973 results match your criteria Cardiology in review[Journal]


Cardiac Immune Related Adverse Events in Immune Checkpoint Inhibition Therapy.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jun 14. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors present clinicians with both an exciting step forward in cancer treatment and the unknown possibilities of an unshackled immune system. The latter phenomena, known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs), are of particular interest because they may affect any organ system with autoimmune-like pathologies, such as hepatitis and colitis. Within the cardiovascular system, irAEs associated with immune checkpoint blockade exist as a broad clinical spectrum, with autoimmune myocarditis being the best-characterized entity at this time. Read More

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Obesity in Kidney Transplantation: Impact on Transplant Candidates, Recipients and Donors.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jun 4. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

From the Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology/Kidney Transplant Service, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Obesity is now common among children and adults who are kidney transplant candidates and recipients. It is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and kidney failure. This also pertains to potential living kidney donors with obesity. Read More

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Acromegalic Cardiomyopathy: An Overview of Risk Factors, Clinical Manifestations, and Therapeutic Options.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.

Division of Cardiology, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY and.

Acromegaly is a rare endocrine disorder that carries a significant burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Abnormalities of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in acromegaly lead to the characteristic CV manifestations of this disease. One hallmark feature of the disease is acromegalic cardiomyopathy, a syndrome of progressive cardiac dysfunction characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, and combined systolic and diastolic dysfunction in the very advanced stage. Read More

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Left Main Disease: What is the Correct Approach to Revascularization?

Cardiol Rev 2018 May 23. Epub 2018 May 23.

From the Division of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Percutaneous coronary intervention of the left main coronary artery has evolved through registries and meta analyses, supported by results from the Everolimus-Eluting Stents(EES) or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease (EXCEL) and Percutaneous Coronary Angioplasty versus Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Treatment of Unprotected Left Main Stenosis (NOBLE) trials as an acceptable alternative to coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with low and intermediate Syntax scores. Advances in stenting strategies and the availability of larger diameter drug-eluting stents improves patient safety and optimizes procedural and patient outcomes. Read More

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GI Bleeding During CF-LVAD Support: State of the Field.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.

Division of Cardiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467, USA.

Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) are increasingly used for the management of advanced heart failure refractory to optimal medical therapy. Despite the encouraging outcomes with CF-LVADs, gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) continues to be a rather concerning complication resulting in increased rates of readmission and increased morbidity. The exact pathophysiology of CF-LVAD associated GIB remains poorly understood and this lack of knowledge limits our ability to control this morbid complication. Read More

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Novel Pharmacotherapy in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May 9. Epub 2018 May 9.

Division of Cardiology, New York Medical College at Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, USA.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease characterized by unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy. Although it is estimated to affect 1 out of 500 people, the HCM gene carrier prevalence is much more common, probably as high as 1 in 200 people. Most affected individuals have a normal life expectancy, while some patients may develop sudden cardiac death or end-stage heart failure. Read More

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Are Shorter Durations of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Acceptable Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):213-217

The University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy, Albuquerque, NM.

Much debate has centered on whether or not the standard 12-month duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is still necessary postpercutaneous coronary intervention, given recent improvements in stent technology. The benefits of shorter (3-6 months) durations of DAPT include a potential lower risk for bleeding and less patient drug cost and pill burden. Although randomized clinical trials have shown noninferiority for shorter versus longer DAPT regimens in many regards, some endpoints (e. Read More

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May 2018
2 Reads

Exercise for Preventing Hospitalization and Readmission in Adults with Congestive Heart Failure.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4.

Elsevier Evidence-Based Medicine Center, Philadelpha, Pa.

We critically appraised all available evidence regarding exercise interventions for improving patient survival and reducing hospital admissions in adults with chronic heart failure (HF). We searched 4 databases up to April 2018 and graded the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group approach. We reviewed 7 meta-analyses and the publications of 48 randomized, controlled trials (RCT). Read More

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May 2018
1 Read

Review on Factors Influencing Physician Guideline Adherence in Cardiology.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Apr 9. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death in Western countries. Physician adherence to guidelines is often suboptimal, resulting in impaired patient outcome and prognosis. Multiple studies have been conducted to evaluate patterns and the influencing factors of patient adherence, but little is known about factors influencing physician guideline adherence. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Sudden Cardiac Death in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):145-151

From the Department of Cardiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a heart disease characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricular myocardium and is most often caused by mutations in sarcomere genes. The structural and functional abnormalities are not explained by flow-limiting coronary artery disease or loading conditions. The disease affects at least 0. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Periprocedural Management of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Surrounding Cardioversion and Invasive Electrophysiological Procedures.

Cardiol Rev 2017 Apr 4. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Vanderbilt Heart and Vascular Institute, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

As direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety outcomes compared with vitamin K antagonists for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism and the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation, their role in the management of anticoagulation during electrophysiological procedures continues to evolve. At present, guidelines are limited regarding specific recommendations for the use of DOACs in these clinical settings. Here we review available data regarding the risks and benefits associated with various periprocedural anticoagulation management approaches when patients receiving DOACs undergo electrophysiologic procedures including cardioversion, ablation, and device implantation. Read More

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April 2017
4 Reads

The Physiological Rationale for Incorporating Pulsatility in Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Peter Munk Cardiac Centre, Toronto General Institute, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Over the past few decades, left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support has extended the lives of many patients with end-stage heart failure. The most common devices are continuous-flow (CF) LVADs. The use of the CF-LVADs has required that clinicians learn the physiological and clinical consequences of long-term continuous blood flow. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibition in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of Large-scale Cardiovascular Outcome Studies and Possible Mechanisms of Benefit.

Authors:
Rinkoo Dalan

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Cardiovascular (CV) disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, conventional anti-hyperglycemic medications seem to have minimal effect on lowering CV risk despite achieving excellent reductions in glycated hemoglobin A1c and associated reductions in microvascular risk. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have emerged as noteworthy anti-hyperglycemic agents with concomitant CV and renal protection in T2DM patients. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

INTER-ATRIAL SHUNTING, A NOVEL DEVICE-BASED THERAPY FOR PATIENTS WITH HEART FAILURE.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Departments of Medicine, New York Presbyterian/Weill-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY and New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Heart failure patients with either reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) experience a high mortality rate. The most recent pharmacologic advance for treating patients with HFrEF has been with sacubitril/valsartan. Along with pharmaceutical research, there has been interest in device-based therapies as another treatment approach. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Risk-Adjusted Overall Mortality as a Quality Measure in the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit.

Authors:
Michael Goldfarb

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 30. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Division of Cardiology, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Risk-adjusted mortality has been proposed as a quality of care indicator to gauge Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CICU) performance. Mortality is easily measured, readily understandable, and a meaningful outcome for the patient, provider, administrative agencies, and other key stakeholders. Disease-specific risk-adjusted mortality is commonly used in cardiovascular medicine as an indicator of care quality, for external accreditation, and to determine payer reimbursement. Read More

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March 2018
1 Read

Xenon: An Emerging Neuroprotectant With Potential Application for Cardiac Arrest Care.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):207-212

Department of Medicine, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, New York.

Xenon is an inert, highly polarizable noble gas with demonstrated safety and application in general anesthesia for over 50 years. A potent inhibitor of the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors, xenon has a well-documented ameliorating effect on excitotoxic neuronal injury in numerous cellular and animal models of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The most important determinant of overall survival and morbidity in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is the severity of neurological injury. Read More

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April 2018
1 Read

Through the Decades: β-Blocker Use and Outcomes in Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):157-166

From the Department of Pharmacy Practice and Science, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD.

Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists, or β-blockers, have been a cornerstone of treatment in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) for more than 4 decades. First studied in the 1960s, β-blockers in ACS have been shown to decrease the risk of death, recurrent ischemic events, and arrhythmias by reducing catecholamine-mediated effects and reducing myocardial oxygen demand. Through the decades, the β-blocker of choice, timing of initiation, duration of therapy, and dosing have evolved considerably. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Frank Cole Spencer, MD-Surgeon, Innovator, and Educator.

Authors:
George Hines

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):167-168

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, New York University-Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY.

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April 2018
1 Read

Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management of Orthotopic Liver Transplant Candidates With Portopulmonary Hypertension.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):169-176

Division of Transplant Hepatology, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is seen in 5-8% of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) candidates and has significant implications for clinical outcomes. POPH is characterized by vasoconstriction and remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. It is exacerbated by the hyperdynamic circulation that is common in advanced liver disease. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

Cardioprotection in the Modern Era of Cancer Chemotherapy.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):113-121

From the Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA.

The current arsenal of cancer chemotherapy is broad and rapidly expanding and includes conventional cytotoxic agents and targeted and immune-based therapies. As cancer survival rates have improved, the acute and latent cardiotoxicities of chemotherapy have emerged as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. All chemotherapeutic agents have the potential for cardiac complications, with manifestations ranging from subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and asymptomatic QT prolongation, to congestive heart failure, myocardial ischemia, myocarditis, arrhythmia, and sudden cardiac death. Read More

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April 2018
5 Reads

His Bundle Pacing: Hemodynamics and Clinical Outcomes.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):201-206

Texas Cardiac Arrhythmia Institute at St. David's Medical Center, Austin, TX.

From 1993 to 2009, nearly 2.9 million pacemakers were implanted in the United States; the majority of which were dual-chamber pacemakers. One of the major physiologic advantages of dual-chamber pacing over single-chamber ventricular pacing is atrioventricular synchrony, which prevents the pacemaker syndrome. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Antithrombotic Management of Patients With Prosthetic Heart Valves.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):177-186

From the Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Valvular heart disease is a major public health issue. The prevalence of valvular heart disease is expected to increase due to an aging population. Valve dysfunction manifests as valve stenosis, regurgitation, or both due to various etiologies. Read More

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April 2018
4 Reads

Medical Management of Rheumatic Heart Disease: A Systematic Review of the Evidence.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):187-195

School of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is an important cause of heart disease globally. Its management can encompass medical and procedural (catheter and surgical) interventions. Literature pertaining to the medical management of RHD from PubMed 1990-2016 and via selected article reference lists was reviewed. Read More

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April 2018
3 Reads

Patent Foramen Ovale and Hypoxemia.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Patent foramen ovale (PFO), an embryonic remnant of the fetal circulation, is present in 20-25% of adults. While recent observational studies and clinical trials have established the link between PFO-mediated right-to-left shunting with cryptogenic stroke and migraine with aura, the role of a PFO in exacerbating hypoxemic medical conditions (i.e. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Tocilizumab in Giant Cell Arteritis.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 22. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Departments of Medicine, Brown University/Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI and New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Giant cell arteritis is a granulomatous immune-mediated vasculitis of medium and large vessels. It most commonly affects Caucasian females over the age of 50 and is the most common primary vasculitis in the United States. Treatment of this disease has classically been with high-dose corticosteroids, but this therapy has been associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Read More

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March 2018
2 Reads

Emerging Implications of Genetic Testing in Inherited Primary Arrhythmia Syndromes.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar 8. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

From the Department of Cardiology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Switzerland.

Inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes are genetically determined disorders of cardiac ion channels or ion channel macromolecular complexes usually associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. These conditions have a very broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from an asymptomatic course to syncope, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and conduction disturbances, but may produce sudden infant death syndrome and unexplained sudden cardiac death in apparently healthy individuals. During the last 20 years, the evolving knowledge on the genetic basis of inherited arrhythmia syndromes has dramatically reshaped our understanding of these conditions and, consequently, had a great impact on patient care. Read More

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March 2018
3 Reads

A Nonsurgical Approach to Mesenteric Vascular Disease.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):99-106

Mesenteric ischemia is a rare disorder, with considerably high morbidity and mortality rates. It can manifest in several ways, including acute mesenteric ischemia, chronic mesenteric ischemia, nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia, mesenteric venous thrombosis, and colonic ischemia. Of these, acute mesenteric ischemia is the most severe form of intestinal ischemia, with a high mortality rate. Read More

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February 2018
4 Reads

Acupuncture and Cardiovascular Disease: Focus on Heart Failure.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):93-98

From the Department of Medicine, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA and New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Symptomatic heart failure is managed with interdisciplinary approaches to reduce acute exacerbations and to improve mortality. Acupuncture is a standardized treatment of Traditional Chinese Medicine that has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system via a neurohumoral pathway known as the long-loop pathway. This article serves to examine recent evidence supporting the long-loop pathway as the physiologic mechanism of acupuncture and the sympatholytic, vasodilatory, and cardioprotective effects of acupuncture that could specifically improve cardiac function and quality of life measures in the management of congestive heart failure. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Impact of Improved Survival in Congenital Heart Disease on Incidence of Disease.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):82-85

Survival rates and life expectancies for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) have dramatically increased, and these patients are now reaching reproductive age. As they reproduce, questions pertaining to recurrent risk of disease and the impact on incidence rates have emerged. Recurrence rates for CHD have been estimated at 3% to 5%, although, due to the complex genetics underlying CHD, this range may represent an underestimation of the true risk. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Implications of the New National Guidelines for Hypertension.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):55-61

From the Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Westchester Medical Center and New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY.

Automated validated devices should be used for measuring blood pressure (BP). A systolic BP between 120 and 129 mm Hg with a diastolic BP < 80 mm Hg should be treated by lifestyle measures. Lifestyle measures plus BP lowering drugs should be used for secondary prevention of recurrent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in persons with clinical CVD (coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke) and an average systolic BP of ≥130 mm Hg or an average diastolic BP ≥ 80 mm Hg. Read More

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February 2018
1 Read

Was the Enalapril Dose Too Low in the PARADIGM-HF Trial?

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jul/Aug;26(4):196-200

ITClinical, Medical Writing, Lisboa, Portugal.

Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical syndrome associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and there remains a clear need for innovative therapies that can modify disease progression. Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) is a novel complex that combines simultaneous neprilysin inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade, that has demonstrated significant cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization reduction in the Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor/Neprilysin Inhibitor (ARNI) With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial when compared with evidence-based doses of the gold standard ACE inhibitor enalapril. In this comprehensive review, the authors discuss historical trials that have investigated clinical outcomes utilizing variable dosing levels of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction. Read More

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January 2018
21 Reads

Predictors of Outcomes in Myocardial Infarction and Cardiogenic Shock.

Authors:
Deepak Acharya

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Section of Advanced Heart Failure, Mechanical Circulatory Support, and Pulmonary Vascular disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Myocardial infarction (MI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Predictors of outcomes in AMI-CS include clinical, laboratory, radiologic variables, as well as management strategies. This article reviews the existing literature on short- and long-term predictors and risk stratification in MI complicated by CS. Read More

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January 2018
7 Reads

Acute Coronary Artery Dissection: A Review of the Literature and Current Evidence.

Cardiol Rev 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

DIO/Associate CMO for Medical Education, Department of Medicine-Rochester Regional Health System, Rochester, New York.

Acute coronary artery dissection is a rare, complex disease occurring particularly in young women without traditional cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology and treatment are different from acute coronary syndrome caused by plaque rupture or erosion. Its clinical presentation may vary from unstable angina to sudden cardiac death. Read More

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December 2017
12 Reads

Switching From Ticagrelor or Prasugrel to Clopidogrel.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):107-111

From the University of New Mexico College of Pharmacy and University of New Mexico Hospitals, Albuquerque, NM.

Ticagrelor and prasugrel are newer antiplatelet drugs which, like clopidogrel, block the P2Y12 platelet receptor to inhibit platelet aggregation. Compared with clopidogrel, both ticagrelor and prasugrel have greater clinical efficacy but also have a higher risk of bleeding and are much more costly. Therefore, some institutions and providers switch patients from ticagrelor or prasugrel to clopidogrel in an effort to lower bleeding risk, stem costs, or otherwise ensure that patients can safely adhere to long-term P2Y12 inhibitor therapy. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Mitral Valve and Subvalvular Repair for Secondary Mitral Regurgitation: Rationale and Clinical Outcomes of the Papillary Muscle Sling.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):22-28

Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common finding in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and it is associated with poor outcomes. It is the result of incomplete systolic closure of the mitral valve (MV) as a consequence of left ventricular dilatation, papillary muscle displacement with impaired systolic shortening, and mitral leaflet tethering. MV surgery may be performed in cases of significant secondary MR despite guideline-directed medical therapy. Read More

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December 2017
7 Reads

Cardiosphere-Derived Cells and Ischemic Heart Failure.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):8-21

After a myocardial infarction, heart tissue becomes irreversibly damaged, leading to scar formation and inevitably ischemic heart failure. Of the many available interventions after a myocardial infarction, such as percutaneous intervention or pharmacological optimization, none can reverse the ischemic insult on the heart and restore cardiac function. Thus, the only available cure for patients with scarred myocardium is allogeneic heart transplantation, which comes with extensive costs, risks, and complications. Read More

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December 2017
3 Reads

Aorto-Atrial Fistulas: A Contemporary Review.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):137-144

Aorto-atrial fistulas (AAFs) are a relatively rare, but potentially life-threatening condition, where an anomalous connection forms between the aortic structures and the cardiac atria. AAFs are most often the result of an underlying condition concerning the cardiac structures. It may be congenital, secondary to conditions such as aortic dissection, infective endocarditis, or valve replacement, or iatrogenic in nature. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

Cardiovascular Complications of Proteasome Inhibitors Used in Multiple Myeloma.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):122-129

The use of proteasome inhibitors (PI) as targeted chemotherapeutics have significantly improved survival in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, rare and serious cardiovascular complications have occurred as a result of their use, most commonly congestive heart failure, hypertension, and arrhythmias. MM occurs in an aged population with many concurrent cardiovascular risk factors. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

Sex-Specific Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Review of the Literature.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):73-81

From the US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD.

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a safe and effective therapy for aortic valve replacement in patients ineligible for or at high risk for surgery. However, outcomes after TAVR based on an individual's sex remain to be fully elucidated. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE using the keywords: "transcatheter aortic valve replacement," "transcatheter aortic valve implantation," "sex differences," "gender," "sex characteristics" and collected information on baseline features, procedural characteristics, and postprocedural outcomes in women. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

Five Presidents and a Secretary.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):1-7

Department of Medicine, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

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October 2017
3 Reads

Devices for Autonomic Regulation Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):43-49

Heart failure (HF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and an increasing economic burden. The persistence of HF's risk factors, coupled with an aging population, also leads to an increase in its incidence and prevalence. It is well established that sympathetic hyperactivity and parasympathetic withdrawal are instrumental in the development and worsening of HF. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

The Prognostic Implications of Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Current and Future Perspectives.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):130-136

From the 1st Cardiology Department, AHEPA University Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography represents a novel, simple, and reproducible technique for the estimation of left ventricular myocardial deformation (strain) and the evaluation of left ventricular twist mechanics. During the last few years, its clinical and prognostic implications in cardiomyopathies and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), in particular, have been rapidly increasing. Reduced global longitudinal strain is associated with more severe disease and confers an increased risk for major cardiac events, independently of other clinical and echocardiographic risk factors. Read More

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October 2017
5 Reads

Genetic Origins of Tetralogy of Fallot.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Mar/Apr;26(2):86-92

Due to improved survival and clinical outcomes, congenital heart disease (CHD) is an area of growing importance within the medical community. As these patients reach adulthood and have children, there has been a growing appreciation for the increased risk of CHD among their offspring, strongly implying a genetic element. Given the growing wealth of genetic data available and these clinical implications, this review serves to reexamine the role of genetics within CHD, using Tetralogy of Fallot as a model pathology. Read More

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October 2017
2 Reads

Effects of Anti-Inflammatory Medications in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A Focus on Losmapimod.

Cardiol Rev 2018 May/Jun;26(3):152-156

Inflammation plays an integral role in atherogenesis and the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD). The question remains as to whether targeted inhibition of specific pathways of inflammation will have any clinical benefits in CAD. In this article, we will review p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, one of the key sensors of cellular stress that plays an important role in the inflammatory cascade. Read More

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October 2017
6 Reads

Yosprala: A Fixed Dose Combination of Aspirin and Omeprazole.

Authors:
Keith T Veltri

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):50-53

From the Department of Pharmacy Practice, Touro College of Pharmacy, New York, NY; and Department of Pharmacy, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Patients who survive a primary cerebrovascular or cardiovascular event are at increased risk of a subsequent occurrence. Antiplatelet therapy plays an essential role for secondary prevention in individuals with stroke, transient ischemic attack, acute or chronic artery disease, or peripheral arterial disease. Read More

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October 2017
4 Reads

Ability of Nonstrain Diastolic Parameters to Predict Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiomyopathy: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):29-34

Doxorubicin is an important cause of chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy. Prior studies have found conflicting results of whether nonstrain diastolic parameters can predict doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. We performed a systematic review of English written publications using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Read More

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October 2017
3 Reads

Milrinone Dosing and a Culture of Caution in Clinical Practice.

Cardiol Rev 2018 Jan/Feb;26(1):35-42

Milrinone is an invaluable agent in the treatment of end-stage heart failure patients who are refractory to optimal medical therapy. In addition to its use in acute decompensated heart failure, milrinone can also be employed as a home infusion therapy or a bridge to cardiac transplant. Concerns about its adverse effects, such as an increased risk of arrhythmias and hypotension, often limit the doses of milrinone used in clinical practice. Read More

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October 2017
5 Reads

Early Coronary Angiography for Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Without ST Elevation.

Cardiol Rev 2017 Nov/Dec;25(6):331-335

From the *Divisions of Cardiology and Pulmonary and Critical Care, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA; and †Division of Cardiology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA.

There are over 300,000 out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OOHCA) in the United States each year, and the long-term survival rate is less than 10%. Despite improvements in postarrest management, the greatest drop-off in survival occurs during hospitalization, mostly due to myocardial dysfunction and neurological injury. Coronary artery disease is common in postcardiac arrest patients, with an incidence of approximately 60-80%. Read More

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June 2018
5 Reads

Neprilysin Inhibition and the Treatment of Heart Failure: Recent Steps in the Right Direction.

Cardiol Rev 2017 Nov/Dec;25(6):315-320

From the *Departments of Medicine, University of Rochester/Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY; and †New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY.

Numerous investigators have attempted to target the natriuretic peptide system in the treatment of heart failure since it was first described over 30 years ago. The history of neprilysin inhibition as a treatment for heart failure has been characterized by numerous setbacks. Recently, the PARADIGM-HF trial has shown favorable results, which may bring neprilysin inhibition into the mainstream of clinical practice. Read More

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June 2018
39 Reads