4,043 results match your criteria Carcinoma in Situ of the Urinary Bladder


[Interpretation of biopsy material after transuretral and laser en bloc resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer].

Arkh Patol 2022 ;84(3):32-39

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia.

Bladder cancer is one of the most common onco-urological diseases, ranked second in frequency among all tumors of the urinary system after prostate cancer. At the time of detection of the primary tumor, approximately 75% of patients have no invasion into the muscularis layer (non-muscle-invasive carcinoma), with tumor growth limited to the basal membrane (stage Ta) or submucosal base (stage T1). Removal of the tumor in a «unified block» (laser en-bloc resection or L-ERBT), unlike routine transurethral resection, allows to obtain qualitative biopsy material for precise pathomorphological staging of the tumor process. Read More

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Could double stain for p53/CK20 be a useful diagnostic tool for the appropriate classification of flat urothelial lesions?

Pathol Res Pract 2022 Jun 6;234:153937. Epub 2022 May 6.

Pathology Unit, Maggiore Hospital, AUSL Bologna, Bologna, Italy; Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine (DIMES), S.Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The differential diagnosis between flat urothelial lesions [reactive urothelial atypia (RUA), atypia of unknown significance (AUS), urothelial dysplasia (UD) and carcinoma in situ (CIS)] has relevant prognostic and therapeutic implications. This crucial distinction could be very challenging but it is currently performed on hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) slides, with a great amount of partially discordant and/or not conclusive findings of the potential adjunctive role of immunohistochemistry. Herein, we tested double staining (DS) for p53/CK20 to verify if p53(+) cells, CK20(+) cells and double-positive cells (DPCs) are differentially expressed among these lesions and if p53/CK20 could be a useful tool in this diagnostic setting. Read More

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Noninvasive papillary urothelial neoplasia (NIPUN): Renaming cancer.

Urol Oncol 2021 05 1;39(5):286-290. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pathology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN; Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN. Electronic address:

Papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP) terminology remains controversial given its reported recurrence rate, its low interobserver diagnostic reproducibility, and its morphologic and molecular genetic overlap with low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma. By contrast, referring to any noninvasive tumor as a "carcinoma" is also controversial. PUNLMP and low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinomas cannot be reliably distinguished from one another even by experienced pathologists. Read More

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Histopathologic findings in patients who have undergone blue light cystoscopy and bladder biopsy or transurethral resection: A contemporary clinicopathologic analysis of 100 cases.

Pathol Res Pract 2022 Jun 26;234:153916. Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Pathology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA; Department of Pathology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Decatur, GA 30033, USA. Electronic address:

Blue light cystoscopy is utilized to assist Urologists highlight potentially malignant -bladder lesions that might otherwise be undetected by standard cystoscopic techniques. There is a paucity of published studies in the literature regarding the histopathologic findings in this setting, especially regarding false positive lesions. A search was performed for patients who underwent blue light cystoscopy at our institution from 2017 to 2021. Read More

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Verrucous Squamous Hyperplasia of the Urinary Bladder.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Pathology (Russell, Vang, Epstein), The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.

Context.—: There is scant literature describing verrucous squamous hyperplasia of the urinary bladder.

Objective. Read More

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MiR-26a-5p as a useful therapeutic target for upper tract urothelial carcinoma by regulating WNT5A/β-catenin signaling.

Sci Rep 2022 04 28;12(1):6955. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Department of Urology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, ROC.

The role of miRNAs in cancer and their possible function as therapeutic agents are interesting and needed further investigation. The miR-26a-5p had been demonstrated as a tumor suppressor in various cancers. However, the importance of miR-26a-5p regulation in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) remains unclear. Read More

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Flat intraurothelial lesions of the urinary bladder-do hyperplasia, dysplasia, and atypia of unknown significance need to exist as diagnostic entities? and how to handle in routine clinical practice.

Mod Pathol 2022 Apr 25. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Departments of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and Urology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Classification of the putative flat preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the urothelium with features subthreshold for urothelial carcinoma in situ remains a challenging, indeed, vexing problem in diagnostic surgical pathology. This area, subtending lesions including flat urothelial hyperplasia, urothelial dysplasia, and atypia of unknown significance, has struggled under evolving classifications, changing criteria, and limited clinical actionability, all confounded by the recognized lack of diagnostic reproducibility. Herein, we review the state of the literature around these lesions, reviewing contemporary criteria and definitions, assessing the arguments in favor and against of retaining hyperplasia, dysplasia, and atypia of unknown significance as diagnostic entities. Read More

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The Diagnostic Dilemma of Urothelial Tissue Fragments in Urinary Tract Cytology Specimens.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2022 Apr 8;12(4). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Departments of Pathology and Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Since the release of The Paris System for Reporting Urinary Cytology (TPS), the assessment of urine cytology specimens has primarily focused on the detection of high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGUC) and carcinoma in situ (CIS). Fortunately, the malignant cells in these lesions tend to be loosely cohesive, resulting in the natural exfoliation of individual malignant cells into the urine. However, HGUC/CIS lesions occasionally exfoliate larger fragments which can be difficult to assess due to cellular overlap and fragment three-dimensionality. Read More

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Xpert® bladder cancer detection as a diagnostic tool in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: preliminary results.

Ther Adv Urol 2022 Jan-Dec;14:17562872221090320. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Urology, Provincial Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy Medical School, Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna, Austria.

Objectives: Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) represents about 5-10% of all urothelial malignancies with an increasing incidence. The standard diagnostic tools for the detection of UTUC are cytology, computed tomography (CT) urography, and ureterorenoscopy (URS). No biomarker to be included in the daily clinical practice has yet been identified. Read More

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Prognostic factors of early second transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer 10 years of experience of a referral center.

Rozhl Chir 2022 ;101(3):119-128

Introduction: Urothelial bladder cancer invading the submucosal layer (T1) is a tumor with a high risk of progression to invasive disease. In case of pT1 histology or absence of detrusor muscle in the specimen, an early second resection of the bladder tumor (reTUR) is indicated. According to retrospective studies, the histology finding of reTUR has a prognostic value. Read More

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Prognostic and Predictive Value of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Alterations in High-grade Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Treated with and Without Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Immunotherapy.

Eur Urol 2022 Jun 26;81(6):606-614. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

Department of Urology, Caritas St. Josef Medical Center, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data are available on the prognostic and predictive value of fibroblast growth factor receptor alterations (FGFRa) relative to clinical outcomes in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Objective: To determine whether FGFRa may be clinically useful in stratifying for treatment response in a real-world cohort of patients with pT1 NMIBC treated and untreated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation therapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A pooled dataset of matched clinical and genomic data (1992-2015) for pT1 NMIBC patients was assessed by the Bladder Cancer Research Initiative for Drug Targets in Germany consortium. Read More

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Non-Invasive Biomarkers in the Diagnosis of Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma-A Systematic Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Mar 16;14(6). Epub 2022 Mar 16.

Second Department of Urology, Centre of Postgraduate Medical Education, 01-813 Warsaw, Poland.

Beyond laboratory, imaging and endoscopic procedures, new diagnostic tools are increasingly being sought for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), especially those that are non-invasive. In this systematic review, we aimed to determine the effectiveness of non-invasive tests in the diagnosis of UTUC. PubMed and Embase electronic databases were searched to identify studies assessing effectiveness of non-invasive tests in the primary diagnosis of UTUC. Read More

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Reducing the Frequency of Follow-up Cystoscopy in Low-grade pTa Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Using the ADXBLADDER Biomarker.

Eur Urol Focus 2022 Mar 14. Epub 2022 Mar 14.

European Association of Urology Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Guidelines Panel, Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Background: Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is one of the most expensive cancers owing to frequent follow-up cystoscopies for detection of recurrence.

Objective: To assess if the noninvasive ADXBLADDER urine test could permit a less intensive surveillance schedule for patients with low-grade (LG) pTa tumor without carcinoma in situ (CIS) at the previous diagnosis.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In a prospective, double-blind, multicenter study, 629 patients underwent follow-up cystoscopy, transurethral resection of bladder tumor/biopsy of suspect lesions, and ADXBLADDER testing. Read More

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Penile extramammary Paget disease associated with urothelial carcinoma in situ: Case report and literature review.

J Cutan Pathol 2022 Jul 23;49(7):663-668. Epub 2022 Mar 23.

Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network and Princess Margaret Cancer Center, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is an uncommon disease affecting older men and women. Clinically, it appears as a plaque lesion with an erythematous or leukoplakic background in regions with abundant apocrine glands such as female external genitalia, perineum, scrotum, and penis.

Methods: We are presenting an 85-year-old patient with recurrent erythematous plaque lesions involving the penis and known to have urothelial carcinoma (UC) in situ of the bladder. Read More

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The Paris system classification for urinary cytology in patients under bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment.

Diagn Cytopathol 2022 Jun 9;50(6):289-294. Epub 2022 Mar 9.

Cytopathology Department, Laiko Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background: The role of urinary cytology as a diagnostic test for the detection and surveillance of urothelial cancer is crucial. Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the appropriate therapeutic strategy for patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma (HGCU) or in situ carcinoma. We investigate how applicable is the Paris System for reporting urinary cytology (TPS) and how accurate is urinary cytology, in patients who undergo intravesical BCG instillations. Read More

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Immune checkpoints inhibitors in the management of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. A scoping review.

Urol Oncol 2022 Feb 26. Epub 2022 Feb 26.

Department of Genito-Urinary Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL; Department of GU Oncology and Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL; Urology and Oncology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

Purpose: Provide the current state of trials investigating the effectiveness and safety of checkpoint inhibitors in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Methods: We conducted this scoping review following the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute. We searched for MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL databases, and clinical trials in search engines such as clinicaltrials. Read More

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February 2022

Does pathological sub stratification of T2 bladder cancer predict outcome in a contemporary pure urothelial carcinoma cohort?

Urol Oncol 2022 05 8;40(5):196.e11-196.e16. Epub 2022 Feb 8.

Department of Urology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN.

Introduction: Studies evaluating outcomes in bladder cancer sub stratified into T2a and T2b pathologic staging have demonstrated inconsistent results. Survival outcomes in a cohort of pure urothelial carcinoma patient undergoing radical cystectomy were evaluated to determine the prognostic value of T2 sub staging.

Methods: Using our prospectively maintained institutional cystectomy database, we identified patients with pure urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, either pT2aN0 or pT2bN0. Read More

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Impact of carcinoma in situ on the outcome of intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a comparative analysis of large real-world data.

Int J Clin Oncol 2022 May 10;27(5):958-968. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Urology, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Ehime, Metsuyama, Japan.

Background: This study investigated the clinical impact of carcinoma in situ (CIS) in intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Methods: This study retrospectively evaluated 3035 patients who were diagnosed with NMIBC and treated by intravesical BCG therapy between 2000 and 2019 at 31 institutions. Patients were divided into six groups according to the presence of CIS as follows: low-grade Ta without concomitant CIS, high-grade Ta without concomitant CIS, high-grade Ta with concomitant CIS, high-grade T1 without concomitant CIS, high-grade T1 with concomitant CIS, and pure CIS (without any papillary lesion). Read More

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The impact of grading scheme on non-muscle invasive bladder cancer progression: potential utility of hybrid grading schemes.

Pathology 2022 Jun 22;54(4):425-433. Epub 2022 Jan 22.

Department of Pathology, Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) grade is a major determinant of progression risk. The most widely utilised grading systems are the World Health Organization (WHO) 1973 and 2004 schemes. Recent publications suggest the utility of combining both into a four-tier or a hybrid three-tier system, subdividing WHO 2004 high grade into two separate categories while maintaining low grade as a single group. Read More

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Residual CIS after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical cystectomy for muscle invasive bladder cancer: Implications for neoadjuvant trials.

Urol Oncol 2022 04 16;40(4):164.e9-164.e16. Epub 2022 Jan 16.

James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: To better define surrogate endpoints for neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) trials in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We compared survival in patients with carcinoma in-situ (CIS) only vs. complete response following NAC and radical cystectomy (RC). Read More

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Recirculating hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy with mitomycin C (HIVEC) versus BCG in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: results of the HIVEC-HR randomized clinical trial.

World J Urol 2022 Apr 17;40(4):999-1004. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Urology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Madrid, Spain.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to compare the outcomes of high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC) patients treated with BCG vs recirculating hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy (HIVEC) with mitomycin C (MMC).

Methods: A pilot phase II randomized clinical trial was conducted including HR-NMIBC patients, excluding carcinoma in situ. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive intravesical BCG for 1 year (once weekly for 6 weeks plus subsequent maintenance) or HIVEC with 40 mg MMC, administered using the Combat BRS system (once weekly instillations were given for 6 weeks, followed by once monthly instillation for 6 months). Read More

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Impact of Age on Outcomes of Patients With Pure Carcinoma In Situ of the Bladder: Multi-Institutional Cohort Analysis.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2022 04 10;20(2):e166-e172. Epub 2021 Dec 10.

Division of Urology, European Institute of Oncology (IEO)-IRCCS, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology and Hematology Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Introduction: The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the role of age (cut-off 70 years) at diagnosis in predicting oncologic behavior of pure carcinoma in situ of the bladder.

Material And Methods: Inclusion criteria were: patients with pure CIS confirmed and that followed intravesical BCG treatment. Pure CIS was defined at any CIS not associated with another urothelial cancer. Read More

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Urachal yolk sac tumor penetrating the bladder as a diagnostic challenge: a case report and review of the literature.

Diagn Pathol 2022 Jan 14;17(1). Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Charles University and University Hospital Pilsen, Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Background: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a germ cell tumor. It is primarily located in the gonads but can also occur extragonadally (extragonadal yolk sac tumor - EGYST), most commonly in the pelvis, retroperitoneum or mediastinum. Only a few YSTs of the urachus have been described. Read More

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January 2022

Artificial Intelligence for Segmentation of Bladder Tumor Cystoscopic Images Performed by U-Net with Dilated Convolution.

J Endourol 2022 06 17;36(6):827-834. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Urology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka City, Japan.

Early intravesical recurrence after transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) is often caused by overlooking of tumors during TURBT. Although narrow-band imaging and photodynamic diagnosis were developed to detect more tumors than conventional white-light imaging, the accuracy of these systems has been subjective, along with poor reproducibility due to their dependence on the physician's experience and skills. To create an objective and reproducible diagnosing system, we aimed at assessing the utility of artificial intelligence (AI) with Dilated U-Net to reduce the risk of overlooked bladder tumors when compared with the conventional AI system, termed U-Net. Read More

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A Phase 1/2 Single-arm Clinical Trial of Recombinant Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) VPM1002BC Immunotherapy in Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer Recurrence After Conventional BCG Therapy: SAKK 06/14.

Eur Urol Oncol 2022 04 7;5(2):195-202. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

SAKK Coordinating Center, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: VPM1002BC is a genetically modified Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain with potentially improved immunogenicity and attenuation.

Objective: To report on the efficacy, safety, tolerability and quality of life of intravesical VPM1002BC for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence after conventional BCG therapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We designed a phase 1/2 single-arm trial (NCT02371447). Read More

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Effect of prior radiation on stage, differentiation, and survival in bladder cancer.

World J Urol 2022 Mar 6;40(3):719-725. Epub 2022 Jan 6.

Department of Urology, University of Kansas Health System, 3901 Rainbow Boulevard, Kansas City, KS, 66160, USA.

Purpose: Clinically significant differences in radiation-related bladder tumors are not well-characterized, and survival analyses are needed. In this study, we aimed to utilize a national cancer database to evaluate the effect of prior radiation on tumor characteristics and survival in bladder cancer patients.

Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 9 database was queried to identify patients diagnosed with bladder cancer as a second malignancy. Read More

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[Transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT)].

Urologe A 2022 Jan 4;61(1):71-82. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Universitätsklink für Urologie und Andrologie, Paracelsus Medizinische Universität Salzburg, Universitätsklinik für Urologie und Andrologie der PMU, Salzburger Landeskliniken, Müllner Hauptstraße 48, 5020, Salzburg, Österreich.

Transurethral resection of bladder tumors (TURBT) is the standard of care for the diagnostics and primary treatment of bladder tumors. These are removed by fragmentation using loop diathermy. The resection area is coagulated for hemostasis. Read More

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January 2022

International Bladder Cancer Group Consensus Statement on Clinical Trial Design for Patients with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-exposed High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

Eur Urol 2022 Jul 23;82(1):34-46. Epub 2021 Dec 23.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada. Electronic address:

Context: A large proportion of patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) fall in the gap between bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-naïve and BCG-unresponsive disease. As multiple therapeutic agents move into this gray area, there is a critical need to define the disease state and establish recommendations for optimal trial design.

Objective: To develop a consensus on optimal trial design for patients with BCG-exposed NMIBC, defined as high-grade recurrence after BCG treatment that does not meet the criteria for BCG-unresponsive disease. Read More

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Biological significance of MYC and CEBPD coamplification in urothelial carcinoma: Multilayered genomic, transcriptional and posttranscriptional positive feedback loops enhance oncogenic glycolysis.

Clin Transl Med 2021 12;11(12):e674

Department of Medical Research, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan.

Background And Purpose: The aim of this study is to decipher the underlying mechanisms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (CEBPD)-enhanced glycolysis as well as the biological significance of CEBPD and MYC coamplification in urothelial carcinoma (UC).

Methods: In vitro analyses were conducted to examine the effects of altered CEBPD or MYC expression on UC cells. The in vivo effects of CEBPD overexpression in a high-glucose environment on tumour growth were investigated in xenografted induced diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency/beige mice. Read More

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December 2021

Comparison between 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic diagnosis and narrow-band imaging for bladder cancer detection.

BMC Urol 2021 Dec 22;21(1):180. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Department of Urology, Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, 2-1-1 Minatojima-Minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 650-0047, Japan.

Background: To compare 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)-mediated photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) with narrow-band imaging (NBI) for cancer detection during transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT).

Methods: Between June 2018 and October 2020, 114 patients and 282 lesions were included in the analysis. Patients were orally administered 5-ALA (20 mg/kg) 2 h before TURBT. Read More

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December 2021