J Vasc Access 2021 Mar 30;22(2):304-309. Epub 2020 Jun 30.
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Reproductive and Developmental Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Japan.
Some patients with intestinal failure, who are dependent on total parenteral nutrition for long periods, suffer from a lack of suitable conventional venous access points, including axillary, external jugular, internal jugular, subclavian, saphenous, and the brachio-cephalic and femoral veins, due to their occlusion. Furthermore, extensive central venous stenosis and/or thrombosis of the superior and inferior vena cava may preclude further catheterization, so uncommon routes must be used, which can be challenging. In such patients, the azygos vein via the intercostal vein is a viable candidate. Read More