263 results match your criteria Cardiovascular engineering and technology[Journal]


Current Challenges and Emergent Technologies for Manufacturing Artificial Right Ventricle to Pulmonary Artery (RV-PA) Cardiac Conduits.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

The Heart Centre for Children, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.

Despite advances in modern surgery, congenital heart disease remains a medical challenge and major cause of infant mortality. Valved conduits are routinely used to surgically correct blood flow in hearts with congenital malformations by connecting the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery (RV-PA). This review explores the current range of RV-PA conduits and describes their strengths and disadvantages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00406-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Tricuspid Valve Annular Mechanics: Interactions with and Implications for Transcatheter Devices.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology & Emory University, Technology Enterprise Park, 387 Technology Circle NW, Atlanta, GA, 30313-2412, USA.

In the interventional treatment of tricuspid valve regurgitation, the majority of prosthetic devices interact with or are implanted to the tricuspid valve annulus. For new transcatheter technologies, there exists a growing body of clinical experience, literature, and professional discourse related to the difficulties in delivering, securing, and sustaining the function of these devices within the dynamic tricuspid annulus. Many of the difficulties arise from circumstances not encountered in open-heart surgery, namely; a non-arrested heart, indirect visualization, and a reliance on non-suture-based methods. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00405-6DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

The Impact of the Right Coronary Artery Geometric Parameters on Hemodynamic Performance.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Engineering Faculty, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465, Porto, Portugal.

Purpose: Coronary artery geometry can have a significant impact in the hemodynamic behavior of coronary blood flow, influencing atherosclerotic plaque formation. The present work focuses on, through a statistical study, the connection between several geometric parameters of the right coronary artery-ostium cross-sectional area, angles between the common trunk and the side-branches, tortuosity, curvature and cross-sectional area in each side-branch-and their influence on hemodynamic descriptors. Parameters such as low wall shear stress and local disturbed flow, which are associated with atherosclerosis formation, were analysed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00403-8DOI Listing
February 2019

Cyclosporin A Protected Cardiomyocytes Against Oxidative Stress Injury by Inhibition of NF-κB Signaling Pathway.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Taishan Medical University, Taian, Shandong, China.

Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effects and the molecular mechanism of cyclosporin A (CsA) against oxidative stress injury in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

Methods: Bax/Bcl-2, cl-casp-9/casp-9, cl-casp-3/casp-3, and iNOS/β-actin ratios and p-IκB and IκB levels were analyzed by western blot. IL-1β and TNF-α levels were analyzed by ELISA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00404-7DOI Listing
February 2019

A Tunable Resonance Cantilever for Cardiac Energy Harvesting.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Feb 1. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, MN, 55105, USA.

Purpose: Energy harvesting from cardiac motion is an attractive means to avoid the use of batteries in implantable sensors and pacemakers. A single implantable device would ideally integrate both sensing and self-powering functionality.

Methods: This work describes a novel electromagnetic system that achieves high sensitivity detection of the heart rate while simultaneously providing adaptive energy harvesting capability using a tunable resonance cantilever mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00402-9DOI Listing
February 2019

MRI and Blood Flow in Human Arteries: Are There Any Adverse Effects?

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Jan 28. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Mathematics, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 641 112, India.

Purpose: To explore if there are any adverse effects on blood flow in human beings when they are exposed to high or ultra high intensity magnetic fields in MRI, by investigating both qualitatively and quantitatively the effects of such fields on the velocity of blood and medically significant hemodynamic wall parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in four human large arteries.

Methods: Blood flow in an artery is approximated as a flow through a uniform circular tube with rigid porous walls and the well-known McDonalds model is employed by using pressure gradient waveforms reported in the medical literature.

Results: No significant change in the above parameters is observed up to 3T in all these arteries except a discernible change in the velocity and RRT in the pulmonary artery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00400-xDOI Listing
January 2019

Multi-Objective Optimization Design of Balloon-Expandable Coronary Stent.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Jan 23. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, No. 301, Xuefu Road, Zhenjiang, China.

Purpose: Recent studies suggested that suboptimal delivery and longitudinal stent deformation can result in in-stent restenosis. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to study the effect of stent geometry on stent flexibility and longitudinal stiffness (LS) and optimize the two metrics simultaneously. Then, the reliable and accurate relationships between metrics and design variables were established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-019-00401-wDOI Listing
January 2019

Technical Feasibility and Design of a Shape Memory Alloy Support Device to Increase Ejection Fraction in Patients with Heart Failure.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Biomolecular Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Heart failure is increasingly prevalent in the elderly. Treatment of patients with heart failure aims at improving their clinical condition, quality of life, prevent hospital (re)admissions and reduce mortality. Unfortunately, only a select group of heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction are eligible for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy where 30-40% remain non-responders and need left ventricular support. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00399-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00399-7DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

A Valveless Pulsatile Pump for the Treatment of Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Simulation Study.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Pediatric Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Pediatric Heart Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: Effective treatment of patients with terminal heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is an unmet medical need. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel valveless pulsatile pump as a therapeutic option for the HFpEF population through comprehensive in silico investigations.

Methods: The pump was simulated in a numerical model of the cardiovascular system of four HFpEF phenotypes and compared to a typical case of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00398-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00398-8DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

A Computational Study of Mechanical Performance of Bioresorbable Polymeric Stents with Design Variations.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Materials, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU, UK.

Purpose: The study compared the mechanical behavior of bioresorbable polymeric stents with various designs during deployment, and investigated their fatigue performance under pulsatile blood pressure loading.

Methods: Finite element simulations have been carried out to compare the mechanical performance of four bioresorbable polymeric stents, i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00397-9DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Patient-Specific Multi-Scale Model Analysis of Hemodynamics Following the Hybrid Norwood Procedure for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Effects of Reverse Blalock-Taussig Shunt Diameter.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Heart Center, Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children, Orlando, FL, USA.

Introduction: The hybrid Norwood (HN) is a relatively new first stage palliative procedure for neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which a sustainable uni-ventricular circulation is established in a less invasive manner than with the standard Norwood procedure. A computational multiscale model of the circulation following the HN procedure was used to obtain detailed hemodynamics. Implementation of a reverse-BT shunt (RBTS), a synthetic bypass from the main pulmonary to the innominate artery placed to counteract aortic arch stenosis, and its effects on local and global hemodynamics were studied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00396-wDOI Listing
December 2018
4 Reads

Objective Uniaxial Identification of Transition Points in Non-Linear Materials: Sample Application to Porcine Coronary Arteries and the Dependency of Their Pre- and Post-Transitional Moduli with Position.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Purpose: This study aimed to develop an objective method for the elastic characterisation of pre- and post-transitional moduli of left anterior descending (LAD) porcine coronary arteries.

Methods: Eight coronary arteries were divided into proximal, middle and distal test specimens. Specimens underwent uniaxial extension up to 3 mm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00395-xDOI Listing
November 2018
3 Reads

A Novel Pulse Damper for Endothelial Cell Flow Bioreactors.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Nov 28. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, MS Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, American University of Beirut, P.O. Box 11-0236, Beirut, Lebanon.

Purpose: Peristaltic pumps (PP) are favored in flow bioreactors for their non-contact sterile design. But they produce pulsatile flow, which is consequential for the cultured cells. A novel pulse damper (PD) is reported for pulsatility elimination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00394-yDOI Listing
November 2018
1 Read

Steady Flow in a Patient-Averaged Inferior Vena Cava-Part II: Computational Fluid Dynamics Verification and Validation.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 16;9(4):654-673. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Purpose: The embolus trapping performance of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters critically depends on how emboli flow through the IVC and, thereby, on the underlying hemodynamics. Most previous studies of IVC hemodynamics have used computational fluid dynamics (CFD), but few have validated their results by comparing with quantitative experimental measurements of the flow field and none have validated in an anatomical model of the IVC that includes the primary morphological features that influence the hemodynamics (iliac veins, infrarenal curvature, and non-circular vessel cross-section). In this study, we perform verification and validation of CFD simulations in a patient-averaged anatomical model of the IVC. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00392-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00392-0DOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Editorial: Special Issue on Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification of Cardiovascular Models: Towards Effective VVUQ for Translating Cardiovascular Modelling to Clinical Utility.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec;9(4):539-543

Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics (LaBS), Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'Giulio Natta', Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00393-zDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Steady Flow in a Patient-Averaged Inferior Vena Cava-Part I: Particle Image Velocimetry Measurements at Rest and Exercise Conditions.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 8;9(4):641-653. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

Purpose: Although many previous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies have investigated the hemodynamics in the inferior vena cava (IVC), few studies have compared computational predictions to experimental data, and only qualitative comparisons have been made. Herein, we provide particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements of flow in a patient-averaged IVC geometry under idealized conditions typical of those used in the preclinical evaluation of IVC filters.

Methods: Measurements are acquired under rest and exercise flow rate conditions in an optically transparent model fabricated using 3D printing. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00390-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00390-2DOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Validation and Extension of a Fluid-Structure Interaction Model of the Healthy Aortic Valve.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 7;9(4):739-751. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

UCL Mechanical Engineering, Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE, UK.

Purpose: The understanding of the optimum function of the healthy aortic valve is essential in interpreting the effect of pathologies in the region, and in devising effective treatments to restore the physiological functions. Still, there is no consensus on the operating mechanism that regulates the valve opening and closing dynamics. The aim of this study is to develop a numerical model that can support a better comprehension of the valve function and serve as a reference to identify the changes produced by specific pathologies and treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00391-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290709PMC
December 2018
1 Read

Uncertainty Quantification and Sensitivity Analysis for Computational FFR Estimation in Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 31;9(4):597-622. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.

Purpose: The main objectives of this study are to validate a reduced-order model for the estimation of the fractional flow reserve (FFR) index based on blood flow simulations that incorporate clinical imaging and patient-specific characteristics, and to assess the uncertainty of FFR predictions with respect to input data on a per patient basis.

Methods: We consider 13 patients with symptoms of stable coronary artery disease for which 24 invasive FFR measurements are available. We perform an extensive sensitivity analysis on the parameters related to the construction of a reduced-order (hybrid 1D-0D) model for FFR predictions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00388-w
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00388-wDOI Listing
December 2018
2 Reads

Validation of Numerical Simulations of Thoracic Aorta Hemodynamics: Comparison with In Vivo Measurements and Stochastic Sensitivity Analysis.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 24;9(4):688-706. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Industriale, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Purpose: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 4D-flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are synergically used for the simulation and the analysis of the flow in a patient-specific geometry of a healthy thoracic aorta.

Methods: CFD simulations are carried out through the open-source code SimVascular. The MRI data are used, first, to provide patient-specific boundary conditions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00387-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00387-xDOI Listing
December 2018
11 Reads

Estimation of Biomechanical Properties of Normal and Atherosclerotic Common Carotid Arteries.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 24. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Radiology, Imaging Center of Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: We developed a modified Kelvin model so that the periodic changes of the arterial intima-media thickness (IMT) over the cardiac cycle were involved. Modified model was implemented for carotid artery, solved via a parameter optimization technique and biomechanical parameters of the model.

Methods: Consecutive ultrasonic images of the common carotid artery of 30 male patients including 10 healthy subjects, 10 subjects with mild and 10 subjects with sever stenosis were recorded and processed offline. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00389-9
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00389-9DOI Listing
October 2018
15 Reads

Evaluation of Peak Wall Stress in an Ascending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Using FSI Simulations: Effects of Aortic Stiffness and Peripheral Resistance.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 19;9(4):707-722. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Mines Saint-Etienne, Univ Lyon, Univ Jean Monnet, INSERM, U 1059 Sainbiose, Centre CIS, 42023, Saint-Etienne, France.

Purpose: It has been reported clinically that rupture or dissections in thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) often occur due to hypertension which may be modelled with sudden increase of peripheral resistance, inducing acute changes of blood volumes in the aorta. There is clinical evidence that more compliant aneurysms are less prone to rupture as they can sustain such changes of volume. The aim of the current paper is to verify this paradigm by evaluating computationally the role played by the variation of peripheral resistance and the impact of aortic stiffness onto peak wall stress in ascending TAA. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00385-z
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00385-zDOI Listing
December 2018
9 Reads

Coronary Stent Fracture: Clinical Evidence Vs. the Testing Paradigm.

Authors:
Claire Conway

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 19;9(4):752-760. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Biomechanics Research Centre (BioMEC), Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering and Informatics, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.

Purpose: The United States' Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that device manufacturers demonstrate 10 years of equivalent life duration for endovascular stents. Yet since the early 2000s clinical evidence of stent strut fracture defies the recommendations for these FDA approved devices. Stent strut fracture has been correlated with a higher incidence of adverse clinical events, such as in-stent thrombosis and in-stent restenosis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00384-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00384-0DOI Listing
December 2018
6 Reads

Reversed Auxiliary Flow to Reduce Embolism Risk During TAVI: A Computational Simulation and Experimental Study.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Cardiocentro Ticino, Lugano, Switzerland.

Introduction: Endovascular treatments, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), carry a risk of embolization due to debris dislodgement during various procedural steps. Although embolic filters are already available and marketed, mechanisms underlying cerebral embolism still need to be elucidated in order to further reduce cerebrovascular events.

Methods: We propose an experimental framework with an in silico duplicate allowing release of particles at the level of the aortic valve and their subsequent capture in the supra-aortic branches, simulating embolization under constant inflow and controlled hemodynamic conditions. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00386-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00386-yDOI Listing
October 2018
6 Reads

A New Method for Simulating Embolic Coils as Heterogeneous Porous Media.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 18. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, 501 E Tyler Mall, BLDG ECG RM#334, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA.

Purpose: To gain insight into the influence of coils on aneurysmal hemodynamics, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used. Conventional methods of modeling coils consider the explicit geometry of the deployed devices within the aneurysm and discretize the fluid domain. However, the complex geometry of a coil mass leads to cumbersome domain discretization along with a significant number of mesh elements. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00383-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00383-1DOI Listing
October 2018
13 Reads

Cardiac Valve Bioreactor for Physiological Conditioning and Hydrodynamic Performance Assessment.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 11. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St. SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Purpose: Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) are being investigated to address the limitations of currently available valve prostheses. In order to advance a wide variety of TEHV approaches, the goal of this study was to develop a cardiac valve bioreactor system capable of conditioning living valves with a range of hydrodynamic conditions as well as capable of assessing hydrodynamic performance to ISO 5840 standards.

Methods: A bioreactor system was designed based on the Windkessel approach. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00382-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00382-2DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Effect of Varying Viscosity on Two-Fluid Model of Blood Flow through Constricted Blood Vessels: A Comparative Study.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, Pilani, Rajasthan, 333 031, India.

Purpose: Most of the previously studied non-Newtonian blood flow models considered blood viscosity to be constant but for correct measurement of flow rate and flow resistance, the hematocrit dependent viscosity will be better as various literature suggested the variable nature of blood viscosity. Present work concerns the steady and pulsatile nature of blood flow through constricted blood vessels. Two-fluid model for blood is considered with the suspension of all the RBCs (erythrocytes) in the core region as a non-Newtonian (Herschel-Bulkley) fluid and the plasma in the cell free region near wall as a Newtonian fluid. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00379-x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00379-xDOI Listing
October 2018
8 Reads

Inter-Laboratory Characterization of the Velocity Field in the FDA Blood Pump Model Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV).

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 5;9(4):623-640. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Food & Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Purpose: A credible computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model can play a meaningful role in evaluating the safety and performance of medical devices. A key step towards establishing model credibility is to first validate CFD models with benchmark experimental datasets to minimize model-form errors before applying the credibility assessment process to more complex medical devices. However, validation studies to establish benchmark datasets can be cost prohibitive and difficult to perform. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00378-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00378-yDOI Listing
December 2018
24 Reads

Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Volumetric Evaluation During Mid-term Follow-Up After Endovascular Sealing Using the Nellix™ Device.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Oct 4. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 20 Rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France.

Objectives: To analyze the volumetric evolution of abdominal aortic aneurysms after endovascular sealing (EVAS) with the Nellix™ device during follow-up.

Methods: Patients who underwent elective EVAS in our institution in 2014 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and 1-year scans were processed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00380-4DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Uncertainty Quantification for Non-invasive Assessment of Pressure Drop Across a Coarctation of the Aorta Using CFD.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 3;9(4):582-596. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Institute for Imaging Science and Computational Modelling in Cardiovascular Medicine, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, Forum 4 - 0.0561, 13353, Berlin, Germany.

Purpose: Numerical assessment of the pressure drop across an aortic coarctation using CFD is a promising approach to replace invasive catheter-based measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the uncertainty of numerical calculation of the pressure drop introduced during two essential steps of medical image processing: segmentation of the patient-specific geometry and measurement of patient-specific flow rates from 4D-flow-MRI.

Methods: Based on the baseline segmentation, geometries with different stenosis diameters were generated for a sample of ten patients. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00381-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00381-3DOI Listing
December 2018
5 Reads

In Vitro Validation of 4D Flow MRI for Local Pulse Wave Velocity Estimation.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 14;9(4):674-687. Epub 2018 Sep 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose: Arterial stiffness has predictive value for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Local artery stiffness can provide insight on CVD pathology and may be useful for diagnosis and prognosis. However, current methods are invasive, require real-time expertise for measurement, or are limited by arterial region. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00377-zDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Real-World Variability in the Prediction of Intracranial Aneurysm Wall Shear Stress: The 2015 International Aneurysm CFD Challenge.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 10;9(4):544-564. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is widely used to predict intracranial aneurysm wall shear stress (WSS), particularly with the goal of improving rupture risk assessment. Nevertheless, concern has been expressed over the variability of predicted WSS and inconsistent associations with rupture. Previous challenges, and studies from individual groups, have focused on individual aspects of the image-based CFD pipeline. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00374-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00374-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290689PMC
December 2018
26 Reads

Multiple Aneurysms AnaTomy CHallenge 2018 (MATCH): Phase I: Segmentation.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 6;9(4):565-581. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

Purpose: Advanced morphology analysis and image-based hemodynamic simulations are increasingly used to assess the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms (IAs). However, the accuracy of those results strongly depends on the quality of the vessel wall segmentation.

Methods: To evaluate state-of-the-art segmentation approaches, the Multiple Aneurysms AnaTomy CHallenge (MATCH) was announced. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00376-0DOI Listing
December 2018
19 Reads

Quantitative Characterization of Aortic Valve Endothelial Cell Viability and Morphology In Situ Under Cyclic Stretch.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Aug 23. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, 39762, USA.

Current protocols for mechanical preconditioning of tissue engineered heart valves have focused on application of pressure, flexure and fluid flow to stimulate collagen production, ECM remodeling and improving mechanical performance. The aim of this study was to determine if mechanical preconditioning with cyclic stretch could promote an intact endothelium that resembled the viability and morphology of a native valve. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to image endothelial cells on aortic valve strips subjected to static incubation or physiological strain regimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00375-1DOI Listing
August 2018
3 Reads

Uncertainty Quantification of a Multiscale Model for In-Stent Restenosis.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 22;9(4):761-774. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Computational Science Lab, Institute for Informatics, Faculty of Science, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Coronary artery stenosis, or abnormal narrowing, is a widespread and potentially fatal cardiac disease. After treatment by balloon angioplasty and stenting, restenosis may occur inside the stent due to excessive neointima formation. Simulations of in-stent restenosis can provide new insight into this process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00372-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6290695PMC
December 2018
19 Reads

Study on the Accuracy of Structural and FSI Heart Valves Simulations.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Dec 21;9(4):723-738. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics (LaBS), Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering 'Giulio Natta', Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: The performance of heart valves, either native or artificial, can be evaluated by means of finite element analyses, either from a structural or a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) point of view. The latter captures the coupling between the valve leaflets and the blood in a more realistic way. The selection of the appropriate finite elements approach for the model is the first and fundamental step to achieve accurate simulations. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-00373-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00373-3DOI Listing
December 2018
15 Reads

Editorial.

Authors:

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 09;9(3):271

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-00371-5DOI Listing
September 2018
2 Reads

Mechanical Characterization of the Lamellar Structure of Human Abdominal Aorta in the Development of Atherosclerosis: An Atomic Force Microscopy Study.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Jul 13. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, mechanisms of interaction of atherosclerotic plaque development and local stiffness of the lamellar structure of the arterial wall are not well established. In the current study, the local Young's modulus of the wall and plaque components were determined for three different groups of healthy, mildly diseased and advanced atherosclerotic human abdominal aortas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0370-1DOI Listing
July 2018
7 Reads

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement: Functional Requirements for Device Design, Bench-Top, and Pre-Clinical Evaluation.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 27;9(3):301-338. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

Medtronic, Redwood City, CA, USA.

Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement (TMVR) is currently under clinical investigation as a viable treatment option for mitral regurgitation (MR). Therefore, it is important to outline the key functional requirements of a TMVR prosthesis in order to provide an overall approach to assessing mitral valve replacement devices utilizing a combination of in vitro and preclinical methods. This article provides a review of the mitral valve disease as well as general considerations and guidance for developing a TMVR device based on International Industry Standards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0364-zDOI Listing
September 2018
7 Reads

Impact of Clinically Relevant Elliptical Deformations on the Damage Patterns of Sagging and Stretched Leaflets in a Bioprosthetic Heart Valve.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 12;9(3):351-364. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Division of Applied Mechanics (DAM), Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories (OSEL), Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, WO62, #2206, Silver Spring, MD, 20993, USA.

After implantation of a transcatheter bioprosthetic heart valve its original circular circumference may become distorted, which can lead to changes in leaflet coaptation and leaflets that are stretched or sagging. This may lead to early structural deterioration of the valve as seen in some explanted transcatheter heart valves. Our in vitro study evaluates the effect of leaflet deformations seen in elliptical configurations on the damage patterns of the leaflets, with circular valve deformation as the control. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0366-xDOI Listing
September 2018
6 Reads

Development of an In Vitro Cardiac Ischemic Model Using Primary Human Cardiomyocytes.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 11;9(3):529-538. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Tissue Engineering Centre, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Developing experimental models to study ischemic heart disease is necessary for understanding of biological mechanisms to improve the therapeutic approaches for restoring cardiomyocytes function following injury. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro hypoxic/re-oxygenation model of ischemia using primary human cardiomyocytes (HCM) and define subsequent cytotoxic effects. HCM were cultured in serum and glucose free medium in hypoxic condition with 1% O ranging from 30 min to 12 h. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0368-8DOI Listing
September 2018
11 Reads

A Shape Memory Alloy-Based Miniaturized Actuator for Catheter Interventions.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 26;9(3):405-413. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan, 701, Taiwan.

In the current scenario of endovascular intervention, surgeons have to manually navigate the catheter within the complex vasculature of the human body under the guidance of X-ray. This manual intervention upsurges the possibilities of vessel damage due to frequent contact between the catheter and vasculature wall. In this context, a shape memory alloy-based miniaturized actuator was proposed in this study with a specific aim to reduce vessel wall related damage by improving the bending motions of the guidewire tip in a semi-automatic fashion. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0369-7DOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads

The Effect of Acute Pulmonary Hypertension on Tricuspid Annular Height, Strain, and Curvature in Sheep.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 1;9(3):365-376. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Meijer Heart and Vascular Institute at Spectrum Health, 100 Michigan St NE, 49503, Grand Rapids, MI, USA.

The tricuspid annulus shows significant alterations in patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation-tricuspid valve dysfunction that is secondary to other diseases such as pulmonary hypertension. Early changes in annular shape and dynamics may provide an understanding of disease mechanisms and could predict disease progression. To gain a mechanistic insight into these early changes we perform a spatially-resolved analysis of the effect of acute pulmonary hypertension on the tricuspid annulus in sheep. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0367-9DOI Listing
September 2018
16 Reads

Correction to: Editorial: Special Issue on Heart Valve Mechanobiology : New Insights into Mechanical Regulation of Valve Disease and Regeneration.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Jun;9(2):268

Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Original article has been updated to include names and affiliations of authors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0365-yDOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Effect of Pneumatic Tubing System Transport on Platelet Apheresis Units.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 21;9(3):515-527. Epub 2018 May 21.

Division of Trauma, Critical Care and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Platelet apheresis units are transfused into patients to mitigate or prevent bleeding. In a hospital, platelet apheresis units are transported from the transfusion service to the healthcare teams via two methods: a pneumatic tubing system (PTS) or ambulatory transport. Whether PTS transport affects the activity and utility of platelet apheresis units is unclear. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13239-018-0361-2
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0361-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168073PMC
September 2018
18 Reads

Biomechanical Impact of Wrong Positioning of a Dedicated Stent for Coronary Bifurcations: A Virtual Bench Testing Study.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 17;9(3):415-426. Epub 2018 May 17.

Laboratory of Biological Structure Mechanics (LaBS), Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering "Giulio Natta", Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133, Milan, Italy.

The treatment of coronary bifurcations is challenging for interventional cardiologists. The Tryton stent (Tryton Medical, Inc., USA) is one of the few devices specifically designed for coronary bifurcations that underwent large clinical trials. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0359-9DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

The Roles of Matrix Stiffness and ß-Catenin Signaling in Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Aortic Valve Endothelial Cells.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Jun 14;9(2):158-167. Epub 2018 May 14.

Translational Biology and Engineering Program, Ted Rogers Centre for Heart Research, 661 University Avenue, Toronto, ON, M5G 1M1, Canada.

Valve stiffening is a hallmark of aortic valve stenosis caused by excess extracellular matrix accumulation by myofibroblasts. We aimed to elucidate whether matrix stiffness regulates endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) of adult valvular endothelial cells (VECs) to myofibroblasts as a mechanism to further promote valve fibrosis. In addition, we specifically examined the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the development of myofibroblasts during EndMT, as Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in EndMT during heart development, is reactivated in valve disease, and is required for mechanically-regulated myofibrogenesis of valve interstitial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0363-0DOI Listing
June 2018
2 Reads

Parametric Imaging for the Assessment of Cardiac Motion: A Review.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 14;9(3):377-393. Epub 2018 May 14.

Laboratory of Biophysics and Medical Technology, Higher Institute of Medical Technologies of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 1006, Tunis, Tunisia.

The assessment of wall motion abnormalities such as hypokinesia or dyskinesia and the identification of their extent as well as their degree of severity allow an accurate evaluation of several ischemic heart diseases and an early diagnosis of heart failure. These dysfunctions are usually revealed by a drop of contraction indicating a regional hypokinesia or a total absence of the wall motion in case of akinesia. The discrimination between these contraction abnormalities plays also a significant role in the therapeutic decision through the differentiation between the infarcted zones, which have lost their contractile function, and the stunned areas that still retain viable myocardial tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0362-1DOI Listing
September 2018
5 Reads

Editorial: Special Issue on Heart Valve Mechanobiology : New Insights into Mechanical Regulation of Valve Disease and Regeneration.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Jun;9(2):121-125

Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0360-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5990480PMC
June 2018
2 Reads

Modeling Right Ventricle Failure After Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Biventricular Finite-Element and Lumped-Parameter Analysis.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 26;9(3):427-437. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department for the Treatment and Study of Cardiothoracic Diseases and Cardiothoracic Transplantation, IRCCS-ISMETT, Palermo, Italy.

The risk of right ventricle (RV) failure remains a major contraindication for continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation in patients with heart failure. It is therefore critical to identify the patients who will benefit from early intervention to avoid adverse outcomes. We sought to advance the computational modeling description of the mechanisms underlying RV failure in LVAD-supported patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0358-xDOI Listing
September 2018
15 Reads

Fabrication and Testing of Electrospun Polyurethane Blended with Chitosan Nanoparticles for Vascular Graft Applications.

Cardiovasc Eng Technol 2018 Sep 26;9(3):503-513. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department for Management of Science and Technology Development, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

In this study, a small vascular graft based on polyurethane (PU) blended with chitosan (Ch) nanoparticles was fabricated using electrospinning technique. Initially, the chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized using ionic gelation method. UV-Vis spectrophotometer confirmed the presence of synthesized Ch nanoparticles by exhibiting absorption peak at 288 nm and the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the existence of the chitosan. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13239-018-0357-yDOI Listing
September 2018
3 Reads