2,387 results match your criteria Cardiac Calcifications


Early-Age Manifestation of Singleton Merten Syndrome With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Features: A Case Report.

Cureus 2022 May 23;14(5):e25244. Epub 2022 May 23.

Pediatrics, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, SAU.

Singleton Merten syndrome (SMS) is one of the rarest multisystem genetic disorders that had been recognized in only a few cases. Patients who have this syndrome often present with calcification of the aorta and heart valves, dental dysplasia, joint calcification, distinct facial features, and growth and developmental delay. Other physical findings usually associated with SMS may include glaucoma, skeletal abnormalities including tendon rupture, muscle weakness, and arthropathy. Read More

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The Time-Dependent Role of Bisphosphonates on Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification.

J Cardiovasc Dev Dis 2022 May 25;9(6). Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA.

Atherosclerotic plaque calcification directly contributes to the leading cause of morbidity and mortality by affecting plaque vulnerability and rupture risk. Small microcalcifications can increase plaque stress and promote rupture, whereas large calcifications can stabilize plaques. Drugs that target bone mineralization may lead to unintended consequences on ectopic plaque calcification and cardiovascular outcomes. Read More

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Intracranial and heart valve calcifications in hemodialysis patients-Interrelationship and clinical impact.

Hemodial Int 2022 Jun 21. Epub 2022 Jun 21.

Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, Meir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel.

Introduction: Arterial calcification is an integral component of active atherosclerosis and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a systemic, life-threating disease that may occur at different sites and in various clinical presentations. Intracranial and valvular calcifications are common among dialysis patients and have been associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Read More

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Mechanisms and Drug Therapies of Bioprosthetic Heart Valve Calcification.

Front Pharmacol 2022 3;13:909801. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Valve replacement is the main therapy for valvular heart disease, in which a diseased valve is replaced by mechanical heart valve (MHV) or bioprosthetic heart valve (BHV). Since the 2000s, BHV surpassed MHV as the leading option of prosthetic valve substitute because of its excellent hemocompatible and hemodynamic properties. However, BHV is apt to structural valve degeneration (SVD), resulting in limited durability. Read More

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Coronary artery- and aortic valve calcifications in patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Int J Cardiol 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Dept. of Cardiology, Zealand University Hospital, 4000 Roskilde, Region Zealand, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Background: Patients with the hematological cancers Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPNs) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, whether MPNs have an increased burden of cardiac calcification has not been thoroughly investigated. Our aim is to investigate whether patients with MPNs have an increased burden of cardiac calcification that could help explain their increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Read More

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Radial Artery Calcification in Predicting Coronary Calcification and Atherosclerosis Burden.

Cardiol Res Pract 2022 31;2022:5108389. Epub 2022 May 31.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Invasive Cardiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Background: Atherosclerosis is a systemic arterial disease with heterogeneous involvement in all vascular beds; however, studies examining the relationship between coronary and radial artery calcification are lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the two sites and the prognostic value of radial artery calcification (RC) for coronary artery disease.

Methods: This is a single-center, retrospective cross-sectional study based on Doppler ultrasound of radial artery (RUS) and coronary artery angiography (CAG). Read More

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Diagnostic and Clinical Value of FFR in Stable Chest Pain Patients With Extensive Coronary Calcification: The FACC Study.

JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2022 Jun 16;15(6):1046-1058. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Background: The influence of extensive coronary calcifications on the diagnostic and prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography-derived fractional flow reserve (FFR) has been scantily investigated.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic and short-term role of FFR in chest pain patients with Agatston score (AS) >399.

Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study of 260 stable patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and AS >399. Read More

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Shockwave lithotripsy for treatment of calcific renal artery stenosis after an inadequately expanded renal artery stent.

Future Cardiol 2022 Jun 9. Epub 2022 Jun 9.

Mercy One, Iowa Heart Center, Des Moines, IA 50314, USA.

Renal artery calcifications can be associated with insufficient stent expansion and in-stent restenosis. Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) uses shockwaves to disrupt calcium and treat calcific renal in-stent restenosis. Herein, the authors present a case to treat resistant reno-vascular hypertension and in-stent restenosis of an inadequately expanded renal stent in a patient with severe calcific renal artery stenosis. Read More

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Extensive myocardial calcification in critically ill patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2022 May;10(13):4214-4219

Department ofCritical Care Medicine, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Suzhou 215028, Jiangsu Province, China.

Background: Myocardial calcification is a rare complication in critically ill patients. The prognosis of myocardial calcifications in critically ill patients is very poor if not treated in a timely manner. We describe a rare case of acute extensive myocardial calcifications due to acute myocarditis after receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support. Read More

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Generative models for reproducible coronary calcium scoring.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2022 Sep 31;9(5):052406. Epub 2022 May 31.

Amsterdam UMC location University of Amsterdam, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Coronary artery calcium (CAC) score, i.e., the amount of CAC quantified in CT, is a strong and independent predictor of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Read More

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September 2022

Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring: Current Status and Future Directions.

Radiographics 2022 Jun 3:210122. Epub 2022 Jun 3.

From the Department of Radiology (Amit Gupta, K.B., E.K., J.D.P., J.G., M.R., L.M.C., R.C.G.) and Harrington Heart & Vascular Institute (S.R.), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center/Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH 44106; and Department of Medicine, Mercy Health-St. Elizabeth Youngstown Hospital, Youngstown, OH (Aekta Gupta).

Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores obtained from CT scans have been shown to be prognostic in assessment of the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases, facilitating the prediction of outcome in asymptomatic individuals. Currently, several methods to calculate the CAC score exist, and each has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. Agatston CAC scoring is the most extensively used method. Read More

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Importance of Non-Newtonian Computational Fluid Modeling on Severely Calcified Aortic Valve Geometries-Insights From Quasi-Steady State Simulations.

J Biomech Eng 2022 Nov;144(11)

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174.

The Newtonian model has commonly been used to represent the viscosity of blood in the aorta, despite blood itself being a non-Newtonian fluid. This is justified where shear rates tend to be large. However, we hypothesized that using the Newtonian model to predict the hemodynamics on the aortic valve, particularly in those with severe calcifications, is inaccurate owing to valve leaflet geometry irregularities inducing multiple regions of low shear rates, <100 s-1, where a Newtonian model is invalid. Read More

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November 2022

Assessment of post-dilatation strategies for optimal stent expansion in calcified coronary lesions: Ex vivo analysis with optical coherence tomography.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2022 May 6. Epub 2022 May 6.

Interventional Cardiology Center, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

Introduction: Interventional cardiologists make adjustments in the presence of coronary calcifications known to limit stent expansion, but proper balloon sizing, plaque-modification approaches, and high-pressure regimens are not well established. Intravascular optical coherence tomography (IVOCT) provides high-resolution images of coronary tissues, including detailed imaging of calcifications, and accurate measurements of stent deployment, providing a means for detailed study of stent deployment.

Objective: Evaluate stent expansion in an ex vivo model of calcified coronary arteries as a function of balloon size and high-pressure, post-dilatation strategies. Read More

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The Role of Multimodality Imaging for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients With Chronic Total Occlusions.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 2;9:823091. Epub 2022 May 2.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Milan, Italy.

Background: Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has been traditionally considered a challenging procedure, with a lower success rate and a higher incidence of complications compared to non-CTO-PCI. An accurate and comprehensive evaluation of potential candidates for CTO-PCI is of great importance. Indeed, assessment of myocardial viability, left ventricular function, individual risk profile and coronary lesion complexity as well as detection of inducible ischemia are key information that should be integrated for a shared treatment decision and interventional strategy planning. Read More

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Aortic valve leaflet and root dimensions in normal tricuspid aortic valves: A computed tomography study.

J Card Surg 2022 May 8. Epub 2022 May 8.

Department for Cardiovascular Surgery, University Medical Center Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background And Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to use coronary computed tomography in patients with normal tricuspid aortic valves to perform detailed aortic root and aortic valve geometric analysis with a focus on the asymmetry of the three leaflets.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of anonymized coronary computed tomography angiograms was performed using dedicated software, where manual aortic root segmentation and marking of several points of interest were followed by automated measurements of aortic root and leaflets. Asymmetry of the three leaflets in individual patients was assessed by calculating absolute and relative differences between the largest and the smallest of the three leaflets. Read More

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Assessment of age, gender, and anxiety on ECG waveform morphology in a large population of domestic dogs.

Sci Rep 2022 05 5;12(1):7339. Epub 2022 May 5.

IDEXX Laboratories, Inc., Westbrook, ME, USA.

Cardiovascular diseases are major causes of death in the western world and this incidence increases in the elderly population. With aging, there are physiologic changes to the cardiac structure secondary to adipose tissue deposition, calcification of valve leaflets and changes in the structure of the heart including atrial remodeling. Such changes can make the myocardium more susceptible to stress leading to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in the aging population. Read More

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Extensive intra-myocardial calcifications: Value of multimodality imaging.

Echocardiography 2022 May 3. Epub 2022 May 3.

Cardiothoracic Centre CCM, Monaco, MC.

Background: Massive myocardial calcification is a very rare finding.

Introduction: Accurate identification and characteriation may help the clinicians to determine the etiology and clinical significance.

Results: In this case, the diagnostic pathway excluded previous myocardial infarction, myocarditis, and calcium-phosphate disorders. Read More

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Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Analysis of Calcium Content to Identify Non-culprit Vulnerable Plaques in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 15;9:876730. Epub 2022 Apr 15.

Department of Cardiology, Lariboisiere Hospital, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), University of Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Aside from the culprit plaque, the presence of vulnerable plaques in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may be associated with future cardiac events. A link between calcification and plaque rupture has been previously described.

Aim: To assess whether analysis of the calcium component of coronary plaques using CT angiography, coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) can help to detect additional vulnerable plaques in patients with non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Read More

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Effects of ferric citrate and intravenous iron sucrose on markers of mineral, bone, and iron homeostasis in a rat model of CKD-MBD.

Nephrol Dial Transplant 2022 Apr 28. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Division of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, USA.

Background: Anemia and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) are common and begin early in CKD. Limited studies have concurrently compared the effects of ferric citrate (FC) vs. IV iron on CKD-MBD and iron homeostasis in moderate CKD. Read More

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Risk of conduction disturbances following different transcatheter aortic valve prostheses: the role of aortic valve calcifications.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2022 Mar;19(3):167-176

Cardiac Surgery, Cardiovascular Center, Klinikum Nürnberg, Paracelsus Medical University, Nuremberg, Germany.

Objectives: To assess the impact of prosthesis choice and aortic valve calcifications on the occurrence of conduction disturbances after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative clinical characteristics, electrocardiograms, contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography scans and procedural strategies of patients who underwent TAVI in our center between January 2012 and June 2017. Quantification of calcium volume was performed for each aortic cusp above (aortic valve) and below (left ventricular outflow tract, LVOT) the basal plane. Read More

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State of the Art on the Role of Computed Tomography Angiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Diagnosis of Cardiac Causes of Death: A Narrative Review.

Tomography 2022 04 1;8(2):961-973. Epub 2022 Apr 1.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria, 1, 98125 Messina, Italy.

The need of a minimally invasive approach, especially in cases of cultural or religious oppositions to the internal examination of the body, has led over the years to the introduction of CT (PMCT) methodologies within forensic investigations for the comprehension of the cause of death in selected cases (e.g., traumatic deaths, acute hemorrhages, etc. Read More

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Longitudinal assessment of vascular calcification in generalized arterial calcification of infancy.

Pediatr Radiol 2022 Apr 19. Epub 2022 Apr 19.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI), also known as idiopathic infantile arterial calcification, is a very uncommon genetic disorder characterized by calcifications and stenoses of large- and medium-size arteries that can lead to end-organ damage.

Objective: To describe changes in imaging findings in 10 children with GACI at a single institution from 2010 to 2021.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study we reviewed initial and follow-up body imaging in children with genetic confirmation of GACI at our hospital. Read More

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A deep-learning method for the denoising of ultra-low dose chest CT in coronary artery calcium score evaluation.

Clin Radiol 2022 Jul 9;77(7):e509-e517. Epub 2022 Apr 9.

Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel; Tel Aviv University Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Aim: To evaluate a novel deep-learning denoising method for ultra-low dose CT (ULDCT) in the assessment of coronary artery calcium score (CACS).

Materials And Methods: Sixty adult patients who underwent two unenhanced chest CT examinations, a normal dose CT (NDCT) and an ULDCT, were enrolled prospectively between September 2017 to December 201. A special training set was created to learn the characteristics of the real noise affecting the ULDCT implementing a fully convolutional neural network with batch normalisation. Read More

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Surgical treatment of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in relatively elderly patients: Short- and long-term outcomes.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2022 Apr 12. Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: Our goal was to assess the short- and long-term outcomes of surgical treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in patients ≥65 years of age compared to patients < 65 years of age.

Methods: Sixty-four patients aged ≥65 years, surgically treated for symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, were compared to a control group of 125 patients <65 years.

Results: Patients aged ≥65 years were less frequently male (36% vs 68%, P < 0. Read More

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A Novel Idiopathic Atrial Calcification: Pathologic Manifestations and Potential Mechanism.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 21;9:788958. Epub 2022 Mar 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Air Force Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Background: Cardiac calcification is a type of ectopic pathologic calcification of unknown etiology and mechanisms. Once diagnosed, the location, extent and morphology of the calcified lesions, as well as their functional significance in the heart, are usually the focus of case reports. Calcification is mostly distributed in myocardium, but rarely reported in atrium. Read More

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Cardiac Calcifications: Phenotypes, Mechanisms, Clinical and Prognostic Implications.

Biology (Basel) 2022 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara 64/B, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

There is a growing interest in arterial and heart valve calcifications, as these contribute to cardiovascular outcome, and are leading predictors of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Cardiovascular calcifications are often considered as one disease, but, in effect, they represent multifaced disorders, occurring in different milieus and biological phenotypes, following different pathways. Herein, we explore each different molecular process, its relative link with the specific clinical condition, and the current therapeutic approaches to counteract calcifications. Read More

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The Importance of Cardiac Computed Tomography in the Diagnosis of Caseous Calcification of the Mitral Annulus-Case Reports.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Mar 9;12(3). Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Department of Internal and Occupational Diseases, Hypertension and Clinical Oncology, Wroclaw Medical University, Borowska 213, PL 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland.

Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is a common pathology of the mitral valve. In rare cases, calcifications occur in the mitral annulus degenerate serous; the caseous calcification of the mitral annulus (CCMA) then develops. Detection of CCMA is often random and requires differentiation from heart tumors or an abscess. Read More

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Annual operator volume among patients treated using percutaneous coronary interventions with rotational atherectomy and procedural outcomes: Analysis based on a large national registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2022 May 22;99(6):1723-1732. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Interventions, University Hospital, Kraków, Poland.

Background: Low operator and institutional volume are associated with poorer procedural and long-term clinical outcomes in the general population of patients treated with percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).

Aim: To assess the relationship between operator experience and procedural outcomes of patients treated with PCI and rotational atherectomy (RA).

Methods: Data for conducting the current analysis were obtained from the national registry of percutaneous coronary interventions (ORPKI) maintained in cooperation with the Association of Cardiovascular Interventions (AISN) of the Polish Cardiac Society. Read More

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Minireview: Transaortic Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Is There Still an Indication?

Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 4;9:798154. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Transaortic (TAo) transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become a valid alternative access route in patients with unsuitable femoral arteries. The current literature does not allow to clearly favor one of the alternative access routes. Every approach has its specific advantages. Read More

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Usability, performance and safety of a new device for degenerative mitral regurgitation: in vivo chronic evaluation.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2022 Mar 15. Epub 2022 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, San Raffaele University Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the usability, performance and safety of an innovative mitral valve device in the chronic setting characterized by an intraventricular bridge, which enables artificial chordae anchoring and/or direct posterior leaflet fixation.

Methods: Ten female sheep were employed and underwent device implantation. Any interference of the device with leaflet motion, ease of device use, correct chordae length estimation and implantation were evaluated. Read More

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