60 results match your criteria Caterpillar Envenomation


What's Eating You? Caterpillars.

Cutis 2021 Dec;108(6):346-351

Drs. Ellis and Elston are from the Department of Dermatology and Dermatopathology, The Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston. Dr. Hossler is from Geisinger Health, Danville, Pennsylvania. Dr. Cowper is from the Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Dr. Rapini is from the Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston.

Caterpillar envenomation is a worldwide problem, with manifestations ranging from dermatitis to iridocyclitis and a fatal hemorrhagic diathesis. This article focuses on the diagnosis and management of dermatoses related to caterpillars. Read More

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December 2021

Effect of Venom on Human Neutrophils.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 12 18;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Laboratório de Biologia RedOx, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ave. Carlos Chagas Filho 373, Prédio Novo do ICB, Sala 3 3 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil.

The significant incidence of deforestation in South America culminates in the contact of humans with typical forests species. Among these species, one may highlight caterpillar, which, when touched by humans, can poison them through their bristles. Therefore, better acknowledging the mechanisms involved in envenomation caused by caterpillar bristle extract (LOCBE) may contribute to further treatments. Read More

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December 2021

Unusual Sting by a Nonindigenous Caterpillar in Europe.

Wilderness Environ Med 2022 03 8;33(1):125-127. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Aix Marseille Univ, APHM, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Hôpital Sainte Marguerite, Clinical Pharmacology and Poison Control Centre, Marseille, France.

On the French island of Corsica, a 57-y-old woman without significant medical history was stung on the left thumb while she was taking care of an ornamental Ficus benjamina plant. Immediately, she felt intense pain in her hand. She saw a strange caterpillar, later identified by the local poison center as Acharia stimulea. Read More

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A hidden deadly venomous insect: First eco-epidemiological assessment and risk mapping of lonomism in Argentina.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 07 1;15(7):e0009542. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical (INMeT)-ANLIS "Dr. Carlos G Malbrán", Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

Background: Envenomation by the South American Lonomia saturniid caterpillars, named lonomism, constitutes an emerging and somewhat neglected public health issue in Argentina and neighboring countries. Considering that there is an intricate relationship between environment and human health in such cases, this study aimed to analyze the eco-epidemiological profile of 40 accidents and 33 occurrences of Lonomia spp. in Misiones (Argentina) between January 2014 and May 2020. Read More

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Human exposure to larvae of processionary moths in France: study of symptomatic cases registered by the French poison control centres between 2012 and 2019.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Feb 14;60(2):231-238. Epub 2021 May 14.

Poison Control Centre, University hospital, Bordeaux, France.

Context: Contact with the setae of larvae (caterpillars) of pine or oak processionary moths could induce urticarial or allergic reactions in humans. These species are present in France and presently expanding towards highly populated areas due to climate change and/or human-mediated translocations. We aimed to describe the symptomatic cases of exposure to processionary larvae in France. Read More

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February 2022

Identification of Novel Toxin Genes from the Stinging Nettle Caterpillar (Cramer, 1799): Insights into the Evolution of Lepidoptera Toxins.

Insects 2021 Apr 29;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90110, Thailand.

Many animal species can produce venom for defense, predation, and competition. The venom usually contains diverse peptide and protein toxins, including neurotoxins, proteolytic enzymes, protease inhibitors, and allergens. Some drugs for cancer, neurological disorders, and analgesics were developed based on animal toxin structures and functions. Read More

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Integrative multiomics analysis of Premolis semirufa caterpillar venom in the search for molecules leading to a joint disease.

Sci Rep 2021 01 21;11(1):1995. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

The joint disease called pararamosis is an occupational disease caused by accidental contact with bristles of the caterpillar Premolis semirufa. The chronic inflammatory process narrows the joint space and causes alterations in bone structure and cartilage degeneration, leading to joint stiffness. Aiming to determine the bristle components that could be responsible for this peculiar envenomation, in this work we have examined the toxin composition of the caterpillar bristles extract and compared it with the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in synovial biopsies of patients affected with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA). Read More

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January 2021

Urine proteomic analysis reveals alterations in heme/hemoglobin and aminopeptidase metabolism during Lonomia obliqua venom-induced acute kidney injury.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 17;341:11-22. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Laboratório de Bioquímica Farmacológica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental (CPE), Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA-UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências de Saúde: Ginecologia e Obstetrícia (PPGGO), Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: Accidental contact with the Lonomia obliqua caterpillar is a common event in southern Brazil. Envenomed victims present consumption coagulopathy, which can evolve to acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, we searched for AKI biomarkers and changes in molecular pathway signatures through urine proteomic analysis. Read More

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Human Chondrocyte Activation by Toxins From , an Amazon Rainforest Moth Caterpillar: Identifying an Osteoarthritis Signature.

Front Immunol 2020 18;11:2191. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.

Pararamosis is a disease that occurs due to contact with the hairs of the larval stage of the Brazilian moth . Envenomation induces osteoarticular alterations with cartilage impairment that resembles joint synovitis. Thus, the toxic venom present in the caterpillar hairs interferes with the phenotype of the cells present in the joints, resulting in inflammation and promoting tissue injury. Read More

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Lonomia envenomation in Brazil: an epidemiological overview for the period 2007-2018.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 01;115(1):9-19

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical, ANLIS "Dr Carlos G Malbrán", Almafuerte y Ámbar s/n, 3370, Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina.

Background: Among the Lepidoptera with medical importance in Brazil, larvae of Lonomia moth (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae) stand out by being the etiological agent of the lonomism, a form of erucism in which the most troubling symptoms include systemic hemorrhage that can lead to death.

Methods: This study provides an epidemiological overview of accident notifications with Lonomia registered by the Brazilian Reportable Disease Information System (SINAN) between 2007 and 2018. The categories of sociodemographic aspects of the victim, accident characteristics, and clinical data (6,636 records) were analysed by the chi-square test for goodness of fit (α=0. Read More

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January 2021

What's eating you? Megalopyge opercularis.

Cutis 2020 Jul;106(1):23-24;27

Department of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, USA.

Caterpillars-the larval form of butterflies and moths-belong to the order Lepidoptera. Some identified caterpillars from this order have developed venomous defense mechanisms such as irritating hairs and spines to protect themselves from predators. Direct contact to allergenic caterpillars' hairs can cause human disease. Read More

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Envenomations during pregnancy reported to the national poison data system, 2009-2018.

Toxicon 2020 Oct 6;186:78-82. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

New Mexico Poison Center, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address:

Envenomations during pregnancy have consequences affecting both maternal and fetal outcomes. U.S. Read More

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October 2020

Irukandji-like syndrome caused by single-tentacle box jellyfish found in Thailand, 2007-2019.

Int Marit Health 2020 ;71(2):91-96

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 50200 Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Irukandji syndrome definition is still widely misunderstood. Irukandji-like syndrome is more unclear than Irukandji syndrome. This study aimed to describe Irukandji-like syndrome in cases involving stinging by single-tentacle box jellyfish species in Thailand. Read More

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December 2020

Caterpillar Venom: A Health Hazard of the 21st Century.

Biomedicines 2020 May 30;8(6). Epub 2020 May 30.

Toxicology and Pharmacology, KU Leuven, Campus Gasthuisberg, O & N2, Herestraat 49, P.O. Box 922, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Caterpillar envenomation is a global health threat in the 21st century. Every direct or indirect contact with the urticating hairs of a caterpillar results in clinical manifestations ranging from local dermatitis symptoms to potentially life-threatening systemic effects. This is mainly due to the action of bioactive components in the venom that interfere with targets in the human body. Read More

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Potential distribution and ecological conditions of Lonomia obliqua Walker 1855 (Saturniidae: Hemileucinae) in Brazil.

Acta Trop 2019 Apr 17;192:158-164. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná,Cascavel, Paraná, Brazil.

Lonomia obliqua Walker 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is a species of moth which larvae are responsible for the lonomism, a form of envenomation that has been occurring in Brazil since the 1980s. Despite the importance in public health, the geographical distribution and their ecological aspects are unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we present a potential geographical distribution map for L. Read More

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Management of severe pain after dermal contact with caterpillars (erucism): a prospective case series.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 05 17;57(5):338-342. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

a School of Medical Sciences , Campinas Poison Control Center, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP) , Campinas , Brazil.

Context: Erucism, envenomation caused by dermal contact with larval forms of moths, may result in intense local pain, mainly after contact with puss caterpillars (family Megalopygidae).

Objective: To evaluate the response to different treatments for controlling severe pain in a case series of erucism in Campinas, southeastern Brazil.

Patients And Methods: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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Venomous caterpillars: From inoculation apparatus to venom composition and envenomation.

Toxicon 2018 Oct 24;153:39-52. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Av. Vital Brazil, 1500, 05503-900, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Envenomation by the larval or pupal stages of moths occurs when the victim presses their hairs. They penetrate the subcutaneous tissue, releasing toxins such as proteolytic enzymes, histamine and other pro-inflammatory substances. Cutaneous reactions, including severe pain, oedema and erythema are frequent local manifestations of caterpillar envenomation, but, in some cases, the reactions can evolve into vesicles, bullae, erosions, petechiae, superficial skin necrosis and ulcerations. Read More

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October 2018

Puss Caterpillar Envenomation: Erucism Mimicking Appendicitis in a Young Child.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2020 Dec;36(12):e732-e734

Pediatrics, Section of Emergency Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

A 4-year-old female presented to the emergency department with 2 days of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. She was tachycardic and had abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies revealed a leukocytosis, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. Read More

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December 2020

Effects of Lonomia obliqua Venom on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Contribution of NADPH Oxidase-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 11 7;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 7.

Laboratório de Farmacologia Celular e Molecular, Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro CEP 20550-030, Brazil.

Envenomation caused by human contact with the caterpillar Lonomia is characterized by deleterious effects on coagulation and patency of blood vessels. The cellular effects induced by venom highlights its capacity to activate endothelial cells, leading to a proinflammatory phenotype. Having more knowledge about the mechanisms involved in envenomation may contribute to better treatment. Read More

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November 2017

Pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa envenomation in 11 cats: a retrospective study.

J Feline Med Surg 2018 08 10;20(8):685-689. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

1 Intensive Care Unit (SIAMU), University of Lyon, VetAgro Sup, APCSe, Marcy l'Etoile, France.

Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the clinical manifestations in cats of contact with caterpillars of the pine processionary moth. Methods Data were retrospectively obtained from the medical records (2004-2016) of cats that had been in contact with caterpillars of the pine processionary moth. Results Eleven cats were included in the study. Read More

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Stinging caterpillars from the genera Podalia, Leucanella and Lonomia in Misiones, Argentina: A preliminary comparative approach to understand their toxicity.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Nov 2;202:55-62. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Ministerio de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación Productiva, Instituto Nacional de Medicina Tropical (INMeT), Ministerio de Salud de la Nación, Neuquén y Jujuy s/n, 3370 Puerto Iguazú, Argentina. Electronic address:

Dermal contact with Lepidoptera specimens at their larval stage (caterpillar) may cause systemic and/or local envenomation. There are multiple venomous species of them in Argentina, but their overall venom composition is poorly known. Lately, several cases of envenomation have been reported in the Misiones province, Northeastern Argentina. Read More

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November 2017

Oral Mucosal Envenomation of an Infant by a Puss Caterpillar.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2017 Jun;33(6):424-426

From the *East Tennessee Children's Hospital and †Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, TN.

The term "puss caterpillar" describes the larva of at least two Megalopygidae species common to North America. Accidental contact with the hairs (setae) is intensely painful, and serious systemic effects have been reported. We describe the envenomation of an infant through the face and oral mucosa, resulting in severe discomfort, limited oral intake, and vomiting, but no other untoward effects. Read More

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Pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa envenomation in 109 dogs: A retrospective study.

Toxicon 2017 Jun 27;132:1-5. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Intensive Care Unit (SIAMU), Univ Lyon, VetAgro Sup, APCSe, F-69280, Marcy l'Etoile, France. Electronic address:

Contact with the caterpillars of the pine processionary moth (CPPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa induces severe local allergic reactions. The purpose of this large-scale retrospective cohort-study was to describe the clinical manifestations and related risk factors of CPPM exposure. This cohort-study included 109 dogs between the years of 2000 and 2016. Read More

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Severe Hemorrhagic Syndrome After Lonomia Caterpillar Envenomation in the Western Brazilian Amazon: How Many More Cases Are There?

Wilderness Environ Med 2017 Mar 10;28(1):46-50. Epub 2017 Jan 10.

School of Health Sciences, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Manaus, Brazil (Ms Oliveira, Alves, and Sachett, and Drs Mendonça-da-Silva and Monteiro). Electronic address:

Contact with Lonomia caterpillars can cause a hemorrhagic syndrome. In Brazil, Lonomia obliqua and Lonomia achelous are known to cause this venom-induced disease. In the Brazilian Amazon, descriptions of this kind of envenomation are scarce. Read More

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Role of the inflammatory response in the hemorrhagic syndrome induced by the hemolymph of the caterpillar Lonomia achelous.

Toxicon 2016 Oct 26;121:77-85. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

Laboratorio de Fisiopatología, Centro de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, IVIC Apartado 20632, Caracas 1020A, Venezuela. Electronic address:

Introduction: Contact with the caterpillar of Lonomia achelous causes a hemorrhagic syndrome in humans prompted by two processes, an initial mild DIC that is later masked by overwhelming fibrinolytic activity. Although the venom affects both the hemostatic and inflammatory systems separately, it is not clear whether the hematological and hemostatic disturbances may in part be due to an indirect effect via inflammatory mediators. Here we report results on the crosstalk between these systems, particularly the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α on hemostatic parameters. Read More

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October 2016

The magnitude of severe box jellyfish cases on Koh Samui and Koh Pha-ngan in the Gulf of Thailand.

BMC Res Notes 2016 Feb 17;9:108. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

Epidemiology Bureau, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, 10100, Thailand.

Background: Despite recent deaths caused by box jellyfish envenomation occurring on the islands of Samui and Pha-ngan in the Gulf of Thailand, many people do not believe box jellyfish can kill humans and many people dismiss the problem as insignificant. More evidence has been requested from the communities in order to evaluate the need for and the implementation of sustainable prevention measures. We aimed to determine the magnitude of cases of severe stinging by box jellyfish and describe the characteristics of these cases on the islands of Samui and Pha-ngan in Surat Thani Province from 1997 to 2015. Read More

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February 2016

IMAGES IN CLINICAL MEDICINE. Erucism Due to Lepidoptera Caterpillar Envenomation.

N Engl J Med 2015 Oct;373(18):e21

University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ.

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October 2015

A serine protease isolated from the bristles of the Amazonic caterpillar, Premolis semirufa, is a potent complement system activator.

PLoS One 2015 11;10(3):e0118615. Epub 2015 Mar 11.

Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: The caterpillar of the moth Premolis semirufa, commonly named pararama, is found in the Brazilian Amazon region. Accidental contact with the caterpillar bristles causes an intense itching sensation, followed by symptoms of an acute inflammation, which last for three to seven days after the first incident. After multiple accidents a chronic inflammatory reaction, called "Pararamose", characterized by articular synovial membrane thickening with joint deformities common to chronic synovitis, frequently occurs. Read More

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December 2015

Mechanisms of acute kidney injury induced by experimental Lonomia obliqua envenomation.

Arch Toxicol 2015 Mar 6;89(3):459-83. Epub 2014 May 6.

Laboratório de Bioquímica Farmacológica, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. To characterize L. Read More

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Acute Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation-induced physiopathological alterations in rats: evidence of new toxic venom activities and the efficacy of serum therapy to counteract systemic tissue damage.

Toxicon 2013 Nov 29;74:179-92. Epub 2013 Aug 29.

Laboratório de Bioquímica Farmacológica, Centro de Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Cep 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

The clinical manifestations of Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation are systemic hemorrhage and acute kidney injury. In an effort to better understand the physiopathological mechanisms of envenomation, a rat model was established to study systemic tissue damage during L. obliqua envenomation. Read More

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November 2013