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    630 results match your criteria Cardiovascular toxicology[Journal]

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    In vivo Analysis of the Anti-atrial Fibrillatory, Proarrhythmic and Cardiodepressive Profiles of Dronedarone as a Guide for Safety Pharmacological Evaluation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 14. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Anti-atrial fibrillatory, proarrhythmic and cardiodepressive profiles of dronedarone were analyzed using the halothane-anesthetized beagle dogs (n = 4) to create a standard protocol for clarifying both efficacy and adverse effects of anti-atrial fibrillatory drugs. Intravenous administration of dronedarone hydrochloride in doses of 0.3 and 3 mg/kg over 30 s attained the peak plasma concentrations of 61 and 1248 ng/mL, respectively, reflecting sub- to supra-therapeutic ones. Read More

    Inhibition of the Voltage-Dependent K(+) Current by the Tricyclic Antidepressant Desipramine in Rabbit Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, 1 Kangwondaehak-gil, Chuncheon, 24341, South Korea.
    We describe the effect of a tricyclic antidepressant drug desipramine on voltage-dependent K(+) (Kv) currents in freshly isolated rabbit coronary arterial smooth muscle cells using a conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Application of desipramine rapidly decreased the Kv current amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 value of 5.91 ± 0. Read More

    Novel Mesenchymal Stem Cell Strategy in Alleviating Toll-Like Receptor-4, p53 and Nrf2 Signaling in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat Model.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Molecular Biology, Therapeutic Chemistry Department, National Research Center, Al Tahrir Street, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.
    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that merit the differentiation into various cell types. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the cardioprotective effect of MSCs transplantation and digoxin treatment is mediated via the regulation of messenger RNA gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic markers. Myocardial infarction was induced in Wistar rats via isoproterenol injection in a dose of (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of 24 h). Read More

    Alleviation of Cardiac Damage by Dietary Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Seeds is Potentiated by Onion (Allium cepa) in Experimental Diabetic Rats via Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Biochemistry, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, 570 020, India.
    Hyperglycemia is one of the metabolic and homeostatic abnormalities that increase the cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients by increased oxidative stress. We have recently reported amelioration of oxidative stress in cardiac tissue by dietary fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds and onion (Allium cepa) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The mechanistic aspects of the cardio-protective influence of dietary fenugreek seeds (10%) and onion (3% powder) both individually and in combination on hyperglycemia-mediated cardiac damage was further investigated in this study on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Read More

    Beneficial Role of Some Natural Products to Attenuate the Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Through Nrf2 Pathway in Cell Culture and Animal Models.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 27. Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Department of Biochemistry, Centre for Biological Sciences, K. S. Rangasamy College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Thokkavadi, Tiruchengode, Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, 637215, India.
    Diabetic cardiomyopathy, as one of the main cardiac complications in diabetic patients, is identified to connect with oxidative stress that is due to interruption in balance between reactive oxygen species or/and reactive nitrogen species generation and their clearance by antioxidant protection systems. Transcription factor the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a significant role in maintaining the oxidative homeostasis by regulating multiple downstream antioxidants. The Nrf2 plays a significant role in ARE-mediated basal and inducible expression of more than 200 genes that can be grouped into numerous categories as well as antioxidant genes and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Read More

    Unanticipated Cardiotoxicity Associated with Targeted Anticancer Therapy in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Patients: Natural History and Risk Factors.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 11. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida, 1600 SW Archer Rd., PO Box 100277, Gainesville, FL, 32610, USA.
    Our aim is to study unanticipated cardiotoxicity associated with the use of anticancer targeted agents, a problem that remains poorly understood. Using diagnosis codes, we retrospectively identified patients with both hematologic malignancies (HM) and cardiovascular diseases (n = 820 patients). Cardiotoxicity was defined per published criteria. Read More

    Predicting Cardiotoxic Effects of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Using Speckle Tracking Echocardiography.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 6. Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Gaziantep Training and Research Hospital, 270001, Gaziantep, Turkey.
    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning could cause significant cardiac injury. This study aimed to evaluate patients with CO poisoning by using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), a potentially more sensitive technique, to identify left systolic ventricular dysfunction for the first time in the literature. Seventy-two patients who were exposed to CO poisoning were studied. Read More

    Xanthine Oxidase Activation Modulates the Endothelial (Vascular) Dysfunction Related to HgCl2 Exposure Plus Myocardial Infarction in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct 4. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES, 29040-091, Brazil.
    Heavy metal exposure is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). Vascular dysfunction is related to both the causes and the consequences of MI. We investigated whether chronic exposure to low doses of mercury chloride (HgCl2) worsens MI-induced endothelial dysfunction 7 days after MI. Read More

    The Effects of Periostin in a Rat Model of Isoproterenol: Mediated Cardiotoxicity.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Sep 11. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
    Strategic Product Research and Development Center (SARGEM), Konya Food and Agriculture University, Meram, Konya, Turkey.
    Periostin is an extracellular matrix protein from fasciclin family, and it plays an important role in the cell adhesion, migration, and growth of the organism. Periostin prevents apoptosis while stimulating cardiomyocytes. The present study was designed to investigate cardioprotective effects of the recombinant murine periostin peptide administration in a rat model of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury. Read More

    Cardiovascular Effects of the MEK Inhibitor, Trametinib: A Case Report, Literature Review, and Consideration of Mechanism.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):487-493
    Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
    The MEK inhibitor trametinib was approved in 2013 for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma with a BRAF V600E mutation, the most common pathogenic mutation in melanoma. Trametinib blocks activation of ERK1/2, inhibiting cell proliferation in melanoma. ERK1/2 also protects against multiple types of cardiac insult in mouse models. Read More

    Asiatic Acid Ameliorates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac and Hepato-Renal Toxicities with Nrf2 Transcriptional Factor Activation in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Aug 30. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Drug Discovery Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research Center, Karvand Naka, Shirpur, Dist. Dhule, Maharashtra, 425405, India.
    Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, is a key phytoconstituent of Centella asiatica. AA is a patented as a cytotoxic substance, and it exerts cytotoxicity against Hep3B, Hela and MCF-7 cell lines. However, pentacyclic triterpenoids also modulate the expression and transcriptional activities of Nrf2 and exert cytoprotective effects. Read More

    Diosmin Prevents Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Department of Chemistry, Government Arts College, C.Mutlur, Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress causes mitochondrial damage that plays an important role in the pathology of myocardial infarction. The preventive effects of diosmin on cardiac mitochondrial oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats were evaluated. Rats were pretreated with diosmin (10 mg/kg body weight) daily for 10 days. Read More

    Quercetin Reverses Altered Energy Metabolism in the Heart of Rats Receiving Adriamycin Chemotherapy.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul 12. Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
    The primary aim of this study was to find the potential modulatory roles of quercetin (QUE) against Adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiotoxicity. A total of 50 rats were assigned to five groups: a control group, an ADR-treated group, a QUE-treated group, a prophylaxis-cotreated group, and a therapeutic-cotreated group, respectively. QUE exhibited a significant cardioprotective effect, particularly, when it was administered prior to and concurrently with ADR treatment (prophylaxis-cotreated group). Read More

    A Case of Severe, Refractory Hypotension After Amlodipine Overdose.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul 7. Epub 2017 Jul 7.
    Tampa General Hospital, 1 Tampa General Circle, Tampa, FL, 33606, USA.
    Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are responsible for a substantial portion of the mortality associated with cardiovascular medication overdose cases. Amlodipine, a dihydropyridine CCB, can cause prolonged hypotension in overdose. This report describes a severe amlodipine overdose case that was refractory to multiple therapeutic approaches. Read More

    Modulatory Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats with Different Ages.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 15. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
    College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Department of Sport Physiology, University of Mazandaran (UMZ), Pasdaran Street, 47415, P.O. Box: 416, Babolsar, Mazandaran, Iran.
    We tested the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training (AET) would modulate doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats of various ages. Wistar male rats (n = 72) were assigned to three groups (young, adult, and elderly) with three subgroups for each age: doxorubicin (DG, n = 8), AET + doxorubicin (AETDG, n = 8), AET + Saline (AETSG, n = 8). Following the AET intervention, rats were anesthetized and killed to collect heart tissues in order to determine heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), interleukin-10 (IL10), and c-reactive protein (CRP). Read More

    Amitriptyline May Have Possibility to Induce Brugada Syndrome Rather than Long QT Syndrome.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 14. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Department of Pharmacology, Toho University Graduate School of Medicine, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Amitriptyline has been reported to induce long QT syndrome in addition to Brugada syndrome. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the potential of amitriptyline to induce these lethal syndromes by using the halothane-anesthetized dogs (n = 6). Amitriptyline was intravenously administered in doses of 0. Read More

    The Cardiovascular Effect of Single Injection and Toxicologic Effects of Repetitive 2-Week Intravenous Administration of Activin A/BMP-2 Chimera in Beagle Dog.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University, College of Medicine, 101, Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080, Korea.
    This study was performed for the purpose to evaluate the effect of activin A/BMP-2 chimera (AB204) on cardiovascular system and toxicological effect in beagle dogs. When administered AB204 at the dose of 0.32 mg/kg via intravenous injection in beagle dogs, there were no changes in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure as well as in pulse rate, in addition that there were no differences in ORS complex, PR interval, R-R interval, QT interval and QTcV interval on the electrocardiography. Read More

    Cardiovascular Effects and Fatality May Differ According to the Formulation of Glyphosate Salt Herbicide.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hak Dong 8, Donggu, Gwangju, 501-747, South Korea.
    This study aimed to compare adverse cardiovascular events and fatalities and to identify the risk factors for fatalities associated with the glyphosate salt herbicide formulation. Additionally, we examined whether glyphosate ammonium salt herbicides increased serum ammonia levels. One hundred forty-seven patients were divided into an ammonium group (glyphosate ammonium salt herbicide) and an isopropylamine (IPA) group (glyphosate IPA salt herbicide) according to the type of glyphosate salt formulation ingested. Read More

    Additive Proarrhythmic Effect of Combined Treatment with QT-Prolonging Agents.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 13. Epub 2017 Jun 13.
    Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    Drug combinations may elevate the risk of proarrhythmia. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combinations of non-cardiovascular agents induce an additive increase in the proarrhythmic risk. In 12 female rabbit hearts, a drug combination of cotrimoxazole (300 µM), ondansetron (5 µM) and domperidone (1 µM) was infused after obtaining baseline data. Read More

    Impact of Diclofenac Sodium on Tilmicosin-Induced Acute Cardiotoxicity in Rats (Tilmicosin and Diclofenac Cardiotoxicity).
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jun 7. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Histology and Cytology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Alexandria University, P.O. Box. 22758, Edfina-Rashid-Behera, Egypt.
    To assess the influence of diclofenac sodium (DIC) treatment on tilmicosin (TIL) prompted cardiotoxicity, forty albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: control, TIL group (single subcutaneous injection of 75 mg/kg BW tilmicosin phosphate 30%), TIL + DIC group (single subcutaneous injection of tilmicosin phosphate 30% and then injection intramuscularly of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day for 6 days diclofenac sodium) and DIC group (intramuscular injection of 13.5 mg/kg BW/day diclofenac sodium for 6 days). Read More

    Effects of Remifentanil Pretreatment on Bupivacaine Cardiotoxicity in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 May 24. Epub 2017 May 24.
    Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, School of Medicine, Bulent Ecevit University, Zonguldak, Turkey.
    Unintentional intravascular administration of bupivacaine may cause local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST). Although many systems are affected in LAST, the cardiovascular effects can be life-threatening. Remifentanil is a selective, ultra-short-acting, µ-opioid receptor agonist opioid. Read More

    Exercise and Doxorubicin Treatment Modulate Cardiac Mitochondrial Quality Control Signaling.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 May 23. Epub 2017 May 23.
    CIAFEL - Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Plácido Costa 91, 4200-450, Porto, Portugal.
    The cross-tolerance effect of exercise against heart mitochondrial-mediated quality control, remodeling and death-related mechanisms associated with sub-chronic Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment is yet unknown. We therefore analyzed the effects of two distinct chronic exercise models (endurance treadmill training-TM and voluntary free wheel activity-FW) performed during the course of the sub-chronic DOX treatment on mitochondrial susceptibility to permeability transition pore (mPTP), apoptotic and autophagic signaling and mitochondrial dynamics. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups (n = 6 per group): saline sedentary (SAL + SED), SAL + TM (12-weeks treadmill), SAL + FW (12-weeks voluntary free-wheel), DOX + SED [7-weeks sub-chronic DOX treatment (2 mg kg(-1) week(-1))], DOX + TM and DOX + FW. Read More

    QT Prolongation as an Isolated Long-Term Cardiac Manifestation of Dichlorvos Organophosphate Poisoning in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 May 16. Epub 2017 May 16.
    Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Laboratory, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, 84105, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
    Organophosphates (OP) are used extensively as pesticides and as chemical weapons. Cardiotoxicity is a major concern in survivors of the acute poisoning. To characterize the delayed cardiac effects of OP, rats were poisoned by intraperitoneal administration of dichlorvos. Read More

    Protective Role of N-Acetylcysteine on Isoprenaline-Induced Myocardial Injury: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Study.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Kasr Alainy, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.
    Several researchers studied the protective effect of the N-acetylcysteine (NAC) when it was given before the induction of myocardial infarction (MI). Other researchers studied such protective effect when it was before done and after done of the MI. The missing data are the comparison between the protective effect of NAC before myocardial injury with its protective effect both before and after myocardial injury. Read More

    Sodium Butyrate Controls Cardiac Hypertrophy in Experimental Models of Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Apr 7. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
    Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy, Nirma University, Sarkhej-Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad, 382 481, Gujarat, India.
    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) on partial abdominal aorta constriction (PAAC)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and determine its mechanism of action. Healthy Wistar rats were exposed to PAAC for eight weeks. After eight weeks, we carried out hypertrophic and hemodynamic evaluation and measured oxidative stress parameters and mitochondrial DNA concentration. Read More

    Association of Fasting Serum Bilirubin Levels with Clinical Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Prospective Study.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):471-477
    Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, No. 137, Liyushan Road, Ürümqi, 830011, China.
    The aim is to investigate the association of fasting serum bilirubin (FSB) levels with the prognosis of coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A total of 450 hospitalized patients with CAD undergoing PCI were enrolled. The clinical data including FSB levels, basic biochemical indices, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded after admission, and all patients were followed up for 2. Read More

    Lipopolysaccharide Activates Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Prevents Cardiac Fibroblast-to-Myofibroblast Differentiation.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):458-470
    Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Faculty of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, 8380492, Santiago, Chile.
    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known ligand of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) which is expressed in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). Differentiation of CF to cardiac myofibroblasts (CMF) is induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), increasing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. In endothelial cells, an antagonist effect between LPS-induced signaling and canonical TGF-β1 signaling was described; however, it has not been studied whether in CF and CMF the expression of α-SMA induced by TGF-β1 is antagonized by LPS and the mechanism involved. Read More

    Electrophysiologic Studies on the Risks and Potential Mechanism Underlying the Proarrhythmic Nature of Azithromycin.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):434-440
    National Standard Laboratory of Pharmacology for Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210046, China.
    The mechanisms underlying arrhythmia induced by the clinical use of azithromycin are poorly understood. We aimed to investigate the proarrhythmic effects of azithromycin using electrocardiogram (ECG) and ion channel models. In vivo and in vitro guinea pig ECG and current and voltage clamp recordings were carried out. Read More

    Ultrafine Particulate Matter Increases Cardiac Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):441-450
    Department of Physiology, Brody School of Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
    Ultrafine particulate matter (UFP) has been associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the mechanisms that drive PM-associated cardiovascular disease and dysfunction remain unclear. We examined the impact of oropharyngeal aspiration of 100 μg UFP from the Chapel Hill, NC, air shed in Sprague-Dawley rats on cardiac function, arrhythmogenesis, and cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using a Langendorff working heart model. Read More

    Severe Proarrhythmic Potential of the Antiemetic Agents Ondansetron and Domperidone.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):451-457
    Division of Electrophysiology, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.
    The potential of ondansetron and domperidone, both clinically established antiemetic agents, to increase the QT-interval has been described in several case reports. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these drugs may provoke polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in a sensitive experimental model of drug-induced proarrhythmia. In 10 female rabbits, ondansetron (1, 5 and 10 µM, n = 10) or domperidone (0. Read More

    Beneficial Effects of Ozone Therapy on Oxidative Stress, Cardiac Functions and Clinical Findings in Patients with Heart Failure Reduced Ejection Fraction.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):426-433
    Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Necmettin Erbakan University, 42000, Konya, Turkey.
    The aim of study was to determine the effects of ozone therapy on the oxidative stress, cardiac functions and clinical findings in patients with heart failure reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). A total of 40 patients with New York Heart Association 2 and 3 HF with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35%, and 40 subjects without HF as control group were included in the study. Patients with HFrEF were given additional ozone therapy of major and minor administrations along with conventional HF treatment for 5 weeks. Read More

    In Utero Exposure of Hyperlipidemic Mice to Diesel Exhaust: Lack of Effects on Atherosclerosis in Adult Offspring Fed a Regular Chow Diet.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):417-425
    Program in Nutritional Sciences, University of Washington, Box 358050, Seattle, WA, 98109-4714, USA.
    Uterine stress is associated with an increased risk of later life metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of diesel exhaust (DE) exposure in utero on adult susceptibility to atherosclerosis in genetically hyperlipidemic mice. Pregnant apolipoprotein E-deficient mice received either DE exposure (~250-300 μg/m(3) PM2. Read More

    Hyperthermia Severely Affects the Vascular Effects of MDMA and Metabolites in the Human Internal Mammary Artery In Vitro.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):405-416
    Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Care Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548, Coimbra, Portugal.
    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "ecstasy") is a recreational drug used worldwide for its distinctive psychotropic effects. Although important cardiovascular effects, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate, have also been described, the vascular effects of MDMA and metabolites and their correlation with hyperthermia (major side effect of MDMA) are not yet fully understood and have not been previously reported. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of MDMA and its main catechol metabolites, alpha-methyldopamine (α-MeDA), N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine (N-Me-α-MeDA), 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-α-MeDA] and 5-(glutathion-S-yl)-N-methyl-alpha-methyldopamine [5-(GSH)-N-Me-α-MeDA], on the 5-HT-dependent vasoactivity in normothermia (37 °C) and hyperthermia (40 °C) of the human internal mammary artery (IMA) in vitro. Read More

    Acrolein Can Cause Cardiovascular Disease: A Review.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):227-236
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, College of Public Health, University of South Florida, The James A. Haley Hospital, 13201 Bruce B. Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL, 33612-3805, USA.
    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is formed during the burning of gasoline and diesel fuels, cigarettes, woods and plastics. In addition, acrolein is generated during the cooking or frying of food with fats or oils. Acrolein is also used in the synthesis of many organic chemicals and as a biocide in agricultural and industrial water supply systems. Read More

    Effect of the Anti-retroviral Drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on Endothelial Cell Function: Role of PARP.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):393-404
    School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, University of Brighton, Huxley Building, Lewes Road, Brighton, BN2 4GJ, UK.
    Highly active anti-retroviral therapy has proved successful in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection though it has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To date, the direct effects of the anti-retroviral drugs Efavirenz, Tenofovir and Emtricitabine on the vasculature relaxant response have not been elucidated, which impaired may predispose individuals to cardiovascular disease. Increased cellular oxidative stress and overactivation of the DNA repair enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) have been identified as central mediators of vascular dysfunction. Read More

    Role of Peroxynitrite-Induced Activation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) in Circulatory Shock and Related Pathological Conditions.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):373-383
    Department of Biochemistry, J. N. Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP, 202002, India.
    Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant, formed from the reaction of nitric oxide and superoxide. It is known to interact and modify different biological molecules such as DNA, lipids and proteins leading to alterations in their structure and functions. These events elicit various cellular responses, including cell signaling, causing oxidative damage and committing cells to apoptosis or necrosis. Read More

    Doxorubicin and Liposomal Doxorubicin Differentially Affect Expression of miR-208a and let-7g in Rat Ventricles and Atria.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):355-359
    Central European Institute of Technology, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00, Brno, Czech Republic.
    Anthracyclines use is limited by profound cardiotoxicity. Involvement of miRNAs in anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) is still not completely understood. Thus, the expression of AIC-related microRNAs was determined in rat atria and ventricles after doxorubicin (DOX) and liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) administration. Read More

    Lipid Emulsion Inhibits Apoptosis Induced by a Toxic Dose of Verapamil via the Delta-Opioid Receptor in H9c2 Rat Cardiomyoblasts.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):344-354
    Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 79 Gangnam-ro, Jinju-si, 52727, Republic of Korea.
    The goals of this study were to investigate the effects of lipid emulsion (LE) on apoptosis induced by a toxic dose of verapamil in H9c2 cells and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanism. The effects of LE alone and combined with an inhibitor on the decreases in cell counts and viability induced by verapamil and diltiazem were examined using the MTT assay. The effects of verapamil alone, combined LE and verapamil treatment, and combined inhibitor, LE and verapamil treatment on cleaved caspase-3, caspase-8 and Bax expression, were examined using Western blotting. Read More

    Stroke: Temporal Trends and Association with Atmospheric Variables and Air Pollutants in Northern Spain.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):360-367
    Unit of Legal Medicine, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Cantabria, Av Cardenal Herrera Oria s/n, 39011, Santander, Spain.
    Stroke, the second cause of death and the most frequent cause of severe disability among adults in developed countries, is related to a large variety of risk factors. This paper assesses the temporal patterns in stroke episodes in a city in Northern Spain during a 12-year period and analyzes the possible effects that atmospheric pollutants and meteorological variables may have on stroke on a daily scale. Our results show that there is an increase in stroke admissions (r = 0. Read More

    Exposure to Cigarette Smoke and the Carotid Arteries Calcification Index in Patients with Essential Hypertension.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):335-343
    Department of Internal Medicine, Occupational Diseases and Hypertension, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, 50-556, Wrocław, Poland.
    The arteries calcification index is a quantitative, mathematically estimated parameter characterizing the total amount of calcium within atherosclerotic plaques in the walls of arteries. The objective is to determine a relationship between exposure to cigarette smoke and the carotid arteries calcification index in patients with essential hypertension. The tested group included 66 patients with essential hypertension: 19 active smokers (subgroup A), 20 non-smokers, environmentally exposed to cigarette smoke (subgroup B) and 27 persons without exposure to cigarette smoke (subgroup C). Read More

    Case Report and Review of the Literature: Cardiomyopathy in a Young Woman on High-Dose Quetiapine.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Oct;17(4):478-481
    Department of Cardiology, AZ KLINA, Augustijnslei, 100, 2930, Brasschaat, Belgium.
    We describe a case of cardiomyopathy due to quetiapine. Atypical antipsychotics are known for their multiple and sometimes dangerous side effects. Various studies showed increased sudden cardiac death and sudden unexpected deaths. Read More

    Cardiotoxicity Associated with Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors in Rodents and in Rat and Human-Derived Cells Lines.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):307-318
    Genentech, 1 DNA Way, M/S 59, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.
    Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a pleiotropic protein that functions as an enzyme, cytokine, growth factor and hormone. As a target for oncology, NAMPT is particularly attractive, because it catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the salvage pathway to generate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a universal energy- and signal-carrying molecule involved in cellular energy metabolism and many homeostatic functions. Inhibition of NAMPT generally results in NAD depletion, followed by ATP reduction and loss of cell viability. Read More

    Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning on ECG and Echocardiographic Parameters in Children.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):326-334
    Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Mersin University School of Medicine, Mersin, Turkey.
    The aim of the current study is to investigate the effects of CO (carbon monoxide) on the cardiovascular system via electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and biochemical findings in children. This prospective study included 22 children with CO poisoning and 24 healthy children as a control group. The CO-intoxicated children were evaluated via electrocardiography and echocardiography 1 h after admission to the emergency department and daily until their discharge from the hospital. Read More

    Assessment of Safety Margin of an Antipsychotic Drug Haloperidol for Torsade de Pointes Using the Chronic Atrioventricular Block Dogs.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):319-325
    Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo, 143-8540, Japan.
    Since an antipsychotic drug haloperidol has been clinically reported to induce QT interval prolongation and torsade de pointes, in this study its risk stratification for the onset of torsade de pointes was performed by using the chronic atrioventricular block canine model with a Holter electrocardiogram. Haloperidol in a dose of 3 mg kg(-1) p.o. Read More

    The Myocyte-Damaging Effects of the BCR-ABL1-Targeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Increase with Potency and Decrease with Specificity.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):297-306
    College of Pharmacy, Apotex Centre, University of Manitoba, 750 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T5, Canada.
    Five clinically approved BCR-ABL1-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (bosutinib, dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib) used for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia have been studied in a neonatal rat myocyte model for their relative ability to induce myocyte damage. This was done in order to determine if kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage was a consequence of inhibiting ABL1 (on-target effects), or due to a lack of kinase selectivity (off-target effects) since previous studies have come up with conflicting conclusions about whether imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity results directly from inhibition of ABL1. The most specific and least potent inhibitors, imatinib and nilotinib, induced the least myocyte damage, while the least specific and most potent inhibitors, ponatinib and dasatinib, induced the most damage. Read More

    Exposure to Amphetamines Leads to Development of Amphetamine Type Stimulants Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC).
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jan;17(1):13-24
    Department of Cardiology, St Vincent's Hospital (Melbourne), PO Box 2900, Fitzroy, VIC, 3065, Australia.
    With rapidly rising prevalence of exposure to Amphetamine Type Stimulants (ATS), novel insights into cardiotoxic effects of this substance are being presented in the literature and remarkably ATS Associated Cardiomyopathy (ATSAC) is emerging as a novel cardiovascular condition with its distinctive pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features and prognosis. A comprehensive systematic review was performed to explore and analyze the current evidence on the association between ATS exposure and development of cardiomyopathy, biological mechanisms involved in pathogenesis of ATSAC, risk factors, clinical features and course of patients with ATSAC. Several animal studies, case reports, case series and case-control studies support the association between ATS exposure and ATSAC. Read More

    H2S Prevents Cyclosporine A-Induced Vasomotor Alteration in Rats.
    Cardiovasc Toxicol 2017 Jul;17(3):287-296
    Department of Pharmacology, Xi'an Jiaotong University College of Medicine, 76 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shannxi, China.
    Cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hypertension after transplantation. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was found to have hypotensive/vasoprotective effects in the cardiovascular system. The present study aims to investigate the role of H2S on CsA-induced vascular function disorder in rats. Read More

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