1,218 results match your criteria Cavernous Sinus Syndromes

Recurrent Fevers and Neuro-ophthalmic Disorders in a Mathematical Genius.

Neuroophthalmology 2021 1;45(2):131-138. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio, USA.

Horner's syndrome coexisting with an ipsilateral fourth cranial nerve palsy is a rare occurrence and likely localises to pathology in the cavernous sinus. One such case may have occurred in the 18 century affecting the renowned mathematician Leonhard Euler. A review of his biographies, eulogies, and three finely detailed facial portraits suggest that these two neuro-ophthalmic conditions, along with visual loss and a decades-long intermittent febrile illness, may have been the result of an orbital cellulitis and septic cavernous sinus thrombosis, from an underlying chronic brucellosis infection. Read More

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Results of transvenous embolization of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula: a consecutive series of 136 patients with 142 fistulas.

J Neurosurg 2021 May 28:1-9. Epub 2021 May 28.

1Department of Neuroradiology, Hôpital Lariboisière, AP-HP, Paris.

Objective: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) is mainly treated with an endovascular approach. Two major treatment advances include transvenous embolization (TVE) with coils in 1989 and, more recently, transarterial embolization with Onyx. The aim of this study was to present a large monocentric series of patients with DAVF treated with TVE. Read More

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Ocular ischaemic syndrome following coil embolisation for direct carotid cavernous fistula.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 27;14(5). Epub 2021 May 27.

Child Sight Institute, Jasti V Ramanamma Children's Eye Care Centre, LV Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

A 36-year-old man presented with proptosis and external ophthalmoplegia of the left globe following road traffic injury. Cerebral angiogram revealed moderate flow direct carotid cavernous fistula on left side for which coil embolisation was done repeatedly. Subsequently, the patient developed decreased vision in left eye and developed features of left-sided ocular ischaemic syndrome. Read More

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Venous overload choroidopathy: A hypothetical framework for central serous chorioretinopathy and allied disorders.

Prog Retin Eye Res 2021 May 21:100973. Epub 2021 May 21.

Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Basel, Switzerland. Electronic address:

In central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), the macula is detached because of fluid leakage at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. The fluid appears to originate from choroidal vascular hyperpermeability, but the etiology for the fluid is controversial. The choroidal vascular findings as elucidated by recent optical coherence tomography (OCT) and wide-field indocyanine green (ICG) angiographic evaluation show eyes with CSC have many of the same venous patterns that are found in eyes following occlusion of the vortex veins or carotid cavernous sinus fistulas (CCSF). Read More

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Impact of Experience on Outcomes After Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery for Acromegaly.

World Neurosurg 2021 May 21. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Objective: Acromegaly is a syndrome of metabolic alterations secondary to increased growth hormone levels from a somatotroph pituitary adenoma. A multidisciplinary approach beginning with surgery, followed by adjuvant radiation or medical therapy for residual disease, is considered standard of care. Several factors affect the likelihood of remission after surgery, but the impact of surgical experience on remission rates has not been adequately assessed. Read More

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Regulation of Serum Sodium Levels during Chemotherapy Using Selective Arginine Vasopressin V2-Receptor Antagonist Tolvaptan in a Four-Year-Old Girl with a Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumor.

Children (Basel) 2021 Apr 10;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Pediatrics, Department of Homeostatic Regulation and Development, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata 951-8510, Japan.

There are limited reports on the use of tolvaptan for syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) in children. Managing serum sodium levels in SIADH patients during chemotherapy is often difficult because of the need for massive fluid infusions. We report the course of the use of tolvaptan for the treatment of hyponatremia during chemotherapy in a four-year-old girl with a suprasellar germ cell tumor. Read More

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Cavernous sinus thrombosis with central retinal artey occlusion in COVID-19: A case report and review of literature.

Indian J Ophthalmol 2021 May;69(5):1327-1329

Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda, Punjab, India.

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is showing a wide spectrum of ocular manifestations. They are creeping from vision sparing to irreversible visual loss as a result of its thromboembolic events. Hypercoagulability associated with COVID-19 is also called "sepsis-induced coagulopathy" and may predispose to thromboembolic phenomenon that decides the morbidity and mortality of this pandemic. Read More

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Editorial: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines and the Possible Mechanism of Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT).

Dinah V Parums

Med Sci Monit 2021 Apr 26;27:e932899. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Science Editor, International Scientific Information, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

During 2020 and 2021, the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respi- ratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in high death rates and acute and chronic morbidity in all countries. The rapid development of new mRNA vaccines to SARS-CoV-2 brings hope that the spread of this virus can be controlled. The ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine developed by a collaboration between the University of Oxford and AstraZeneca showed efficacy in clinical trials, with a good safety profile. Read More

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Isolated Third Nerve Palsy as a Rare and Solo Presentation of Internal Carotid Artery Dissection in a Young Female - a Surprising Finding in the Angiogram.

Cureus 2021 Mar 22;13(3):e14035. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Internal Medicine, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Ocala, USA.

Internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is a known but uncommon cause of ischemic stroke among young and middle-aged patients. A common presentation includes ipsilateral headache, unilateral oculosympathetic palsy (partial Horner syndrome), or ischemic stroke but some reported cases present with less common manifestations, such as lower cranial nerve syndrome (IX, X, XI, XII). However, third cranial nerve palsy is an extremely rare presentation of ICAD. Read More

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Neuro-Ophthalmic Emergencies.

Neurol Clin 2021 05 31;39(2):631-647. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurology and Neurological Sciences, Stanford University, 300 Pasteur Drive, Palo Alto, CA 94305, USA; Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University, 2370 Watson Court, Palo Alto, CA 94303, USA. Electronic address:

Neuro-ophthalmic emergencies include optic nerve, central visual pathway, and ocular motility disorders that, if not identified and treated promptly, may lead to permanent vision loss, other significant morbidity, or mortality. This article provides a framework for approaching patients with neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and reviews the presentation, evaluation, and treatment of select emergent conditions that can cause them. Emergent causes of blurry vision, transient vision loss, papilledema, and diplopia, including giant cell arteritis, cardioembolic disease, and aggressive infection, are discussed. Read More

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Prevalence and outcome of comorbidities associated with acromegaly.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Endocrinology, University Department of Medicine, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland.

Background: Acromegaly is associated with various comorbidities, such as arterial hypertension (aHT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and polyposis coli. For therapeutic decisions, it is essential to know if, and to what extent, these associated morbidities are reversible or preventable. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and course of aHT, obesity, OSAS, CTS, DM2 and polyposis coli in acromegalic patients. Read More

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Trigeminal neuralgia following Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.

Acta Neurol Belg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Ege University, 35000, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

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Endovascular Management of a Giant Skull Base Cavernous Aneurysm: Parent Artery Occlusion Is Still a Relevant Strategy.

Cureus 2021 Mar 1;13(3):e13643. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

Cavernous carotid aneurysms (CCAs) are usually considered benign as the natural history of the condition is often asymptomatic; however, CCAs can reach giant proportions and become symptomatic, thus requiring treatment. The introduction of flow diverters has revolutionized management of this condition. However, the parent artery geometry in giant lesions may prove exceedingly difficult to navigate and deploy stents satisfactorily. Read More

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Cavernous Sinus Syndrome After Barotraumatic Sneeze.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Otolaryngology (ZT, JRC), Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan; Michigan State University (NS), College of Human Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan; Department of Ophthalmology (CG), Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan; and Department of Neurosurgery (JR), Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

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Lemierre's syndrome with cavernous sinus thrombosis caused by dental infection.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Mar 16;14(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Lemierre's syndrome is a rare multisystemic infection beginning in oropharynx commonly caused by oral anaerobic organisms and leading to internal jugular vein thrombosis with septic emboli. Here, we describe a 45-year-old woman with hypertension and unrecognised type 2 diabetes who presented to a community hospital with fever, double vision and septic shock. Examination showed neck pain aggravated by neck flexion, limited ocular movement of right lateral rectus, left medial rectus and left superior oblique and incomplete ptosis of the left eye. Read More

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Intracranial Plasmacytoma Mimicking a Cavernous Sinus Meningioma.

Cureus 2021 Jan 15;13(1):e12716. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Florida, Weston, USA.

Extramedullary plasmacytomas involving the cavernous sinus are rare manifestations of multiple myeloma, and management strategies for such a pathology are not extensively discussed in the literature. In this case report, we describe the case of a patient presenting with a cavernous sinus syndrome secondary to a presumed meningioma. Surgical intervention was avoided as a computed tomography-guided biopsy was performed yielding the diagnosis of a cavernous sinus plasmacytoma. Read More

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January 2021

Clinical Parameters of Silent Corticotroph Adenomas With Positive and Negative Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Immunostaining: A Large Retrospective Single-Center Study of 105 Cases.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 18;11:608691. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai Huashan Institute of Neurological Surgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To investigate the different clinical characteristics of silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) with positive and negative adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) immunostaining, and to explore the value of pituitary-restricted transcription factor (Tpit) immunostaining for diagnosing SCAs.

Methods: The clinical materials of patients with SCAs who had a typical pathological feature with positive Tpit immunostaining and positive/negative ACTH immunostaining, and without clinical features and biochemical evidence for Cushing's Syndrome in our center from April 2018 to March 2019 were analyzed retrospectively. The differences in clinical characteristics and surgical results between ACTH-positive and -negative SCAs were explored. Read More

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[A case of successful diagnosis and treatment of cavernous sinus syndrome by multi-disciplinary cooperation].

Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi 2021 Feb 3;56(2):152-156. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Emergency, Beijing Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053, China.

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February 2021

Smoldering multiple myeloma revealed by superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis.

Saudi J Ophthalmol 2020 Jan-Mar;34(1):62-65. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Neurology's, Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia.

Superior ophthalmic vein thrombosis is a rare entity. It is associated with significant morbidities. It may present with dramatic clinical signs. Read More

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November 2020

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis related to Orbital Cellulitis Serious Complication to Prevent: a case report and literature review.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2021 Feb 18;62:179-181. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hassan II University of Casablanca, B.P 5696, Casablanca, Morocco.

Introduction: The authors report a case which aims to underline the importance of multidisciplinary management and rapid diagnosis of orbital cellulitis, for an adequate treatment of ocular damages and related complications, to prevent serious and permanent sequelae and avoid a fatal prognosis.

Presentation Of Case: A 61-year-old female reported to the oral and maxillofacial surgery department after she was dragged around for two months. She presented with a right facial swelling and orbital apex syndrome including proptosis, ophthalmoplegia and ptosis. Read More

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February 2021

Orbital Apex Syndrome: A Clinico-anatomical Diagnosis.

J Pediatr Neurosci 2020 Jul-Sep;15(3):336-337. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Division of Child Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

An 8-month-old girl presented with fever, restricted left eye movements and increasing proptosis for 8 days. On examination she had left orbital cellulitis, relative afferent pupillary defect and ophthalmoplegia. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with orbits revealed orbital apex syndrome (OAS) with cavernous sinus thrombosis. Read More

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November 2020

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome relapse during pregnancy following chronic intake of combined oral contraceptives.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 18;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Neurosciences, College of Medicine and Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines Manila, Manila, Metro Manila, Philippines.

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare syndrome of painful ophthalmoplegia secondary to an idiopathic granulomatous inflammation affecting the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure or orbit. Pregnancy and pregnancy-related hormones have been identified as potential triggers. A 39-year-old gravida-2 para-1 woman with prior chronic intake of combined oral contraceptives (COC) suffered two episodes of painful ophthalmoplegia-the first event with spontaneous remission and the relapse occurring during pregnancy and with complete resolution following steroid treatment. Read More

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January 2021

Orbital apex syndrome secondary to an orbital sarcoma in a dog.

Can Vet J 2021 01;62(1):27-31

Cornell University - College of Veterinary Medicine, Ithaca, New York, USA.

A 12-year-old castrated male cocker spaniel dog was presented with a 4-week history of left episcleral injection and pawing at the face. Clinical examination findings included left internal and external ophthalmoplegia, left dorsal strabismus, pain opening the mouth, and intermittent amaurosis. Imaging studies revealed a left orbital apex mass with adjacent sphenoid bone lysis and extension into the cranial cavity. Read More

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January 2021

[Orbital Compartment Syndrome Perhaps Secondary to Intra-Orbital Fluid Retention and Orbital/Palpebral Emphysema Following Frontotemporal Craniotomy for an Unruptured Cerebral Aneurysm:A Case Report].

No Shinkei Geka 2020 Dec;48(12):1129-1138

Department of Neurosurgery, National Hospital Organization Nagasaki Medical Center.

A 58-year-old woman underwent left frontotemporal craniotomy for clipping of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm. A small defect was accidentally created in the orbital roof intraoperatively. The patient developed left eyelid edema and ocular pain after recovery from anesthesia. Read More

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December 2020

[Co-existence of Guillain-Barré syndrome and Behcet syndrome: A case report].

C Yu C Li Y Y Fan Y Xu

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 Dec;52(6):1146-1149

Department of Neurology, Peking University People's Hospital, Beijing 100044, China.

A 40-year-old male patient was referred to our department with complains of recurrent oral ulcer for more than 20 years and vulvar ulcer for more than 10 years. He presented with a 3-month history of right external ophthalmoplegia. More than 10 days ago, the patient received ganglioside infusion. Read More

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December 2020

Cavernous sinus thrombosis in a COVID-19 patient: A case report.

Radiol Case Rep 2021 Mar 9;16(3):480-482. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Radiology department of CHU HASSAN II de Fez, Morocco, Faculty of medecine Fez, Universitý Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Fez, Morocco.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerged pandemic disease caused by a new coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2). Initially the mortality of this infection are related to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, but several publications also showed that this infection caused an inflammatory response with severe systemic complications [1]. Venous thromboembolism has been shown to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19, both in the general inpatient and in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, and even in patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation [2]. Read More

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) versus computed tomographic scan (CT scan) of brain in evaluation of suspected cavernous sinus syndrome.

Neuroradiol J 2020 Dec;33(6):501-507

Department of Neurology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Background And Purpose: The cavernous sinus is a unique region owing to anatomical factors and the pathologies affecting it. The diagnosis of cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) predominantly relies on clinicoradiological correlation. We studied the utility of computed tomographic (CT) scan versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of CSS. Read More

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December 2020

Neurovascular disease and syndromes: Diagnosis and therapy in children.

Gary M Nesbit

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;176:305-323

Dotter Department of Interventional Radiology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States. Electronic address:

The pediatric neurovascular disease runs the chronologic spectrum with dramatic changes in the presentation, evaluation, and treatment from the prenatal, perinatal, and infant periods through childhood and adolescence. These diseases are often dynamic throughout this period and the dynamic continues throughout life. There are four major categories: high-flow arteriovenous shunting lesions, arterial aneurysms, low-flow vascular lesions, and vascular occlusive disease. Read More

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January 2021

Gaining Access to the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Endovascular Embolization of Indirect Carotid-Cavernous Fistulas.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre.

Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal connections between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. These acquired vascular malformations may result in severe orbital congestion and sight-threatening complications. The authors present their experience in gaining access to the superior ophthalmic vein to embolize indirect CCFs in three different patients. Read More

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November 2020

Internal Jugular Vein and Cerebral Venous Sinus Infective Thrombophlebitis Detected With 99mTc-HMPAO White Blood Cell Scintigraphy.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Feb;46(2):e112-e113

Nuclear Medicine, Western University, London.

Abstract: A 35-year-old man with a history of renal transplant, congenital cystinosis, and diabetes was admitted to the hospital with fever, bilateral parotid gland swelling, and acute renal failure. He had 99mTc-HMPAO-WBC (99mTc-hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime white blood cell) imaging for the evaluation of possible parotitis. There was intense radiopharmaceutical uptake along the right internal jugular vein extending to the right sigmoid and transverse and superior sagittal sinuses, suggestive of infective thrombophlebitis or Lemierre syndrome. Read More

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February 2021