2,248 results match your criteria Cardiac Calcifications


Transthoracic Echocardiography: Beginner's Guide with Emphasis on Blind Spots as Identified with CT and MRI.

Radiographics 2021 Jun 11:200142. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

From the Departments of Radiology (M.D.G., R.D.M., S.D.K., R.M.B., J.D.M., D.W.G., E.A.R.) and Cardiology (J.M.R.), Madigan Army Medical Center, 9040 Jackson Ave, Tacoma, WA 98431; and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Md (M.D.G., J.M.R., D.W.G., E.A.R.).

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the primary initial imaging modality in cardiac imaging. Advantages include portability, safety, availability, and ability to assess the morphology and physiology of the heart in a noninvasive manner. Because of this, many patients who undergo advanced imaging with CT or MRI will have undergone prior TTE, particularly when cardiac CT angiography or cardiac MRI is performed. Read More

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Automatic coronary artery calcium scoring from unenhanced-ECG-gated CT using deep learning.

Diagn Interv Imaging 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Radiology Department, AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Georges Pompidou, Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, 75015 Paris, France.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an algorithm that can automatically estimate the amount of coronary artery calcium (CAC) from unenhanced electrocardiography (ECG)-gated computed tomography (CT) cardiac volume acquisitions by using convolutional neural networks (CNN).

Materials And Methods: The method used a set of five CNN with three-dimensional (3D) U-Net architecture trained on a database of 783 CT examinations to detect and segment coronary artery calcifications in a 3D volume. The Agatston score, the conventional CAC scoring, was then computed slice by slice from the resulting segmentation mask and compared to the ground truth manually estimated by radiologists. Read More

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Partial upper sternotomy is a safe alternative in mitral annulus decalcification.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria.

In patients with major annulus calcifications (MAC) requiring en-bloque decalcification anterolateral minithoracotomy (MT) is not suitable for safe and reproducible mitral valve surgery (MVS) procedures. In these cases, full sternotomy (FS) is still the preferred approach. Alternatively, less invasive MVS via partial upper sternotomy (PS) and transseptal access can be used in experienced centers. Read More

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Teaching an old dog new tricks: The prognostic role of CACS in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Atherosclerosis 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Houston Methodist Debakey Heart & Vascular Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

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The Relationship between Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, Vascular Calcifications and Arterial Stiffness in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 May 6;57(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Clinical Department No. 3, "Carol Davila" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 050474 Bucharest, Romania.

: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is likely that the accumulation of uremic toxins resulting in increased oxidative stress (OS) is a major contributing factor, but no clear link has been identified. The purpose of this research is to establish if advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP) levels in the serum of predialysis patients are a contributing factor to vascular calcification and increased arterial stiffness. Read More

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Proteoglycan 4 Modulates Osteogenic Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation during Vascular Remodeling and Intimal Calcification.

Cells 2021 May 21;10(6). Epub 2021 May 21.

Vascular Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, 17164 Stockholm, Sweden.

Calcification is a prominent feature of late-stage atherosclerosis, but the mechanisms driving this process are unclear. Using a biobank of carotid endarterectomies, we recently showed that Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4) is a key molecular signature of calcified plaques, expressed in smooth muscle cell (SMC) rich regions. Here, we aimed to unravel the PRG4 role in vascular remodeling and intimal calcification. Read More

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Successful Retrieval of Entrapped Guide Extension Catheter in the Right Coronary Artery with Heavy Calcifications.

Int Heart J 2021 ;62(3):682-686

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Okamura Memorial Hospital.

Usage of an optimal guide extension catheter often helps successful outcomes in complex percutaneous coronary intervention. Here, we report a case of successfully retrieving a guide extension catheter entrapped by a coronary stent in the middle RCA. The guide extension catheter was retrieved by anchoring with the stent delivery balloon. Read More

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Identification of coronary calcifications in optical coherence tomography imaging using deep learning.

Sci Rep 2021 May 28;11(1):11269. Epub 2021 May 28.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 8410501, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Coronary calcifications are an obstacle for successful percutaneous treatment of coronary artery disease patients. The optimal method for delineating calcifications extent is coronary optical coherence tomography (OCT). To identify calcification on OCT and subsequently tailor the appropriate treatment, requires expertise in both image acquisition and interpretation. Read More

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The role of physical activity and miRNAs in the vascular aging and cardiac health of dialysis patients.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(10):e14879

Department of Health Psychology and Research Methodology, Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Kosice, Slovakia.

Cardiovascular comorbidities are independent risk factors for mortality in dialysis patients. MicroRNA signaling has an important role in vascular aging and cardiac health, while physical activity is a primary nonpharmacologic treatment for cardiovascular comorbidities in dialysis patients. To identify the relationships between muscle function, miRNA signaling pathways, the presence of vascular calcifications and the severity of cardiovascular comorbidities, we initially enrolled 90 subjects on hemodialysis therapy and collected complete data from 46 subjects. Read More

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Lung cancer combined with diffuse peritoneal and mesenteric amyloidosis detected on 18F-FDG PET/CT: A case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(21):e25961

Department of Neurosurgery, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Rationale: Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils. Lung carcinoma is rarely reported to be associated with AA amyloidosis. With regard to the manifestation of amyloidosis infiltrating organs, most of the cases focus on the heart, liver, kidneys, and peripheral nervous system. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of intravascular lithotripsy in calcified coronary lesions: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.

Background: Intravascular lithotripsy (IVL) is a recently introduced therapeutic modality in the management of calcified coronary lesions (CCAD). IVL delivers sonic pressure waves to modulate calcium, hence promote vessel compliance and optimize stent deployment.

Methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search for studies that evaluated the utility of adjunctive IVL. Read More

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Rapid Onset Development of Myocardial Calcifications in the Setting of Renal Failure and Sepsis.

Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging 2021 Apr 1;3(2):e200549. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Radiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 655 W Baltimore St, Baltimore, MD 21201.

Myocardial calcifications can arise following damage to myocardial tissue or in the setting of disturbances in the calcium and phosphorus balance. They are associated with a number of cardiac sequelae, as well as higher mortality. Three cases of rapid-onset myocardial calcifications that developed within the course of 5 to 13 weeks in patients who had a history of sepsis and renal failure while undergoing hemodialysis are described. Read More

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Rheumatic mitral regurgitation: is repair justified by the long-term results?

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: The best treatment for rheumatic mitral regurgitation is still under debate. Our goal was to assess the long-term results of mitral repair for rheumatic mitral regurgitation performed in 2 referral centres for mitral repair.

Methods: Patients who underwent mitral valve repair between 1999 and 2009 were selected. Read More

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Correlation of atherosclerosis and osteoarthritis in ancient Egypt: A standardized evaluation of 45 whole-body CT examinations.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Apr 27;33:137-145. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Institute for Mummy Studies, Eurac Research, Viale Druso 1, I-39100 Bolzano, Italy. Electronic address:

Objective: To correlate atherosclerosis (Ath) and osteoarthritis (OA) in mummies from ancient Egypt.

Materials: Whole-body CT examinations of 23 mummies from the Ägyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung, Berlin, Germany, and 22 mummies from the Museo Egizio, Turin, Italy.

Methods: Ath was assessed in five anatomical regions by means of preserved arterial calcifications. Read More

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CoreValve vs. Sapien 3 Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: A Finite Element Analysis Study.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2021 Apr 27;8(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Aim: to investigate the factors implied in the development of postoperative complications in both self-expandable and balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valves by means of finite element analysis (FEA).

Materials And Methods: FEA was integrated into CT scans to investigate two cases of postoperative device failure for valve thrombosis after the successful implantation of a CoreValve and a Sapien 3 valve. Data were then compared with two patients who had undergone uncomplicated transcatheter heart valve replacement (TAVR) with the same types of valves. Read More

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ABCC6, Pyrophosphate and Ectopic Calcification: Therapeutic Solutions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 27;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96817, USA.

Pathological (ectopic) mineralization of soft tissues occurs during aging, in several common conditions such as diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and renal failure and in certain genetic disorders. Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE), a multi-organ disease affecting dermal, ocular, and cardiovascular tissues, is a model for ectopic mineralization disorders. ABCC6 dysfunction is the primary cause of PXE, but also some cases of generalized arterial calcification of infancy (GACI). Read More

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Cardiovascular Calcification as a Marker of Increased Cardiovascular Risk and a Surrogate for Subclinical Atherosclerosis: Role of Echocardiography.

J Clin Med 2021 Apr 13;10(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Fondazione Poliambulanza, Cardiovascular Disease Unit, University of Brescia, 25124 Brescia, Italy.

The risk prediction of future cardiovascular events is mainly based on conventional risk factor assessment by validated algorithms, such as the Framingham Risk Score, the Pooled Cohort Equations and the European SCORE Risk Charts. The identification of subclinical atherosclerosis has emerged as a promising tool to refine the individual cardiovascular risk identified by these models, to prognostic stratify asymptomatic individuals and to implement preventive strategies. Several imaging modalities have been proposed for the identification of subclinical organ damage, the main ones being coronary artery calcification scanning by cardiac computed tomography and the two-dimensional ultrasound evaluation of carotid arteries. Read More

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Association between Triglyceride Glucose Index and Corrected QT Prolongation in Chinese Male Steelworkers.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 12;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Medicine for International Students, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan.

Increased triglyceride glucose (TyG) index appears to be linked to carotid and coronary atherosclerosis and calcifications and possesses an elevated future risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation is associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, and a high prevalence of prolonged QTc interval was previously reported in blue-collar workers. The purpose of this study was to find the possible causal inter-relationship between TyG index and QTc interval in a large population of Chinese male steelworkers. Read More

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Selective screening imaging of the aortoiliac arterial system in kidney transplant candidates with non-contrast pelvic computed tomography.

Clin Transplant 2021 Apr 29:e14331. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Baylor University Medical Center, Annette C. and Harold C. Simmons Transplant Institute, Dallas, TX, USA.

Non-contrast pelvic computed tomography (CT) can detect severe iliac artery calcifications that present technical contraindications to kidney transplantation (TCT). We screened 454 asymptomatic patients with a history of any of the following: hemodialysis >10 years, diabetes mellitus >20 years, coronary artery disease (CAD) with percutaneous or surgical interventions, carotid disease, diabetes with below-/above-knee amputations, and heart-kidney transplantation candidacy. Patients with normal dorsalis pedis and/or tibialis posterior pulses were not screened. Read More

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A novel double clip-based vascular closure device in antegrade and retrograde femoral punctures: A single-center experience in peripheral non-cardiac procedures.

J Vasc Access 2021 Apr 28:11297298211012829. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Background: This retrospective study investigates the efficacy and safety of the novel Celt ACD vascular closure device (VCD) following antegrade and retrograde common femoral artery (CFA) punctures for the treatment of peripheral artery disease in a challenging patient collective (e.g. calcifications, obesity, and anticoagulation). Read More

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Biomarkers of bone and mineral disorders (FGF-23, fetuin-A) and vascular calcification scores as predictive tools for cardiovascular death in dialysis patients, at 10 years of follow-up.

Medicina (B Aires) 2021 ;81(2):191-197

Servicio de Nefrología, Hospital Privado Universitario de Córdoba, Córdoba, Argentina.

Cardiovascular disorders represent the leading cause of death in dialysis patients. Alterations of bone and mineral metabolism (BMM) and vascular calcifications play a fundamental role in it. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive role on cardiovascular mortality of the measurement of biomarkers of BMM and vascular calcifications. Read More

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Coronary intravascular lithotripsy for coronary artery calcifications- systematic review of cases.

J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect 2021 Mar 23;11(2):200-205. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Interventional Cardiology, Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, USA.

: Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a pathological deposition of calcium in the intimal and medial layer of the arterial wall. A plethora of therapeutic calcium debulking techniques is available for the treatment of CAC, including orbital or rotational atherectomy, excimer lasers, cutting, and scoring balloons, which are associated with a soaring rate of complication and low efficacy. To this end, in 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) posited that shockwave intravascular lithotripsy (S-IVL) technique can be employed with minimal complication. Read More

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Association of Global Cardiac Calcification with Atrial Fibrillation and Recurrent Stroke in Patients with Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; Department of Cardiology, National University Heart Centre Singapore, Singapore.

Background: Calcium deposits in the heart have been associated with cardiovascular events, mortality, stroke, and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, there is no accepted standard method for scoring cardiac calcifications. Existing methods have also not been validated for the assessment of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS). Read More

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Carotid artery molecular calcification assessed by [F]fluoride PET/CT: correlation with cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce St, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Objectives: There is growing evidence that sodium fluoride ([F]fluoride) PET/CT can detect active arterial calcifications at the molecular stage. We investigated the relationship between arterial mineralization in the left common carotid artery (LCC) assessed by [F]fluoride PET/CT and cardiovascular/thromboembolic risk.

Methods: In total, 128 subjects (mean age 48 ± 14 years, 51% males) were included. Read More

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Exploratory assessment of pineal gland volume, composition, and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels on prostate cancer risk.

Prostate 2021 Jun 16;81(8):487-496. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Introduction: Melatonin levels are partially driven by the parenchyma volume of the pineal gland. Low urinary levels of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin have been associated with increased risk of advanced prostate cancer, but the relationship between pineal gland volume and composition and prostate cancer risk has not been examined.

Materials And Methods: We utilized data from 864 men from the AGES-Reykjavik Study with complete pineal gland volumes and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin measurements. Read More

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Postmortem coronary artery calcium score in cases of myocardial infarction.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University Center of Legal Medicine Lausanne-Geneva, Chemin de la Vulliette 4, CH - 1000, Lausanne 25, Switzerland.

Sudden cardiac death (SCD) related to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (ACAD) resulting in myocardial infarction is the most prevalent cause of death in western countries. In clinical practice, coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is considered an independent predictor of coronary events, closely related to atherosclerotic burden and is quantified radiologically by the Agatston score being calculated through computed tomography. Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) allows the visualization and quantification of coronary calcifications before the autopsy. Read More

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Assessment of lesion-associated myocardial ischemia based on fusion coronary CT imaging - the FUSE-HEART study: A protocol for non-randomized clinical trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25378

Department of Cardiology, University of Medicine, Pharmacy, Sciences and Technology of Targu Mures.

Introduction: Multimodality assessment of coronary artery lesions has demonstrated superior effectiveness compared to the conventional approach, for assessing both anatomical and functional significance of a coronary stenosis. Multiple imaging modalities can be integrated into a fusion imaging tool to better assess myocardial ischemia.

Material And Methods: The FUSE-HEART trial is a single center, prospective, cohort study that will assess the impact of a coronary artery stenosis on myocardial function and viability, based on advanced fusion imaging technics derived from Cardiac Computed Tomography Angiography (CCTA). Read More

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Learning With Fewer Images via Image Clustering: Application to Intravascular OCT Image Segmentation.

IEEE Access 2021 11;9:37273-37280. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Deep learning based methods are routinely used to segment various structures of interest in varied medical imaging modalities. Acquiring annotations for a large number of images requires a skilled analyst, and the process is both time consuming and challenging. Our approach to reduce effort is to reduce the number of images needing detailed annotation. Read More

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February 2021

Periodontal Disease Is Associated with Increased Vulnerability of Coronary Atheromatous Plaques in Patients Undergoing Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography-Results from the Atherodent Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Mar 21;10(6). Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Clinic of Cardiology, Emergency Clinical County Hospital, 540136 Târgu Mureș, Romania.

The present study aimed to investigate the link between the severity of periodontal disease (PD), coronary calcifications and unstable plaque features in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography for unstable angina (UA). Fifty-two patients with UA, included in the ATHERODENT trial (NCT03395041), underwent computed tomographic coronary angiography (CCTA) and dental examination. Based on the median value of the periodontal index (PI), patients were assigned to the low periodontal index (LPI) group (PI < 22) and a high periodontal index (HPI) group (PI > 22). Read More

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Eruptive Calcified Nodules as a Potential Mechanism of Acute Coronary Thrombosis and Sudden Death.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr;77(13):1599-1611

CVPath Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Calcified nodule (CN) has a unique plaque morphology, in which an area of nodular calcification causes disruption of the fibrous cap with overlying luminal thrombus. CN is reported to be the least frequent cause of acute coronary thrombosis, and the pathogenesis of CN has not been well studied.

Objectives: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive morphologic assessment of the CN in addition to providing an evolutionary perspective as to how CN causes acute coronary thrombosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Read More

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