Semin Diagn Pathol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.
Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Inter-Hospital Pathology Division, IRCCS MultiMedica, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
In the lung, neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), namely typical and atypical carcinoids, and neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs), grouping small cell carcinoma (SCLC) and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC), make up for distinct tumor entities according to epidemiological, genetic, pathologic and clinical data. The proper classification is essential in clinical practice for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy purposes. Through an extensive literature survey, three perspectives on lung NENs have been revised: i) criteria and terminology on biopsy or cytology samples of primaries or metastases; ii) carcinoids with elevated mitotic counts and/or Ki-67 proliferation rates; iii) relevance of molecular landscape to identify new tumor entities and therapeutic targets. Read More