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    645 results match your criteria Cardiovascular toxicology[Journal]

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    Catechin Attenuates Coronary Heart Disease in a Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu, China.
    Accumulating evidence has established that systemic inflammation is an important pathophysiologic factor of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we investigated whether catechin exerts anti-inflammatory function in CHD rats. CHD model of rats was established by high-fat diet feeding and pituitrin injection. Read More

    The Role of Intralipid Emulsion in the Rat Model of Digoxin Intoxication.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb 3. Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Emergency Medicine Department, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, University of Health Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Although the mechanism of action is not well known, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. It is thought that, ILE probably separates the lipophilic drugs from target tissue by creating a lipid-rich compartment in the plasma. The second theory is that ILE provides energy to myocardium with high-dose free fatty acids activating the voltage-gated calcium channels in the myocytes. Read More

    The Involvement of Cytochrome c Oxidase in Mitochondrial Fusion in Primary Cultures of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.
    Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) is a copper-dependent enzyme of mitochondrial respiratory chain. In pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, copper level and CCO activity are both depressed, along with disturbance in mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics. Copper repletion leads to recovery of CCO activity and normalized mitochondrial dynamics. Read More

    A Fatal Case of Amlodipine Toxicity Following Iatrogenic Hypercalcemia.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Koodakyar Ave., Daneshju Blvd., Velenjak, Tehran, 1985717443, Iran.
    Using calcium salts in management of amlodipine overdose is challenging. A 25-year-old male with known history of adult polycystic kidney disease presented with hypotension, tachycardia, and intact neurological status after ingestion of 450 mg of amlodipine. Immediately, normal saline infusion and norepinephrine were initiated. Read More

    Protective Effect of Ellagic Acid Against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Cardio- and Hematotoxicity in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Razi Drug Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Ellagic acid (EA) is a phenolic constituent in certain fruits and nuts with wide range of biological activities, including potent antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and antimutagen properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of EA on sodium arsenic (SA)-induced cardio- and hematotoxicity in rats. Animals were divided into five groups. Read More

    Protective Effect of Morphine Against the Oxidant-Induced Injury in H9c2 Cells.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    There are some indications that morphine may exert myocardial protective effects under certain conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of morphine on viability and oxidative state of H9c2 cells (rat cardiomyoblasts) influenced by oxidative stress that was elicited by exposure to tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Our experiments showed that pretreatment with morphine before the addition of t-BHP markedly improved cell viability. Read More

    Intravenous Cocaine Results in an Acute Decrease in Levels of Biomarkers of Vascular Inflammation in Humans.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Kansas City VA Medical Center, Kansas City, MO, 64128, USA.
    Cocaine use causes significant cardiovascular morbidity from its hemodynamic effects. It is less clear whether cocaine promotes atherosclerosis. Vascular inflammation is one of the earliest steps in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Read More

    Effect of Kaempferol Pretreatment on Myocardial Injury in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, ICAR-Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, 243122, India.
    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in isoprenaline (ISP)-induced myocardial injury in rats. ISP was administered subcutaneously for two subsequent days to induce myocardial injury. Assessment of myocardial injury was done by estimation of hemodynamic functions, myocardial infarcted area, cardiac injury markers, lipid profile, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and histopathology of heart and liver. Read More

    Acetaminophen Poisoning May Increase Coronary Artery Disease Risk: A Nationwide Cohort Study.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    Department of Health Services Administration, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    The purpose of this nationwide cohort study was to investigate the incidence and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning. We identified the patients with APAP poisoning and randomly selected comparison patients according to a 1:4 ratio, matching them by age, sex, and the index year using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database from 2000 to 2010. We traced both cohorts until a diagnosis of CAD, loss to follow-up, or the end of 2011. Read More

    Necrostatin-1 Protects Against Paraquat-Induced Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction via RIP1-RIP3-MLKL-Dependent Necroptosis Pathway.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Shanghai Pudong Newarea Healthcare Hospital for Women and Children, Shanghai, 201200, China.
    Paraquat is a highly toxic prooxidant that triggers oxidative stress and multi-organ failure including that of the heart. To date, effective treatment of paraquat toxicity is still not established. Necroptosis, a newly discovered form of programmed cell death, was recently shown to be strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. Read More

    Cardiovascular Response of Rat Aorta to Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate (DEHP) Exposure.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    CICS-UBI - Centro de Investigação em Ciências da Saúde, University of Beira Interior, Av. Infante D. Henrique s/n, 6200-506, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Phthalates are one of the main constituents of plastic, reaching up to 40% of the total plastic weight, and their main function is to impart flexibility/elasticity to polymers that would otherwise be rigid. Phthalates are known as endocrine disruptors, since they can interfere with hormone homeostasis. Regarding the cardiovascular system, it was already shown the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) exposure with significant changes in several calcium-handling proteins and an increase in the blood pressure of mice offspring, suggesting that DEHP leads to vasocontraction. Read More

    The Association Between Myocardial Fibrosis and Depressed Capillary Density in Rat Model of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, Sichuan, China.
    Myocardial fibrogenesis is initiated once the coordination between oxygen supply and demand is disrupted in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Clinical observations showed that myocardial fibrosis did not evenly occur in the hypertrophic myocardium. The present study was undertaken to specifically address differential vulnerabilities to fibrogenesis of different regions in the myocardium subjected to pressure overload-induced hypertrophy. Read More

    The Role of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme on Daunorubicin-Mediated Cardiotoxicity.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2142 J Katz Group-Rexall Centre for Pharmacy and Health Research, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Several studies have demonstrated the role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and its associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in the anthracyclines-induced cardiac toxicity. However, the ability of daunorubicin (DNR) to induce cardiotoxicity through the modulation of CYP and its associated AA metabolites has not been investigated yet. Therefore, we hypothesized that DNR-induced cardiotoxicity is mediated through the induction of cardiotoxic hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids and/or the inhibition of cardioprotctive epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Read More

    Characteristics of Cobalt-Related Cardiomyopathy in Metal Hip Implant Patients: An Evaluation of 15 Published Reports.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Cardno ChemRisk, 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA, 94105, USA.
    Over 300,000 hip replacements occurred in the USA in 2010, and the frequency is likely increasing annually. Blood Cobalt (Co) concentrations in patients with well-functioning cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) hip implants are usually elevated above background concentrations relative to the general population. Excessive Co exposure, in rare cases, can result in cardiomyopathy. Read More

    A Functional Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Genetic Variant, Alone and in Combination with Parental Exposure, is a Risk Factor for Congenital Heart Disease.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 28. Epub 2017 Nov 28.
    CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.
    Recent experimental studies showed that ablation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as well as its activation by exogenous ligands disrupt the molecular networks involved in heart formation and function, leading to congenital heart disease (CHD). However, no evidence is available about the role of AhR in humans. We assessed the prevalence of a functional AhR genetic variant (p. Read More

    In vivo Analysis of the Anti-atrial Fibrillatory, Proarrhythmic and Cardiodepressive Profiles of Dronedarone as a Guide for Safety Pharmacological Evaluation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. Read More

    Inhibition of the Voltage-Dependent KCurrent by the Tricyclic Antidepressant Desipramine in Rabbit Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon, 24341, South Korea.
    We describe the effect of a tricyclic antidepressant drug desipramine on voltage-dependent K(Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Application of desipramine rapidly decreased the Kv current amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner, with an ICvalue of 5.91 ± 0. Read More

    Novel Mesenchymal Stem Cell Strategy in Alleviating Toll-Like Receptor-4, p53 and Nrf2 Signaling in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat Model.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Molecular Biology, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Al Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that merit the differentiation into various cell types. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the cardioprotective effect of MSCs transplantation and digoxin treatment is mediated via the regulation of messenger RNA gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers. Myocardial infarction was induced in Wistar rats via isoproterenol injection in a dose of (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of 24 h). Read More

    Alleviation of Cardiac Damage by Dietary Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Seeds is Potentiated by Onion (Allium cepa) in Experimental Diabetic Rats via Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 570 020, India.
    Hyperglycemia is one of the metabolic and homeostatic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients by increased oxidative stress. We have recently reported amelioration of oxidative stress in cardiac tissue by dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The mechanistic aspects of the cardio-protective influence of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3% powder) both individually and in combination on hyperglycemia-mediated cardiac damage was further investigated in this study on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Read More

    Beneficial Role of Some Natural Products to Attenuate the Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Nrf2 Pathway in Cell Culture and Animal Models.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological Sciences, K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, 637215, India.
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy, as one of the main cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is identified to connect with oxidative stress that is due to interruption in balance between reactive oxygen species or/and reactive nitrogen species generation and their clearance by antioxidant protection systems. Transcription factor the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a significant role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. The Nrf2 plays a significant role in ARE-mediated basal and inducible expression of more than 200 genes that can be grouped into numerous categories as well as antioxidant genes and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Read More

    Unanticipated Cardiotoxicity Associated with Targeted Anticancer Therapy in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Patients: Natural History and Risk Factors.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd., PO Box 100277, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
    Our aim is to study unanticipated cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anticancer targeted agents, a problem that remains poorly understood. Using diagnosis codes, we retrospectively identified patients with both hematologic malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases (n = 820 patients). Cardiotoxicity was defined per published criteria. Read More

    Predicting Cardiotoxic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gaziantep Training and Research Hospital, 270001, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could cause significant cardiac injury. This study aimed to evaluate patients with CO poisoning by using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), a potentially more sensitive technique, to identify left systolic ventricular dysfunction for the first time in the literature. Seventy-two patients who were exposed to CO poisoning were studied. Read More

    Xanthine Oxidase Activation Modulates the Endothelial (Vascular) Dysfunction Related to HgClExposure Plus Myocardial Infarction in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES, 29040-091, Brazil.
    Heavy metal exposure is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). Vascular dysfunction is related to both the causes and the consequences of MI. We investigated whether chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl) worsens MI-induced endothelial dysfunction 7 days after MI. Read More

    The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol: Mediated Cardiotoxicity.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Strategic Product Research and Development Center (SARGEM), Konya Food and Agriculture University, Meram, Konya, Turkey.
    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family, and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The present study was designed to investigate cardioprotective effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration in a rat model of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury. Read More

    Cardiovascular Effects of the MEK Inhibitor, Trametinib: A Case Report, Literature Review, and Consideration of Mechanism.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):487-493
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    The MEK inhibitor trametinib was approved in 2013 for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation, the most common pathogenic mutation in melanoma. Trametinib blocks activation of ERK1/2, inhibiting cell proliferation in melanoma. ERK1/2 also protects against multiple types of cardiac insult in mouse models. Read More

    Asiatic Acid Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac and Hepato-Renal Toxicities with Nrf2 Transcriptional Factor Activation in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research Center, Karvand Naka, Shirpur, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, 425405, India.
    Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is a key phytoconstituent of Centella asiatica. AA is a patented as a cytotoxic substance, and it exerts cytotoxicity against Hep3B, Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. However, pentacyclic triterpenoids also modulate the expression and transcriptional activities of Nrf2 and exert cytoprotective effects. Read More

    Diosmin Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, C.Mutlur, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress causes mitochondrial damage that plays an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. The preventive effects of diosmin on cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats were evaluated. Rats were pretreated with diosmin (10 mg/kg body weight) daily for 10 days. Read More

    Quercetin Reverses Altered Energy Metabolism in the Heart of Rats Receiving Adriamycin Chemotherapy.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    The primary aim of this study was to find the potential modulatory roles of quercetin (QUE) against Adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiotoxicity. A total of 50 rats were assigned to five groups: a control group, an ADR-treated group, a QUE-treated group, a prophylaxis-cotreated group, and a therapeutic-cotreated group, respectively. QUE exhibited a significant cardioprotective effect, particularly, when it was administered prior to and concurrently with ADR treatment (prophylaxis-cotreated group). Read More

    A Case of Severe, Refractory Hypotension After Amlodipine Overdose.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Tampa General Hospital, 1 Tampa General Circle, Tampa, FL, 33606, USA.
    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are responsible for a substantial portion of the mortality associated with cardiovascular medication overdose cases. Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine CCB, can cause prolonged hypotension in overdose. This report describes a severe amlodipine overdose case that was refractory to multiple therapeutic approaches. Read More

    Modulatory Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats with Different Ages.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):33-42
    College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Department of Sport Physiology, University of Mazandaran (UMZ), Pasdaran Street, 47415, P.O. Box: 416, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran.
    We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training (AET) would modulate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats of various ages. Wistar male rats (n = 72) were assigned to three groups (young, adult, and elderly) with three subgroups for each age: doxorubicin (DG, n = 8), AET + doxorubicin (AETDG, n = 8), AET + Saline (AETSG, n = 8). Following the AET intervention, rats were anesthetized and killed to collect heart tissues in order to determine heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-10 (IL10), and c-reactive protein (CRP). Read More

    Amitriptyline May Have Possibility to Induce Brugada Syndrome Rather than Long QT Syndrome.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):91-98
    Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Amitriptyline has been reported to induce long QT syndrome in addition to Brugada syndrome. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the potential of amitriptyline to induce these lethal syndromes by using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 6). Amitriptyline was intravenously administered in doses of 0. Read More

    The Cardiovascular Effect of Single Injection and Toxicologic Effects of Repetitive 2-Week Intravenous Administration of Activin A/BMP-2 Chimera in Beagle Dog.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):76-83
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Korea.
    This study was performed for the purpose to evaluate the effect of activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) on cardiovascular system and toxicological effect in beagle dogs. When administered AB204 at the dose of 0.32 mg/kg via intravenous injection in beagle dogs, there were no changes in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure as well as in pulse rate, in addition that there were no differences in ORS complex, PR interval, R-R interval, QT interval and QTcV interval on the electrocardiography. Read More

    Cardiovascular Effects and Fatality May Differ According to the Formulation of Glyphosate Salt Herbicide.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):99-107
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hak Dong 8, Donggu, Gwangju, 501-747, South Korea.
    This study aimed to compare adverse cardiovascular events and fatalities and to identify the risk factors for fatalities associated with the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation. Additionally, we examined whether glyphosate ammonium salt herbicides increased serum ammonia levels. One hundred forty-seven patients were divided into an ammonium group (glyphosate ammonium salt herbicide) and an isopropylamine (IPA) group (glyphosate IPA salt herbicide) according to the type of glyphosate salt formulation ingested. Read More

    Additive Proarrhythmic Effect of Combined Treatment with QT-Prolonging Agents.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):84-90
    Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Drug combinations may elevate the risk of proarrhythmia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combinations of non-cardiovascular agents induce an additive increase in the proarrhythmic risk. In 12 female rabbit hearts, a drug combination of cotrimoxazole (300 µM), ondansetron (5 µM) and domperidone (1 µM) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Read More

    Impact of Diclofenac Sodium on Tilmicosin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rats (Tilmicosin and Diclofenac Cardiotoxicity).
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):63-75
    Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, P.O. Box. 22758, Edfina-Rashid-Behera, Egypt.
    To assess the influence of diclofenac sodium (DIC) treatment on tilmicosin (TIL) prompted cardiotoxicity, forty albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control, TIL group (single subcutaneous injection of 75 mg/kg BW tilmicosin phosphate 30%), TIL + DIC group (single subcutaneous injection of tilmicosin phosphate 30% and then injection intramuscularly of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day for 6 days diclofenac sodium) and DIC group (intramuscular injection of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day diclofenac sodium for 6 days). Read More

    Effects of Remifentanil Pretreatment on Bupivacaine Cardiotoxicity in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):56-62
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.
    Unintentional intravascular administration of bupivacaine may cause local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Although many systems are affected in LAST, the cardiovascular effects can be life-threatening. Remifentanil is a selective, ultra-short-acting, µ-opioid receptor agonist opioid. Read More

    Exercise and Doxorubicin Treatment Modulate Cardiac Mitochondrial Quality Control Signaling.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):43-55
    CIAFEL - Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal.
    The cross-tolerance effect of exercise against heart mitochondrial-mediated quality control, remodeling and death-related mechanisms associated with sub-chronic Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment is yet unknown. We therefore analyzed the effects of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free wheel activity-FW) performed during the course of the sub-chronic DOX treatment on mitochondrial susceptibility to permeability transition pore (mPTP), apoptotic and autophagic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): saline sedentary (SAL + SED), SAL + TM (12-weeks treadmill), SAL + FW (12-weeks voluntary free-wheel), DOX + SED [7-weeks sub-chronic DOX treatment (2 mg kg week)], DOX + TM and DOX + FW. Read More

    QT Prolongation as an Isolated Long-Term Cardiac Manifestation of Dichlorvos Organophosphate Poisoning in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):24-32
    Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, 84105, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. Read More

    Protective Role of N-Acetylcysteine on Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Injury: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):9-23
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Kasr Alainy, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
    Several researchers studied the protective effect of the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when it was given before the induction of myocardial infarction (MI). Other researchers studied such protective effect when it was before done and after done of the MI. The missing data are the comparison between the protective effect of NAC before myocardial injury with its protective effect both before and after myocardial injury. Read More

    Sodium Butyrate Controls Cardiac Hypertrophy in Experimental Models of Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2018 Feb;18(1):1-8
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad, 382 481, Gujarat, India.
    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. Read More

    Association of Fasting Serum Bilirubin Levels with Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Prospective Study.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):471-477
    Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, No. 137, Liyushan Road, Ürümqi, 830011, China.
    The aim is to investigate the association of fasting serum bilirubin (FSB) levels with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 450 hospitalized patients with CAD undergoing PCI were enrolled. The clinical data including FSB levels, basic biochemical indices, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded after admission, and all patients were followed up for 2. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide Activates Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Prevents Cardiac Fibroblast-to-Myofibroblast Differentiation.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):458-470
    Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, 8380492, Santiago, Chile.
    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Differentiation of CF to cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), increasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. In endothelial cells, an antagonist effect between LPS-induced signaling and canonical TGF-β1 signaling was described; however, it has not been studied whether in CF and CMF the expression of α-SMA induced by TGF-β1 is antagonized by LPS and the mechanism involved. Read More

    Electrophysiologic Studies on the Risks and Potential Mechanism Underlying the Proarrhythmic Nature of Azithromycin.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):434-440
    National Standard Laboratory of Pharmacology for Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210046, China.
    The mechanisms underlying arrhythmia induced by the clinical use of azithromycin are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the proarrhythmic effects of azithromycin using electrocardiogram (ECG) and ion channel models. In vivo and in vitro guinea pig ECG and current and voltage clamp recordings were carried out. Read More

    Ultrafine Particulate Matter Increases Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):441-450
    Department of Physiology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms that drive PM-associated cardiovascular disease and dysfunction remain unclear. We examined the impact of oropharyngeal aspiration of 100 μg UFP from the Chapel Hill, NC, air shed in Sprague-Dawley rats on cardiac function, arrhythmogenesis, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using a Langendorff working heart model. Read More

    Severe Proarrhythmic Potential of the Antiemetic Agents Ondansetron and Domperidone.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):451-457
    Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    The potential of ondansetron and domperidone, both clinically established antiemetic agents, to increase the QT-interval has been described in several case reports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these drugs may provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive experimental model of drug-induced proarrhythmia. In 10 female rabbits, ondansetron (1, 5 and 10 µM, n = 10) or domperidone (0. Read More

    Beneficial Effects of Ozone Therapy on Oxidative Stress, Cardiac Functions and Clinical Findings in Patients with Heart Failure Reduced Ejection Fraction.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):426-433
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 42000, Konya, Turkey.
    The aim of study was to determine the effects of ozone therapy on the oxidative stress, cardiac functions and clinical findings in patients with heart failure reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A total of 40 patients with New York Heart Association 2 and 3 HF with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35%, and 40 subjects without HF as control group were included in the study. Patients with HFrEF were given additional ozone therapy of major and minor administrations along with conventional HF treatment for 5 weeks. Read More

    In Utero Exposure of Hyperlipidemic Mice to Diesel Exhaust: Lack of Effects on Atherosclerosis in Adult Offspring Fed a Regular Chow Diet.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):417-425
    Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Washington, Box 358050, Seattle, WA, 98109-4714, USA.
    Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/mPMfor 6 h/day, 5 days/week) or filtered air (FA) throughout gestation. Read More

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