777 results match your criteria Cauda Equina and Conus Medullaris Syndromes


[Epiconus Syndrome and Conus Syndrome].

Brain Nerve 2021 Jun;73(6):659-670

Department of Neurology, Chubu Rosai Hospital.

The most caudal part of the spinal cord shows special anatomical characteristics and it contains epiconus (L4-S2 segments), the conus medullaris (S3-S5 segments), and surrounding nerve roots. Lesions of the thoracolumbar junction cause epiconus or conus syndrome. Epiconus syndrome is characterized by segmental muscular weakness and atrophy of one or both lower extremities, often accompanied by foot drop. Read More

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Stereotactic body radiotherapy versus conventional external beam radiotherapy in patients with painful spinal metastases: an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Canadian Clinical Trials Group, Queens's University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Background: Conventional external beam radiotherapy is the standard palliative treatment for spinal metastases; however, complete response rates for pain are as low as 10-20%. Stereotactic body radiotherapy delivers high-dose, ablative radiotherapy. We aimed to compare complete response rates for pain after stereotactic body radiotherapy or conventional external beam radiotherapy in patients with painful spinal metastasis. Read More

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Lumbar disc sequestration through the dura into the intrathecal space presenting as acute cauda equina.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 May 5;14(5). Epub 2021 May 5.

Neurosurgery, University Hospitals Coventry and Warwickshire NHS Trust, Coventry, UK.

A 64-year-old man was referred to A&E by his general practitioner with worsening back and acute bilateral leg pain and weakness with urinary retention. His MRI scan demonstrated spinal canal stenosis at the level of L1-L2 and a diagnosis of cauda equina syndrome (CES) was made. CES is a rare neurological condition caused by compression of the central spinal nerves at the termination of the cord. Read More

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Transverse myelitis masquerading as cauda equina syndrome, stroke and cervical myelopathy.

Biomedicine (Taipei) 2020 28;10(1):45-50. Epub 2020 Mar 28.

Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore.

Transverse myelitis is an uncommon but well-defined neurological syndrome. However, a high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose this condition, especially when it occurs in concomitance with preexisting spinal canal stenosis. We report our patient, a 48 year old male, who initially presented to our spine clinic with acute onset unilateral lower limb weakness associated with urinary retention, which was suspected to be cauda equina syndrome due to a prolapsed intervertebral disc. Read More

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Cauda Equina Syndrome as the Initial Presentation of Concurrent Plasmacytoma and Multiple Myeloma.

Cureus 2021 Jan 24;13(1):e12888. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Internal Medicine, Brandon Regional Hospital, Tampa, USA.

Multiple myeloma is a hematological malignancy characterized by an abnormal proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. In some occurrences, plasma cell proliferation results in a solitary lesion (solitary bone plasmacytoma or extramedullary plasmacytoma with minimal bone marrow involvement). Approximately 50% of patients with solitary plasmacytoma develop multiple myeloma within 10 years after the initial diagnosis. Read More

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January 2021

Anesthesia for Acute Spinal Cord Injury.

Anesthesiol Clin 2021 Mar;39(1):127-138

Department of Anesthesiology, Yale School of Medicine, Yale University, PO Box 208051, 333 Cedar Street, TMP 3, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

The spinal cord extends from the base of the skull to the first lumbar vertebrae from which it continues as cauda equina. Injuries to the spinal cord can lead to significant short- and long-term morbidities. Depending on the level of injury, morbidities may include acute hemodynamic changes, weakness of respiratory muscles and ventilator dependence, and loss of bowel and bladder function. Read More

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Cauda equina compression in metastatic prostate cancer.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Dec 17;13(12). Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Trauma & Orthopaedic Surgery, Royal Shrewsbury Hospital, The Shrewsbury & Telford Hospital NHS Trust, Shrewsbury, UK

A 67-year-old man presented to his general practitioner with intermittent episodes of unilateral sciatica over a 2-month period for which he was referred for an outpatient MRI of his spine. This evidenced a significant lumbar vertebral mass that showed tight canal stenosis and compression of the cauda equina. The patient was sent to the emergency department for management by orthopaedic surgeons. Read More

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December 2020

Acute Spinal Extradural Hematoma and Cord Compression: Case Report and a Literature Review.

Cureus 2020 Nov 21;12(11):e11603. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Emergency Department, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QAT.

A 50-year-old Asian male presented to the emergency department with sudden onset of bilateral lower limb weakness preceded by lower back pain, which developed after lifting a moderately heavyweight. As the pain increased in intensity, the patient was transferred by ambulance to the emergency department, and en-route lost complete motor (0/5 power and absent reflexes) and sensory control over his lower limbs. The patient's medical history was significant for diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease with percutaneous coronary intervention in 2018 and 2019. Read More

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November 2020

Oblique Lateral Retroperitoneal Lumbar Pre-Psoas Approach for Vertebrectomy in Cancer Patients: Surgical Technique.

Surg Technol Int 2020 Nov;37:406-413

Department of Neurosurgery, IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori "Regina Elena", Rome, Italy, Department of Neurosurgery, San Giovanni-Addolorata Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Due to the longer survival of cancer patients secondary to improved systemic treatments, there has been a recent increase in the incidence of spinal metastases. Metastatic disease involves the anterior vertebral body in 80% of cases. Progressive osseous invasion may result in pathologic vertebral fractures and neural structure compression. Read More

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November 2020

Metastatic epidural spinal column compression due to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma causing subacute Cauda equina syndrome: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 5;11:279. Epub 2020 Sep 5.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most common pancreatic malignancy, which rarely metastasizes to the spine.

Case Description: Here, we present a lytic lumbar metastatic PDAC resulting in severe epidural spinal cord compression (ESCC) with instability. The lesion required preoperative particle embolization, surgical decompression, and fusion. Read More

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September 2020

Cauda Equina Syndrome in Neurosarcoidosis.

Cureus 2020 Aug 27;12(8):e10069. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Neurology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, USA.

Neurosarcoidosis (NS) is a mimicker of many infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. It most commonly involves the cranial nerves followed by meninges, ventricles, hypothalamic-pituitary axis, spinal cord, and brainstem/cerebellum. While NS myelopathy has been increasingly recognized, pathophysiological/prognostic and management principles in NS-mediated cauda equina (CE) and conus medullaris (CM) syndromes, which constitute a small and rare minority of this subset, remain elusive. Read More

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Delayed symptomatic spinal adhesive arachnoiditis after surgery for thoracolumbar flexion-distraction injury: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2020 29;74:273-276. Epub 2020 Aug 29.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul Spine Institute, Sanggyepaik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Republic of Korea.

Background: Adhesive arachnoiditis is an uncommon lesion caused by an inflammatory reaction in spinal nerves. Reports of substantial symptomatic thoracolumbar (TL) adhesive arachnoiditis after spinal surgery are rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first presentation of delayed adhesive arachnoiditis with cauda equina syndrome after decompression and fusion for a traumatic TL flexion-distraction injury. Read More

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Adapting Policy Guidelines for Spine Surgeries During COVID-19 Pandemic in View of Evolving Evidences: An Early Experience From a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital.

Cureus 2020 Jul 11;12(7):e9147. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Orthopaedics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, IND.

Introduction The recent novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought the world to a standstill. This outbreak not only affected healthcare systems but the resultant economic losses were also enormous. COVID-19 has demanded that the health care systems globally evolve, develop new strategies, identify new models of functioning, and at times, fall back on the old conservative methods of orthopedic care to decrease the risk of disease transmission. Read More

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Dorsal migration of lumbar disc fragments causing cauda equina syndromes: A three case series and literature review.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 4;11:175. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University Hospital, Syracuse, New York, United States.

Background: Dorsal migration of an intervertebral lumbar disc fragment is exceedingly rare and may result in spinal cord or cauda equina compression. Radiologically, these lesions may be misdiagnosed as extradural masses or epidural hematomas.

Case Description: We present three cases involving dorsal migration of sequestered lumbar disc fragments resulting in cauda equina syndromes. Read More

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Radiological Risk Factors for Neurological Deficits After Traumatic Mid and Low Lumbar Fractures.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Nov;45(21):1513-1523

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Objective: We identified radiological risk factors for neurological deficits in mid and low lumbar spinal fractures.

Summary Of Background Data: Although numerous studies have focused on radiological risk factors for neurological deficits in spinal cord injury or thoracolumbar junction area fractures, few have examined mid and low lumbar fractures at the cauda equina level. Read More

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November 2020

An Asymptomatic Case of Radiologically Active Neurocysticercosis.

Cureus 2020 May 21;12(5):e8219. Epub 2020 May 21.

Internal Medicine, Midland Memorial Hospital, Midland, USA.

The case describes an 82-year-old right-handed Hispanic male with multiple chronic comorbidities complaining of upper and lower extremity weakness as well as paresthesias that had been worsening over the last two weeks. He had bilateral upper and lower extremity weakness that was worse on the right and he complained of not being able to walk on his own with several falls preceding admission because of this. There were no overt signs of spinal cord compression or cauda equina syndrome. Read More

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[Malignant Spinal Cord Compression].

Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2020 Jun;47(6):875-880

Dept. of Medical Oncology, Toranomon Hospital.

Malignant spinal cord compression(MSCC)is defined as a compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina with neuropathy caused by tumor spreading to the vertebral body. The common symptoms of MSCC are back pain, neck pain, muscle weakness, sensory reduction, bladder and rectal disturbance. The risk of MSCC is relatively high in patients with lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Read More

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Expression of Nogo-A in dorsal root ganglion in rats with cauda equina injury.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2020 06 28;527(1):131-137. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Spine Center, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, No.415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai, 200003, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the expression of Nogo-A in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in rats with cauda equina injury and the therapeutic effects of blocking Nogo-A and its receptor.

Methods And Materials: Fifty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into either the sham operation group (n = 24) or the cauda equina compression (CEC) control group (n = 34). Behavioral, histological, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) analyses were conducted to assess the establishment of the model. Read More

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Major Radiologic and Clinical Outcomes of Total Spine MRI Performed in the Emergency Department at a Major Academic Medical Center.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2020 06 21;41(6):1120-1125. Epub 2020 May 21.

From the Departments of Radiology (C.W.C.H., A.A., Y.-M.C., A.F.B., D.B.H., R.A.B.)

Background And Purpose: Total spine MRIs are requested by the emergency department when focused imaging can not be ordered on the basis of history or clinical findings. However, their efficacy is not known. We assessed the following: 1) major radiologic and clinical outcomes of total spine MR imaging performed by the emergency department, and 2) whether the presence of a high-risk clinical profile and/or neurologic findings impacts the clinical outcomes. Read More

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Spinal Epidural Hematoma After Attempted Catheter Thrombectomy of a Large Iliofemoral Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Case Report.

R I Med J (2013) 2020 May 1;103(4):52-54. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence.

The authors report the case of an 82-year-old woman with a spinal epidural hematoma following attempted catheter-directed thrombolysis of a large femoral- popliteal deep venous thrombosis. The patient rapidly developed acute motor and sensory paralysis below the level of T7 within hours of the thrombectomy procedure. Computed tomography imaging revealed that the catheter had perforated the wall of the right inferior vena cava and magnetic resonance imaging subsequently demonstrated an extensive T1-S1 dorsal epidural hematoma with compression of the thoracic spinal cord, conus medullaris, and cauda equina. Read More

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Metastatic spinal cord compression.

Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2020 Apr;81(4):1-10

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, East Surrey Hospital, Surrey and Sussex Healthcare NHS Trust, Redhill, UK.

Metastatic spinal cord compression is compression of the spinal cord or cauda equina as a result of metastatic deposits in the spinal column. It affects approximately 4000 cases per year in England and Wales. Prompt identification and treatment of metastatic spinal cord compression is necessary to prevent irreversible neurological injury, treat pain and maintain patients' mobility, function and independence. Read More

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Posterior and anterior epidural and intradural migration of the sequestered intervertebral disc: Three cases and review of the literature.

J Spinal Cord Med 2020 Mar 4:1-6. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Radiology, Miyazaki Konan Hospital, Miyazaki, Japan.

Dorsal migration of the sequestered lumbar intervertebral disc is an unusual and underrecognized pattern of lumbar disc herniation associated with pain and neurological deficit. Three patients presented with lower limb- and low back pain. MR imaging showed intracanalicular mass lesions with compression of the spinal cord and allowed precise localization of lesions in the extradural or intradural space. Read More

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Full Endoscopic Lumbar Diskectomy for Lumbar Disk Herniation in the Presence of a Low-Lying Cord.

World Neurosurg 2020 05 19;137:367-371. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: The distal extent of the spinal cord is most often at the level of the L1 or L2 vertebral body. In rare cases, a low-lying cord extends more distally. In this scenario, pathology that normally causes radiculopathy may cause myelopathy due to compression of the cord rather than nerve roots of the cauda equina. Read More

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Traumatic intradural ruptured lumbar disc with a spinal compression fracture: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(7):e19037

Department of Neurosurgery, Chonnam National University Hospital and Medical School, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

Rationale: We present a rare case of a traumatic intradural ruptured disc associated with a mild vertebral body compression fracture along with a review of the relevant medical literature. An intradural ruptured disc often occurs due to chronic degenerative diseases and is rarely due to trauma. It can cause irreversible neurological complications if the appropriate treatment is not planned. Read More

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February 2020

Two cases of paralysis secondary to aneurysmal bone cysts with complete neurologic recovery.

Spine Deform 2020 04 11;8(2):339-344. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS#69, Los Angeles, CA, 90027, USA.

Design: Case report (retrospective).

Objective: These two cases of paralysis secondary to aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) demonstrated complete neurologic recovery following decompression and posterior spinal fusion. Although neurologic injury from ABCs has been described, information about the prognosis in the pediatric population is limited. Read More

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Spinal Sparganosis Coexisting with Acquired Arteriovenous Fistula of the Filum Terminale.

World Neurosurg 2020 Apr 26;136:341-347. Epub 2020 Jan 26.

Department of Radiology, Bumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Spinal sparganosis associated with filum terminale arteriovenous fistula (FTAVF) has not been reported in the literature. In previous studies, these 2 rare diseases were usually reported separately. We report the first case of spinal sparganosis with concomitant FTAVF. Read More

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Progressive myelopathy associated with spinal epidural lipomatosis in three non-obese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Apr 16;411:116688. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology, Multiple Sclerosis Comprehensive Care Center, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

Background: Spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL) is a rare condition defined as pathological overgrowth of the normally present epidural fat within the spinal canal. SEL is associated with Cushing disease, obesity and chronic corticosteroid therapy. Diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) has not known to be a risk factor for SEL. Read More

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