17,780 results match your criteria Casopis lekaru ceskych[Journal]


The molecular genetics of cellular senescence in the context of organismal aging.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):88-92

Cellular senescence is a physiological state generally defined as a stable arrest of proliferation by preventing the cells from cycling. Unlike terminally differentiated cells, that also do not show proliferative activity, cellular senescence is stress induced and blocks the proliferation of cells with theoretical ability to divide (such as progenitor, stem or cancer cells) due to the activity of specific signaling pathways. The number of senescent cells increases during the ontogenesis of an organism. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Genetic mechanisms of aging.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):81-87

Aging is an extremely complex phenomenon that has many manifestations at the molecular, cellular, and whole-body levels, and in some form involves virtually all living beings. It is a process characterized by a general progressive deterioration of the physiological functions of the organism leading to increased susceptibility to diseases. This article summarizes the basic features and molecular hallmarks of aging and describes some of the genetic mechanisms of this phenomenon. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

On medical confidentiality (not only) in time of coronavirus.

Authors:
Pavel Uherek

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):78-80

One of the compulsory secret exceptions derives from the situation within which the data about patient must be provided to the third person in the interest of his/her health protection. Despite some interpretation difficulties any providing information according to this legal exception is allowed only on the base of proved and re-examined facts. The state of emergency itself is not the base for the compulsory secret breach. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Testing for COVID-19: a few points to remember.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):72-77

Diagnostic approaches to COVID-19 include clinical history, PCR tests for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and detection of antibodies. By combining these three approaches, the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies can be examined in healthcare teams. The aim of the study was to examine the seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a population of healthcare professionals 6 - 8 weeks after the first COVID-19 case was detected in the Czech Republic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

COVID-19 from the perspective of an immunologist.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):67-71

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 has a number of similarities to SARS and MERS diseases. Its highly contagious nature is particularly due to the rapid spread of the disease through asymptomatic individuals; however, the worlds most contagious infectious disease is still considered measles. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and COVID-19.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(2):55-66

By the end of 2019 the first cases of severe pneumonia of unknown origin were reported in Wuhan, China. The causative agent was identified as a novel b-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and the disease was named COVID-19. Since the beginning of 2020, the infection has spread worldwide, which led the WHO to declare COVID-19 a public health emergency of international concern and to characterize the current situation as a pandemic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

The recent court decision on compulsory secret.

Authors:
Pavel Uherek

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):40-42

The higher Czech courts in the three decisions recently examined the compulsory secret related to the health care providing. This article deals with the description of this decisions that relate to the provider debts enforcement and the requests of the police public bodies in which these bodies applies for the information that health care provider keeps. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Drug induced lung toxicity by nitrofurantoin

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):35-37

We present the clinical case of the patient with nitrofurantoin (FUR) lung toxicity. Diagnosis was made from detailed history of the patient and by studying CT images before the start of FUR treatment. An extensive interstitial changes were evident on HRCT scan at the presentation at our clinic. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Gallstone ileus in a 100-year-old patient.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):33-34

We present a case of a 100-year-old polymorbid patient with signs of bowel obstruction. After failure of conservative therapy computed tomography was performed, which revealed the course of the obstruction to be a gallstone in the terminal ileum. The gallstone was removed surgically without complications and the patient recovered well and had an uneventful postoperative course. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Elective right hemicolectomy in a 93-year-old patient with symptomatic colorectal carcinoma.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):31-32

We present a case of a 93-year-old patient with colorectal carcinoma indicated to right hemicolectomy. Shortly before planned surgery patients condition was complicated by pulmonary embolism, deterioration and protracted bleeding from the tumor. After careful internal and preoperative preparation patient underwent right hemicolectomy with uncomplicated course of hospitalization and transferred back to internal department to internal, rehabilitation and nutritional care. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Oncosurgery in older patients.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):26-30

Population aging is one of the most significant health problems of the 21st century and has led to an increased need for surgery in elderly patients. Only chronological age should not be decisive when indicating patients for elective procedures. Other objective findings should be taken into account too. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Minimally invasive surgery and one-day care.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):22-25

Due to population aging in developed countries, it has become necessary to prepare a functional health care plan for the elderly. One of the possibilities to improve postoperative outcomes and recovery in elderly patients is to perform common surgical procedures in the regime of one-day surgery. We compared elderly patients who underwent surgery in a large university hospital with elderly patients who underwent surgery in a facility dedicated to one-day surgery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Trauma Care on Geriatric Population in Trauma Centre Faculty Hospital Královské Vinohrady in Prague.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):17-21

Higher incidence of injury in trauma patients older than 65 years is connected with growing morbidity and mortality, first of all in polytrauma. Incidence of preexisting diseases play a great role in development of postinjury reaction. There are risk factors for genesis of postinjury complications and also mortality of victims. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Perioperative care of elderly patients.

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):13-16

As life expectancy increases in economically developed countries, there is an increasing need for medical care for the elderly. In surgical fields, this means that the number and spectrum of surgical interventions in elderly patients is increasing. Because of this special attention should be paid to the preoperative evaluation in these patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Preoperative assessment in older adults.

Authors:
Vladimír Teplan

Cas Lek Cesk 2020 ;159(1):4-12

Advanced social care and higher level of medical intervention in elderly allow to prolong life expectancy in seniors, and therefore the number of elderly patients has risen rapidly in last decades. Management of elderly patients examination before surgery is routinely organized by general practitioners and internists with an aim to facilitate the surgery team work; to help anesthesiologists focus mainly on strategy of anesthesia (without any other special examination) and surgeons to realize/accomplish effective and save surgery, including elective surgery procedures. Key issue is to summarize the level of risk for surgery and compare it to prediction of follow-up with respect of mortality and morbidity as well as function status after surgery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source

Principle of assessment and recognition of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic.

Authors:
Pavel Fošum

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):332-336

Occupational disease or occupational disease risk is not only matter of health, but also a social-economic problem with a serious impact on the life of the employee, production technology, or production process itself. In order to recognize an occupational disease or threat of occupational disease, the conditions laid down by law, in particular the Government Decree establishing the list of occupational diseases, must be met. Clinical - diagnostic criteria including disease severity must be met and it must be verified that the worker has been exposed to working conditions where the occupational disease might have arisen. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Precision psychiatry - a feasible possibility?

Authors:
Eva Češková

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):328-331

Currently, patients are evaluated by a psychiatrist using the phenomenological classification then, first-line treatment is initiated according to the diagnosis; however, this approach is associated with a high rate of etiopathogenetic heterogeneity. The development of mental disorders is likely determined by combined effects of genetic predisposition and environmental adversity. Inter-mutual interaction is regulated by epigenetics processes which determine transcription and translation of gens to corresponding proteins. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Sleep and sleep-related disorders in women.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):321-322

There are sex differences in sleep from a very early age till adulthood and older age. The changing hormone profile across the reproductive life of a woman, from puberty through the reproductive period to the postmenopausal years, has a significant influence on sleep. Female hormones may lead to sleep disruption however, multiple factors play a role in insomnia during pregnancy as well as during menopause. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Sleep and its disturbances in neurology.

Authors:
Karel Šonka

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):318-320

Sleep disturbances are important symptoms of neurological diseases and some so-called primary sleep disorders have a neurological nature. The development of medicine, the availability of sleep investigations and progress in the treatment of sleep disorders have caused that the care of neurological illness includes sleep-related problems. In addition, sleep disorders can be risk factors for neurological diseases (for example obstructive sleep apnea for stroke) or their prodromal stage (REM sleep behavior disorder is one of the first symptoms of synucleinopathies). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Complication during hospitalization of geronto-psychiatric patient for fatal Stevens-Johnson syndrome - a multidisciplinary approach.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):314

In the department of gerontopsychiatry we can encounter various conditions that complicate basic psychiatric treatment, often because of old age, polymorbidity and fragility of hospitalized patients. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is a rare disease with high mortality. The case report describes the course of the patient's disease, including treatment, interventions and pharmacological considerations with an emphasis on multidisciplinary cooperation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Combination of mirtazapine and paroxetine: possible clinically demonstrated interaction?

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):310-313

We currently have a wide range of antidepressants available. However, the mechanisms of action are different, giving a theoretical justification for their combination in the failure of monotherapy. However, the combination of drugs entails, in addition to benefits, an increase in the risk of, for example, drug interactions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Medication treatment of singultus in palliative care.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):306-309

Singultus (hiccup) is caused by periodic involuntary spastic contractions of the respiratory muscles followed by a sharp inspiration and early glottis closure. This results in typical "hic" sound. Brief episodes of hiccups are quite common experience in general population, and they do not indicate serious disease nor require medical treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Management of metabolic adverse effects of everolimus in patients with renal carcinoma.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):300-305

Everolimus is administered to patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma in full daily dose of 10 mg or in reduced daily dose of 5 mg in case adverse effect occurred. These include metabolic adverse effects, mucositis, anorexia, and non-infectious pneumonitis and lead to increase in morbidity and decrease in the quality of life of the patient. Our goal was to evaluate the administration of fenofibrate and metformin in everolimus induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Intrapleural alteplase therapy: what are the knowns and unknowns?

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):295-299

In pneumology, enzymatic properties of plasmin are used to disrupt fibrin adhesions and septations formed during pathological conditions of the pleural cavity. In that case, fibrinolytics are administrated locally via a chest tube in the pleural cavity to evacuate pathological effusion. Although the first intrapleural administration of fibrinolytic occurred seventy years ago, there has been no consensus on dosing or a uniform procedure of their application. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Clinically significant drug interactions of antiretrovirals.

Authors:
Irena Murínová

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):289-294

Evaluating of the clinical significance of drug interactions is one of the domains of clinical pharmacist expertise. Drug interactions are discussed when two or more drugs co-administer and the effect of one of them changes. Drug interactions can be a serious cause of toxicity and side effects. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Proton pump inhibitors from clinical pharmacists point of view.

Authors:
Alena Pilková

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):282-288

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are very effective drugs in treatment and prevention of acid-related disorders. They are widely used in gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastroduodenal ulcers, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or prevention and treatment of NSAIDs induced gastric lesions. They are also used in many other indications, although not always is their use appropriate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Drug administration via feeding tubes: examples, working group.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):279-281

Drug administration via feeding tubes can be associated with number of various problems. The present text provides examples of medications whose administration via a feeding tube is of high risk. Also, it informs about the existence and activities of the working group of the Czech Professional Society of Clinical Pharmacy, which pursues this matter in detail. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Paediatric clinical pharmacist: a potential benefit?

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):276-278

Medication errors in paediatric prescribing occur in approximately 10-15 % cases, almost half of these errors are represented by incorrect drug dosing. Maturational changes in pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics parameters of paediatric patients across different paediatric categories represent a challenge to optimal drug prescribing. Especially neonatal and infant populations along with obese children of adult size are the most vulnerable groups prone to medication errors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Specialization in clinical pharmacy.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):273-275

Specialization in clinical pharmacy is necessary to providing clinical pharmacy services in Czech Republic. Clinical pharmacy knowledge has to be further developed within the framework of continuous education system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Is safe pharmacotherapy worthwhile?

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):270-272

The safety of pharmacotherapy can be monitored at different levels of the health system and the quality of health care provided can be assessed from different points of view. The Ministry of Health, the health insurance companies, the State Institute for Drug Control, the Institute of Health Information and Statistics, and the health care facilities themselves fulfill their roles. Safety is assessed differently at each level. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

Clinical pharmacy in the Czech Republic.

Authors:
Jana Gregorová

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(7-8):267-269

Currently there is an effort to move towards more service pharmacy to the physician and the patient in both inpatient and outpatient care. In the Czech Republic they are gradually created conditions for the daily work of clinical pharmacist. They are defined activities of clinical pharmaceutical care, which constitutes the work of emerging clinical pharmacy department. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
February 2020

The motivation of nurses at departments of internal medicine.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):256-258

Contemporary health care is facing deep personal crisis appearing mainly in nurses. It particularly involves departments characterized by mentally and physically demanding workload especially departments of internal medicine, that are immediately endangered by the lack of the nursing staff. The importance and capability of motivation come to fore among other factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

. Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma - typical but underdiagnosed pathology of nasal cavity and sinuses.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):253-255

Respiratory epithelial adenomatoid hamartoma (REAH) is relatively new diagnosis, firstly described in WHO tumour classification in 2005. It is a benign lesion affecting nose and paranasal sinuses. Although REAH was considered a rare entity, it is recently more frequently revealed in histopathological exam in patients undergoing endoscopic surgery for nasal polyposis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Tumors of the temporal bone.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):248-252

Temporal bone tumors are rare entities. Histologically these pathologies represent heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common tumors of the temporal bone are vestibular schwannoma, tympanojugular paragangliomas and temporal bone carcinomas. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Diagnostics of retrocochlear hearing loss.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):243-247

Diagnosis of retrocochlear lesions is a relatively frequent issue of otolaryngological practice, the omission of which may have serious consequences for the patient. Properly set clinical guidelines and diagnostic protocols are thus one of the key aspects of good clinical practice. There are two methods available: the first is an audiological diagnosis with ABR as the primary tool to determine a group of patients with a possible tumour with subsequent MRI; the second is to examine the MRI in each patient with a clinical suspicion of a CPA tumour. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Chronic secretory otitis media and tympanoplasty in children.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):240-242

The article presents the most frequent type of chronic middle ear inflammation in children and the middle ear surgery. Middle ear reconstructions in childhood represent a complex issue. Their aim is to remove the pathological process in the middle ear and subsequently to restore the transfer function of the middle ear. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Chronic inflammation of the middle ear with cholesteatoma.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):235-239

Cholesteatoma is a cystic pseudotumor. It is consisted of a keratinized squamous epithelium producing keratin masses. It occurs in purulent form of chronic otitis media. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Differential diagnosis of ear pain.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):231-234

Ear pain, otalgia, can have many etiologies. Some of these conditions, e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Cochlear Implantation.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):228-230

Historically, cochlear implants are the first substitute for a sensory modality, hearing. In past decades, they have become a standard method of a compensation for a hearing loss, both for children and adults. Because of restored hearing by cochlear implants, people were able to keep their jobs, marriages and other social ties. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Implantable bone conduction hearing systems.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):225-227

Implantable bone conduction hearing systems are intended for patients with a conductive or mixed hearing loss, in whom other treatment options do not provide sufficient benefits or are contraindicated. In general, they are called BAHDs (bone-anchored hearing devices) and they transform acoustic energy into vibrations transferred by a titanium implant through cranial bones to cochlea and fluids of the inner ear. The implantable bone conduction hearing systems are classified as passive and active based on the location of the vibration unit. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Updating the nationwide methodology for hearing screening of newborns in the Czech Republic.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):221-224

Screening programs examining neonatal hearing serve to detect hearing defects, as a prerequisite for hearing rehabilitation, communication skills, and the enhancement of speech development. There are two methods through which neonatal hearing screening is carried out - the transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE) or the automatic BERA (AABR, automated auditory brainstem response). Positive screening means the discovery of a hearing defect (permanent hearing loss), and negative screening (normal TEOAE or the AABR results) means the absence of a hearing defect. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Inner ear disorders.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(6):216-220

Auditory part of the inner ear transforms mechanic energy to the electric energy. The key component of this process are hair cells, which damage leads to often irreversible hearing impairment. The damage can occur due to several external and internal causes and the treatment focuses mainly onto the mitigation of the consequences. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
January 2020

Significance of sleep and sleep disorders in psychiatry.

Authors:
Petr Smolík

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(5):193-199

Sleep disorders are an integral part of all mental disorders. They can also be an important part of their etiopathogenesis. The current multidimensional model of mental disorders is inextricably linked to sleep research. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2019

Metabolic disorders and sleep.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(5):185-192

Epidemiologic studies show that both atypical sleep time and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are independently associated with higher risk of metabolic disease development, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OSA is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, which is amongst the most common causes of death in T2DM. It is advisable to screen patients for OSA due to the high prevalence of the disease in T2DM patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2019
1 Read

Sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease.

Authors:
Ondřej Ludka

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(5):178-184

Sleep is a condition of physiological relaxation for the cardiovascular system, and sleep-disordered breathing disturbs it. Recurrent episodes of sleep apnea disrupt the physiological interactions between sleep and the cardiovascular system. Sleep apnea can affect not only patients quality of life with cardiovascular diseases, but also their morbidity and mortality. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2019

Advance in sleep medicine and non-invasive ventilation in respiratory medicine.

Authors:
Milan Sova

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(5):175-177

Non-invasive ventilation represents one of the milestones in respiratory and sleep medicine. In this article is presented brief history of non-invasive ventilation and overview of different regimes of non-invasive ventilation used in the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2019

Otorhinolaryngology and sleep disorders.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(5):170-174

In the field of sleep disorders, otorhinolaryngology is mainly concerned with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Prevalence of OSA is suggested between 14-49 % of male and 5-30 % of female population, which makes it most common sleep disorder. The treatment of choice is positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy with excellent success rate of 90 %, however many patients dont tolerate it. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2019
1 Read

How to reduce stigmatization of people with mental illness in medical education: READ intervention.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(3-4):151-155

Stigmatization of people with mental illness in health care is a serious problem contributing to poor provision of health care and preventive medicine, it decreases their willingness to seek help and reduces quality of their life and life expectancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of the anti-stigma training READ on medical students during their psychiatric module. The training was held by a psychiatrist and a peer lecturer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2019
2 Reads

Evaluation of the personalized invitation of Czech citizens to screening programs.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(3-4):147-150

The Czech population has high burden of malignant tumors, and screening programs are therefore an essential part of cancer control policy. At the beginning of 2014 personalized invitation of Czech citizens for cancer screening programs was launched to promote higher coverage by screening. The aim of the paper is to present the up-to-date results of the personalized invitation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2019
2 Reads

Recommended fluid intake and evidence-based medicine.

Cas Lek Cesk 2019 ;158(3-4):141-146

Abundant drinking of fluids at any occasion became popular in wealthy society in last decades. It is referred to asserted beneficial health effects, but rationale of these recommendations is disputed in expert environment as hardly traceable and tenable. Authors of the article analyse theoretical issues as well as empiric literary evidence for the current popular recommendation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
October 2019