop of Zika virus envelope protein.

Cell Discov 2020 4;6. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

1CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology & Immunology, Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Center for Biosafety Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection poses a serious threat to human health. However, no licensed vaccine or therapeutic drug is currently available for ZIKV. We have previously shown that recombinant ZIKV E80 protein induced potent neutralizing antibody response and protected mice from lethal viral challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0140-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997156PMC
February 2020

"Dysfunctions" induced by Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery are concomitant with metabolic improvement independent of weight loss.

Cell Discov 2020 28;6. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

1Key Laboratory of Systems Biology, Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

Metabolic surgery has been increasingly recommended for obese diabetic patients, but questions remain as to its molecular mechanism that leads to improved metabolic parameters independently of weight loss from a network viewpoint. We evaluated the role of the Roux limb (RL) in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in nonobese diabetic rat models. Improvements in metabolic parameters were greater in the long-RL RYGB group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0138-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985254PMC
January 2020

Molecular basis for histidine N3-specific methylation of actin H73 by SETD3.

Cell Discov 2020 21;6. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

MOE Key Laboratory of Protein Sciences, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology, Beijing Frontier Research Center for Biological Structure, Tsinghua-Peking Joint Center for Life Sciences, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0135-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6971037PMC
January 2020

Biphasic exocytosis of herpesvirus from hippocampal neurons and mechanistic implication to membrane fusion.

Cell Discov 2020 14;6. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

2California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095-7227 USA.

Exocytosis is a crucial cellular process involved in the release of neural transmitters or signaling hormones, and disposal of waste or toxic materials. The relationship between structural transition and temporal progression of this process is poorly understood, partly due to lack of adequate tools to resolve such dynamic structures at sufficient resolution in 3D. Exocytosis can be hijacked by some viruses, exemplified by the widely used model α-herpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV), which relies on exocytosis for trans-synaptic spread across neurons. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0134-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957672PMC
January 2020

Bi-directional differentiation of single bronchioalveolar stem cells during lung repair.

Cell Discov 2020 7;6. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

1State Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Cell Science, Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0132-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952422PMC
January 2020

Structural insights into tubulin detyrosination by vasohibins-SVBP complex.

Cell Discov 2019 31;5:65. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

1Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029 China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0133-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6937246PMC
December 2019

Twin-peak temporal regulation during human neocortical development.

Cell Discov 2019 17;5:61. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

CAS Key Laboratory of Computational Biology, CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology, Shanghai Institute of Nutrition and Health, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200031 China.

Understanding the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the human cerebral cortex is essential for expanding knowledge of its functionality. Previous analysis focused on the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among cortical subregions revealed an hourglass model for interareal differences. However, the overall pattern of transcriptional differences during the development of every region remains to be fully explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0129-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915741PMC
December 2019

More than one antibody of individual B cells revealed by single-cell immune profiling.

Cell Discov 2019 10;5:64. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

1Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100191 China.

Antibodies have a common structure consisting of two identical heavy (H) and two identical light (L) chains. It is widely accepted that a single mature B cell produces a single antibody through restricted synthesis of only one VDJ (encoding the H-chain variable region) and one VJ (encoding the L-chain variable region) via recombination. Naive B cells undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) from initially producing membrane-bound IgM and IgD to expressing more effective membrane-bound IgG, IgA, or IgE when encountering antigens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0137-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901605PMC
December 2019

Cellular redox state as a critical factor in initiating early embryonic-like program in embryonic stem cells.

Cell Discov 2019 10;5:59. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

2Institute of Molecular Medicine, Peking University, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0127-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6901566PMC
December 2019

Efficient base editing with expanded targeting scope using an engineered Spy-mac Cas9 variant.

Cell Discov 2019 3;5:58. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

1Key Laboratory of Zoonosis Research, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science, Jilin University, 130062 Changchun, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0128-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888851PMC
December 2019

Global alteration of T-lymphocyte metabolism by PD-L1 checkpoint involves a block of de novo nucleoside phosphate synthesis.

Cell Discov 2019 26;5:62. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

2Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Integrative Physiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.

Metabolic obstacles of the tumor microenvironment remain a challenge to T-cell-mediated cancer immunotherapies. To better understand the interplay of immune checkpoint signaling and immune metabolism, this study developed and used an optimized metabolite extraction protocol for non-adherent primary human T-cells, to broadly profile in vitro metabolic changes effected by PD-1 signaling by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and isotopomer analysis. Inhibitory signaling reduced aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0130-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877514PMC
November 2019

Identification of novel genetic variants predisposing to familial oral squamous cell carcinomas.

Cell Discov 2019 26;5:57. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

1Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390 USA.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but the pathogenesis underlying familial OSCCs is unknown. Here, we analyzed whole-genome sequences of a family with autosomal dominant expression of oral tongue cancer and identified proto-oncogenes and as the primary factors responsible for oral cancer in the family. These two genes are also frequently mutated in sporadic OSCCs and HNSCCs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41421-019-0126-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877579PMC
November 2019