1,274 results match your criteria Cavernous Sinus Syndromes


[A case of Coexistent Persistent Trigeminal and Hypoglossal Arteries Manifested with Neurovascular Compression Syndrome by Hypertension].

Brain Nerve 2022 Jun;74(6):811-816

Department of Neurology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine.

A 70-year-old woman visited our hospital with hypertension, diplopia, and right orbital pain. Neurological examination revealed right ophthalmoplegia. CT angiography and MRI identified a right persistent trigeminal artery (PTA), right persistent hypoglossal artery, and bovine aortic arch. Read More

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An Integrated Approach on the Diagnosis of Cerebral Veins and Dural Sinuses Thrombosis (a Narrative Review).

Life (Basel) 2022 May 11;12(5). Epub 2022 May 11.

Department of Neurosciences-Division of Neurology, Victor Babes University of Medicine and Pharmacy, E. Murgu Sq., no.2, 300041 Timisoara, Romania.

(1) Objective: This review paper aims to discuss multiple aspects of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), including epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation. Different neuroimaging methods for diagnosis of CVT, such as computer tomography CT/CT Venography (CTV), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/MR Venography (MRV) will be presented. (2) Methods: A literature analysis using PubMed and the MEDLINE sub-engine was done using the terms: cerebral venous thrombosis, thrombophilia, and imaging. Read More

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Sinonasal Lymphoma Presenting as Cavernous Sinus Syndrome: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Neuroophthalmology 2022 10;46(3):194-198. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Ophthalmology Department, University Malaya Eye Research Centre (UMERC), University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

A 37-year-old man presented with a 1-week history of diplopia. He was under investigation by otorhinolaryngology for left sinonasal malignancy after imaging of the paranasal sinuses had revealed a large homogenous mass in the left nasal cavity. His visual acuity was 6/9 in each eye with no relative afferent pupillary defect. Read More

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November 2021

A Lesson Learnt from a Dural Carotid Cavernous Fistula-induced Superior Ophthalmic Vein Occlusion with Posterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy.

Neuroophthalmology 2022 11;46(3):199-202. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Ophthalmology Department, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

We report a 64-year-old male patient without any contributory medical history who visited the eye clinic due to right-sided headache for 1 month and then loss of vision for 3 days. The clinical presentation suggested a cavernous sinus syndrome and acute optic nerve ischaemia in his right eye. The left eye was normal. Read More

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November 2021

Misdirection of a nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 swab: An unexpected complication.

Otolaryngol Case Rep 2022 Sep 6;24:100439. Epub 2022 May 6.

Otolaryngology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: The diagnosis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is based on detecting viral RNA of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the nasal cavities and the nasopharynx. Millions of nasopharyngeal swab tests are currently performed daily worldwide; complications of the procedure are uncommon, but occasionally they occur.

Case Report: We describe the case of a 79-year-old man who developed right orbital cellulitis after a nasopharyngeal swab test for SARS-CoV-2. Read More

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September 2022

Super-selective cavernous sinus and inferior petrosal sinus sampling for Cushing syndrome: Technique and interpretation.

Interv Neuroradiol 2022 May 2:15910199221099409. Epub 2022 May 2.

Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Neurointerventional Section, 8785University of California San Francisco, United States.

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[Perioperative management and complication control of Le Fort Ⅲ osteotomy in children with syndromic craniosynostosis].

Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2022 May;57(5):503-508

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology & National Center of Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases & National Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterials and Digital Medical Devices & Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, Beijing 100081, China.

To summarize the preliminary efficacy, perioperative management and complications of Le Fort Ⅲ osteotomy and midface distraction in patients with syndromic craniosynostosis by retrospective analysis, and to provide clinical experience for reference. From October 2017 to January 2020, 20 patients with syndromic craniosynostosis underwent Le Fort Ⅲ osteotomy and distraction in The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of Peking University International Hospital, including 11 males and 9 females, were involved. The median age was 7 years (1. Read More

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Clinical outcome of orbital apex syndrome in COVID associated mucormycosis patients in a tertiary care hospital.

Int J Ophthalmol 2022 18;15(4):527-532. Epub 2022 Apr 18.

Department of Ophthalmology; Institute of Post Graduate Medical Education and Research and Seth Sukhlal Karnani Memorial Hospital, Kolkata 999008, India.

Aim: To share clinical pattern of presentation, the modalities of surgical intervention and the one month post-surgical outcome of rhino-orbito-mucormycosis (ROCM) cases.

Methods: All COVID associated mucormycosis (CAM) patients underwent comprehensive multidisciplinary examination by ophthalmologist, otorhinolaryngologist and physician. Patients with clinical and radiological evidence of orbital apex involvement were included in the study. Read More

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[A case of recurrent headache and ophthalmoplegia with a contrast-enhanced lesion of the oculomotor nerve in the cavernous region: an atypical phenotype of recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy].

Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2022 Apr 29;62(4):281-285. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Department of Neurology, Anti-aging and Vascular medicine, Division of Internal Medicine, National Defense Medical College.

The patient was a 14-year-old boy with two previous episodes of self-remitting right ophthalmoplegia with right temporal pain at ages 9 and 12. In 2019, he developed right eyelid ptosis and diplopia 2 days after a pulsating right-sided temporoparietal headache. Recurrent headaches with ophthalmoplegia responded to high-dose steroid therapy, and the clinical features resembled recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON). Read More

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Simultaneous and Sequential Development of Sixth Nerve Palsy and Horner's Syndrome from Carotid Cavernous Sinus Fistulas.

Case Rep Ophthalmol 2022 Jan-Apr;13(1):37-43. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The combination of ipsilateral sixth nerve palsy (6NP) and Horner's syndrome (Horner's) is a localizing sign of an injury to the posterior cavernous sinus. The presentation and clinical course of 3 patients presenting with coexisting ipsilateral 6NP and Horner's as a result of carotid cavernous sinus fistulas (CCFs) are discussed in this case series. We highlight these cases to show the possible sequence of events: (i) simultaneous discovery of 6NP and Horner's, (ii) 6NP followed by Horner's, and (iii) Horner's followed by 6NP. Read More

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February 2022

Invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis with normal findings on initial diagnostic tests that mimics Tolosa-Hunt syndrome-a diagnostic dilemma: a case report.

J Yeungnam Med Sci 2022 Mar 11. Epub 2022 Mar 11.

Department of Neurology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis can mimic Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS), leading to frequent misdiagnoses and potentially fatal consequences. We report a case of invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis initially misdiagnosed as THS. A 79-year-old man presented with right periorbital pain, ophthalmoplegia, and loss of vision. Read More

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Clinical and Cerebrospinal Fluid Characteristics in 55 Cases of Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome: A Retrospective Analytical Study.

Eur Neurol 2022 Mar 9:1-8. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Background: Several case series of patients with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome have been described in the literature; however, few studies have focused on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) characteristics. This study aimed to analyse the CSF characteristics of patients with Tolosa-Hunt syndrome.

Methods: Fifty-five patients who fulfilled the 3rd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome were included in this study. Read More

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Tolosa-Hunt syndrome presenting with features of a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias and pituitary enlargement.

BMJ Case Rep 2022 Mar 1;15(3). Epub 2022 Mar 1.

Neurology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds, UK.

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is understood as a steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, unilateral headache disorder associated with ipsilateral cranial neuropathies, of a probable granulomatous aetiology. The diagnosis is made clinically from the history and examination, supported by appropriate imaging. Here the authors report a case of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome with a headache phenotype mimicking a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (hemicrania continua), and serial MRI studies showing a stable enlarged pituitary. Read More

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Intravascular Large B-cell Lymphoma Diagnosed by Nasal Biopsy in a Patient Presenting with Bilateral Ptosis and Ophthalmoplegia.

Orbit 2022 Feb 28:1-5. Epub 2022 Feb 28.

Department of Ophthalmology, Suny Downstate Medical Center. Brooklyn, New York, USA.

Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare type of lymphoma, involving the lumen of predominantly small blood vessels, especially capillaries. The orbit is an uncommon site of involvement for IVLBCL, and diagnosis before autopsy is even more rare as most cases are established post-mortem. Herein, the authors describe a 73-year-old male who presented with 3 weeks of progressive bilateral ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Read More

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February 2022

When Worlds Collide: An Interesting Case of Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Exacerbated by COVID-19 and Diabetic Ketoacidosis Complicated by Intraorbital Hematoma.

Cureus 2022 Jan 13;14(1):e21203. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center El Paso, El Paso, USA.

Mucormycosis is a devastating fungal infection seen in patients who are immunosuppressed or in severe inflammatory states. Mucormycosis has been increasingly seen in the setting of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. We describe a 68-year-old male with a past medical history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus who presented with acute vision loss and was found to have concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection on presentation. Read More

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January 2022

A rare case of Mycobacterium Chelonae infection in an immunocompromised adult with cavernous sinus syndrome.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2022 05 15;28(5):796-799. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

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Pseudotumor of the Infratemporal Fossa Complicated with Orbital Apex Syndromes.

Gulf J Oncolog 2022 Jan;1(38):78-81

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: The infratemporal fossa poses a great challenge to surgeons due to its complex anatomy and communications to many surrounding areas. The disorders that arise from this area can be infections and neoplasms. They can cause varieties of complications due to the extension of the pathologies and compression effect to the other adjacent structures. Read More

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January 2022

Mucormycosis in COVID-19: A systematic review of literature.

Infez Med 2021 10;29(4):504-512. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute viral illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Opportunistic infections such as mucormycosis have been reported among COVID-19 patients particularly in South Asian countries during the second wave of this pandemic. It is necessary to re-evaluate any changes in traditional risk factors associated with mucormycosis such as diabetes mellitus, organ transplant, etc in the precedent of ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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December 2021

Possibility of arterial spin labeling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging sequences with steroid therapy for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: A case report and review of literature.

Surg Neurol Int 2022 20;13:27. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Ishikawamachi, Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: The diagnostic criteria for Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) were updated in 2013 in the 3 Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. It is now possible to diagnose THS based on the presence of granulomatous inflammation demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without confirmation by biopsy. No previous study has reported the use of arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI for diagnosing THS. Read More

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January 2022

Double Down on Double Vision: An Unusual Case of Painful Diplopia.

Cureus 2021 Dec 30;13(12):e20838. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Department of Rheumatology, Brown University, Warren Alpert Medical School, Providence, USA.

Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) is a rare neuro-immunological disorder characterized by severe periorbital headaches and ophthalmoplegia. In some patients, THS may occur in parallel with other autoimmune disorders. The underlying etiology of THS remains to be definitively established. Read More

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December 2021

Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis and Blindness After Simple Tooth Extraction in Patient Who Recovered From Coronavirus 2019: A Case Report.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2022 04 30;80(4):709-713. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, Egypt. Electronic address:

The pandemic Coronavirus 2019 is a disease transmitted either by droplets from a person's sneeze or cough or direct spread; also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Although the morbidity of the disease is mainly related to respiratory distress, the associated inflammatory response can induce various coagulopathies despite an anticoagulant therapy. The authors are documenting a case of a diabetic patient who recovered from Coronavirus 2019 and is on prophylactic anticoagulant therapy after routine extraction of a maxillary second molar that progressed to unilateral cavernous sinus thrombosis and loss of vision. Read More

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Bridging the Gap between Ophthalmology and Emergency Medicine in Community-Based Emergency Departments (EDs): A Neuro-Ophthalmology Guide for ED Practitioners.

Clin Pract 2021 Dec 2;11(4):919-932. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Ophthalmology, Central Valley Eye Medical Group, Stockton, CA 95207, USA.

Coordination of care for patients with neuro-ophthalmic disorders can be very challenging in the community emergency department (ED) setting. Unlike university- or tertiary hospital-based EDs, the general ophthalmologist is often not as familiar with neuro-ophthalmology and the examination of neuro-ophthalmology patients in the acute ED setting. Embracing image capturing of the fundus, using a non-mydriatic camera, may be a game-changer for communication between ED physicians, ophthalmologists, and tele-neurologists. Read More

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December 2021

A rare case of macroprolactinoma in a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Dec 1;2021. Epub 2021 Dec 1.

Internal Medicine Discipline, Faculty of Medicine, University Technology MARA, Jalan Hospital, Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia.

Summary: A 17-year-old lady presented with primary amenorrhoea, headache, nausea and lethargy. She had delayed pubertal development that also includes under-developed breast (Tanner Stage 2). Hormonal investigations showed a high serum prolactin level of 1 680 000 mIU/L (normal value: 45-375 mIU/L), with low oestradiol, progesterone, follicular-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Read More

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December 2021

Acute Bilateral Blindness in the Setting of Sudden Onset of Bilateral Proptosis and Ophthalmoplegia: A Case Report With Literature Review.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Oct;11(5):e706-e713

Department of Neurology (SZ, LAK), HCA Healthcare, Nashville, TN; Riverside Community Hospital (SZ, CS), CA; School of Medicine (PV, CS), UCR, Riverside, CA; Department of Ophthalmology (RWC), UCI, Irvine, CA; and Department of Interventional Neurology (CS), HCA Healthcare, Nashville, TN.

Purpose Of Review: Acute bilateral blindness has an extensive differential diagnosis that requires a careful history and physical examination to narrow down. In this article, we discuss the pathophysiology and radiographic findings of each possible diagnosis for acute bilateral blindness.

Recent Findings: Visual pathology with respect to bilateral blindness can be broadly broken down into 3 anatomic categories: media (i. Read More

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October 2021

Multiple Cranial Neuropathies and Pachymeningitis in a Patient With a Pathogenic Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 Polymorphism.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 12;41(4):547-552

Departments of Ophthalmology (SV, AC, KD, BK, MS, SK, NM, JW), Rheumatology (JB), Neurology (AC, KD, BK, MS, JW), and Radiology and Imaging Sciences (EQ), University of Utah Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Abstract: An 11-year-old boy presented with 2 weeks of intermittent headache, right orbital pain, and constant diplopia. Brain MRI showed dural thickening and enhancement of the right lateral cavernous sinus, right orbital apex, and tentorium. Initial cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed only mild pleocytosis, and serum diagnostics were unrevealing. Read More

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December 2021

Odontogenic Lemierre's syndrome with septic superior ophthalmic vein and cavernous sinus thrombophlebitis complicated by blindness and ophthalmoplegia.

Orbit 2021 Nov 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Ophthalmology, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Australia.

Lemierre's syndrome is a triad consisting of oropharyngeal infection, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and systemic embolisation typically involving lung and brain. Orbital involvement in this life-threatening condition is rare but potentially blinding and may be an indicator of intracranial involvement. We describe a case of odontogenic Lemierre's syndrome complicated by extensive orbital and intracranial septic venous thrombosis, with optic and cranial neuropathy resulting in monocular blindness and ophthalmoplegia. Read More

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November 2021

Multiple Cranial Nerve Palsies in a Pediatric Case of Lemierre's Syndrome due to .

Case Rep Neurol Med 2021 26;2021:4455789. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Neurology at Stony Brook University Hospital, 101 Nicolls Road Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.

Background: Lemierre's syndrome is a rare condition of internal jugular vein thrombosis following oropharyngeal infection. While it usually results from infection, atypical cases associated with other pathogens have been reported.

Objective: To describe a unique case of pediatric Lemierre's syndrome with infection resulting in cavernous sinus thrombosis and oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerve palsies. Read More

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October 2021

Expression Level of IL-17 in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Late Pregnancy and Diagnosis of Maternal-Fetal Tolerance Based on Brain MRI Image Segmentation Algorithm.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 ;37(6):1553-1557

Guangmin Lu, Bachelor's Degrees. Department of Endocrinology and Metablism, The Third People's Hospital of Linyi, Linyi 276023, China.

Objectives: To study the expression of IL-17 in peripheral blood and its effect on maternal-fetal tolerance in patients with eclampsia in late pregnancy using MRI image segmentation algorithm.

Methods: Thirty-nine patients with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia with brain symptoms were examined by cranial MRI. Pregnant women with 32 weeks of pregnancy were selected to detect the percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in CD4 + T lymphocytes and the expression of cytokines IL-17 and IL-10 in peripheral blood. Read More

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January 2021

From left to right: an unusual presentation of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome with bilateral eye involvement.

N Z Med J 2021 10 22;134(1544):175-178. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand; Department of Neurology, Canterbury District Health Board, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Here we discuss a presentation of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (THS) in a 44-year-old female with new right-eye ptosis, ophthalmoplegia and headache. Four days prior, she had almost identical ptosis and ophthalmoplegia in her left eye, which resolved. Cavernous sinus inflammation and symptom improvement with glucocorticoid treatment indicated THS with bilateral eye involvement, a presentation which may be undervalued by the current THS classification. Read More

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October 2021

The diversity and outcome of post-covid mucormycosis: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Nov 18;88:106522. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Head of Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo, Egypt.

Introduction And Importance: The impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the incidence and pattern of Mucormycosis (the black fungus), has increased sharply and is featured as an epidemic within a pandemic. The majority of cases were detected at late stages, which decreases the chances of survival.

Case Presentation: The authors present a case of an immunocompetent male patient diagnosed with left orbital apex syndrome post covid-19 infection, which necessitated orbital exenteration. Read More

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November 2021