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    183 results match your criteria Carbon Balance and Management [Journal]

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    Historical effects of dissolved organic carbon export and land management decisions on the watershed-scale forest carbon budget of a coastal British Columbia Douglas-fir-dominated landscape.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12(1):15. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1M5, Canada.
    Background: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance. Read More


    Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 7;12(1):13. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Tecnosylva, Parque Tecnológico de León, 24009, León, Spain.
    Background: LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. Read More

    An appraisal of Indonesia's immense peat carbon stock using national peatland maps: uncertainties and potential losses from conversion.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 19;12(1):12. Epub 2017 May 19.
    USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1831 Hwy 169 East, Grand Rapids, MN, 55744, USA.
    Background: A large proportion of the world's tropical peatlands occur in Indonesia where rapid conversion and associated losses of carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services have brought peatland management to the forefront of Indonesia's climate mitigation efforts. We evaluated peat volume from two commonly referenced maps of peat distribution and depth published by Wetlands International (WI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and used regionally specific values of carbon density to calculate carbon stocks.

    Results: Peatland extent and volume published in the MoA maps are lower than those in the WI maps, resulting in lower estimates of carbon storage. Read More

    Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 4;12(1):11. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Sorbonne Universités (UPMC), CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN/IPSL, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France.
    Background: Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071-2100 is predicted to be 1-5.5 °C higher than that for 1971-2000. Read More

    Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 10;12(1):10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e. Read More

    Current remote sensing approaches to monitoring forest degradation in support of countries measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 17;12(1). Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Office, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed. Read More

    Combining airborne laser scanning and Landsat data for statistical modeling of soil carbon and tree biomass in Tanzanian Miombo woodlands.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 17;12(1). Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Background: Soil carbon and biomass depletion can be used to identify and quantify degraded soils, and by using remote sensing, there is potential to map soil conditions over large areas. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data and airborne laser scanning data were evaluated separately and in combination for modeling soil organic carbon, above ground tree biomass and below ground tree biomass. The test site is situated in the Liwale district in southeastern Tanzania and is dominated by Miombo woodlands. Read More

    Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12(1). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    UCD School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Background: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Read More

    Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12(1). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Read More

    From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 16;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Environmental Systems, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA, USA.
    Background: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Read More

    Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Geography, Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.
    Background: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Read More

    Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Winrock International, 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA, 22101, USA.
    Background: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Read More

    A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 25;12(1). Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Eastern Geographic Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 20192, USA.
    Background: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Read More

    Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
    Background: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Read More

    Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    UCD School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Background: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Read More

    Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Read More

    From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 16;12. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Environmental Systems, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA USA.
    Background: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Read More

    Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Geography, Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK.
    Background: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Read More

    Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Winrock International, 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22101 USA.
    Background: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Read More

    Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 1;12. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT UK.
    Background: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Read More

    A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 25;12. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Eastern Geographic Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 USA.
    Background: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Read More

    Erratum to: Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11:22. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, The College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ; West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), Accra, Ghana.
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13021-016-0058-5.]. Read More

    Assessing the INDCs' land use, land use change, and forest emission projections.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 8;11(1):26. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Background: In preparation for the 2015 international climate negotiations in Paris, Parties submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) expressing each countries' respective post-2020 climate actions. In this paper we assess individual Parties' expected reduction of emissions/removals from land use, land use change, and forest (LULUCF) sector for reaching their INDC target, and the aggregate global effect on the INDCs on the future development of emission and removals from the LULUCF sector. This has been done through analysis Parties' official information concerning the role of LULUCF mitigation efforts for reaching INDC targets as presented in National Communications, Biennial Update Reports, and Additional file 1. Read More

    Savanna burning methodology for fire management and emissions reduction: a critical review of influencing factors.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 16;11(1):25. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Institute for Agriculture and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 Australia.
    Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology-the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level-under its Emission Reduction Fund. Read More

    Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 14;11(1):24. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA.
    Background: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes.

    Results: Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year(-1), while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year(-1). Read More

    Improving carbon monitoring and reporting in forests using spatially-explicit information.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):23. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC Canada.
    Background: Understanding and quantifying carbon (C) exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere-specifically the process of C removal from the atmosphere, and how this process is changing-is the basis for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change. Monitoring forest systems and reporting on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals are now required components of international efforts aimed at mitigating rising atmospheric GHG. Spatially-explicit information about forests can improve the estimates of GHG emissions and removals. Read More

    Material flows accounting for Scotland shows the merits of a circular economy and the folly of territorial carbon reporting.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 8;11(1):21. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF UK.
    Background: It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation. Read More

    Modelling forest carbon stock changes as affected by harvest and natural disturbances. II. EU-level analysis.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):20. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate D - Sustainable Resources - Bio-Economy Unit, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA Italy.
    Background: Forests and the forest sector may play an important role in mitigating climate change. The Paris Agreement and the recent legislative proposal to include the land use sector in the EU 2030 climate targets reflect this expectation. However, greater confidence on estimates from national greenhouse gas inventories (GHGI) and more comprehensive analyses of mitigation options are needed to seize this mitigation potential. Read More

    Comparison of national level biomass maps for conterminous US: understanding pattern and causes of differences.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):19. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    College of Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR USA.
    Background: As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. Read More

    Performance of non-parametric algorithms for spatial mapping of tropical forest structure.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):18. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Agence National des Parks Nationaux, Battery 4, B.P. 20379, Libreville, Gabon.
    Background: Mapping tropical forest structure is a critical requirement for accurate estimation of emissions and removals from land use activities. With the availability of a wide range of remote sensing imagery of vegetation characteristics from space, development of finer resolution and more accurate maps has advanced in recent years. However, the mapping accuracy relies heavily on the quality of input layers, the algorithm chosen, and the size and quality of inventory samples for calibration and validation. Read More

    Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in Theobroma cacao agroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):17. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Kumasi, Ghana.
    Background: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Read More

    Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 17;11(1):16. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, The College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ; West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones. Read More

    A methodological framework to assess the carbon balance of tropical managed forests.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11(1):15. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Cirad, UMR EcoFoG (AgroParisTech, CNRS, Inra, Université de la Guyane, Université des Antilles), Campus agronomique, 97310 Kourou, French Guiana.
    Background: Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. Read More

    Indirect approach for estimation of forest degradation in non-intact dry forest: modelling biomass loss with Tweedie distributions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11(1):14. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frb C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Read More

    Mapping and estimating the total living biomass and carbon in low-biomass woodlands using Landsat 8 CDR data.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):13. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3009, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Background: A functional forest carbon measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system to support climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+, requires estimates of forest biomass carbon, as an input to estimate emissions. A combination of field inventory and remote sensing is expected to provide those data. By linking Landsat 8 and forest inventory data, we (1) developed linear mixed effects models for total living biomass (TLB) estimation as a function of spectral variables, (2) developed a 30 m resolution map of the total living carbon (TLC), and (3) estimated the total TLB stock of the study area. Read More

    Comparison of calculation methods for estimating annual carbon stock change in German forests under forest management in the German greenhouse gas inventory.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 22;11(1):12. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Thünen Institute of Forest Ecosystems, Alfred-Möller-Straße 1, 16225 Eberswalde, Germany.
    Background: The German greenhouse gas inventory in the land use change sector strongly depends on national forest inventory data. As these data were collected periodically 1987, 2002, 2008 and 2012, the time series on emissions show several "jumps" due to biomass stock change, especially between 2001 and 2002 and between 2007 and 2008 while within the periods the emissions seem to be constant due to the application of periodical average emission factors. This does not reflect inter-annual variability in the time series, which would be assumed as the drivers for the carbon stock changes fluctuate between the years. Read More

    Using fragmentation to assess degradation of forest edges in Democratic Republic of Congo.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 22;11(1):11. Epub 2016 Jun 22.
    Landscape Ecology and Plant Production Systems Unit, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP264-2, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium ; BIOSE Department, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Université de Liège, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
    Background: Recent studies have shown that fragmentation is an increasing threat to global forests, which has major impacts on biodiversity and the important ecosystem services provided by forested landscapes. Several tools have been developed to evaluate global patterns of fragmentation, which have potential applications for REDD+. We study how canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) change across several categories of forest edges determined by fragmentation analysis. Read More

    Estimating carbon sequestration in the piedmont ecoregion of the United States from 1971 to 2010.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 13;11(1):10. Epub 2016 Jun 13.
    Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Agricultural Meteorology, Nanjing University Of Information Science And Technology, Nanjing, 210044 China.
    Background: Human activities have diverse and profound impacts on ecosystem carbon cycles. The Piedmont ecoregion in the eastern United States has undergone significant land use and land cover change in the past few decades. The purpose of this study was to use newly available land use and land cover change data to quantify carbon changes within the ecoregion. Read More

    Carbon storage in Ghanaian cocoa ecosystems.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 23;11(1). Epub 2016 May 23.
    School of Archaeology, Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Background: The recent inclusion of the cocoa sector as an option for carbon storage necessitates the need to quantify the C stocks in cocoa systems of Ghana.

    Results: Using farmers' fields, the carbon (C) stocks in shaded and unshaded cocoa systems selected from the Eastern (ER) and Western (WR) regions of Ghana were measured. Total ecosystem C (biomass C + soil C to 60 cm depth) ranged from 81. Read More

    Modelling forest carbon stock changes as affected by harvest and natural disturbances. I. Comparison with countries' estimates for forest management.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 23;11(1). Epub 2016 May 23.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA Italy.
    Background: According to the post-2012 rules under the Kyoto protocol, developed countries that are signatories to the protocol have to estimate and report the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals from forest management (FM), with the option to exclude the emissions associated to natural disturbances, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. To increase confidence in GHG estimates, the IPCC recommends performing verification activities, i.e. Read More

    Harvested wood products and REDD+: looking beyond the forest border.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 21;11(1). Epub 2016 May 21.
    University of Hamburg, World Forestry, Leuschnerstr. 91, 21031 Hamburg, Germany ; SURF, Leuschnerstr. 91, 21031 Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: The focus of REDD+ is sensu stricto on maintaining forest carbon stocks. We extend the scope of sustainable management of forest from forests to timber utilization, and study carbon offsets resulting from the utilization of harvested timber for bio energy or harvested wood products (HWPs). The emission budget of harvesting operations depends on the loss of standing biomass by timber extracted from the forest site and logging losses on the one side, and on the other on the wood end use and the utilization of processing residues. Read More

    Spatially explicit analysis of field inventories for national forest carbon monitoring.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 7;11(1). Epub 2016 Jun 7.
    Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, 260 Panama St., Stanford, CA 94305 USA.
    Background: Tropical forests provide a crucial carbon sink for a sizable portion of annual global CO2 emissions. Policies that incentivize tropical forest conservation by monetizing forest carbon ultimately depend on accurate estimates of national carbon stocks, which are often based on field inventory sampling. As an exercise to understand the limitations of field inventory sampling, we tested whether two common field-plot sampling approaches could accurately estimate carbon stocks across approximately 76 million ha of Perúvian forests. Read More

    Evaluation of modelled net primary production using MODIS and landsat satellite data fusion.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 2;11(1). Epub 2016 Jun 2.
    Yellowstone Ecological Research Center, 2048 Analysis Dr. Ste. B, Bozeman, MT 59718 USA.
    Background: To improve estimates of net primary production for terrestrial ecosystems of the continental United States, we evaluated a new image fusion technique to incorporate high resolution Landsat land cover data into a modified version of the CASA ecosystem model. The proportion of each Landsat land cover type within each 0.004 degree resolution CASA pixel was used to influence the ecosystem model result by a pure-pixel interpolation method. Read More

    Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 31;11(1). Epub 2016 May 31.
    Department of Biogeochemical Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Hans-Knoell-Str. 10, 07745 Jena, Germany.
    Background: Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Read More

    The global potential for carbon capture and storage from forestry.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1). Epub 2016 Feb 26.
    Department of Business and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics, Helleveien 30, 5045 Bergen, Norway ; Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allegt. 55, 5007 Bergen, Norway.
    Background: Discussions about limiting anthropogenic emissions of CO[Formula: see text] often focus on transition to renewable energy sources and on carbon capture and storage (CCS) of CO[Formula: see text]. The potential contributions from forests, forest products and other low-tech strategies are less frequently discussed. Here we develop a new simulation model to assess the global carbon content in forests and apply the model to study active annual carbon harvest 100 years into the future. Read More

    Evaluating revised biomass equations: are some forest types more equivalent than others?
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 12;11(1). Epub 2016 Jan 12.
    USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Durham, NH USA.
    Background: In 2014, Chojnacky et al. published a revised set of biomass equations for trees of temperate US forests, expanding on an existing equation set (published in 2003 by Jenkins et al.), both of which were developed from published equations using a meta-analytical approach. Read More

    Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 8;11(1). Epub 2016 Jan 8.
    USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 60 Nowelo Street, Hilo, HI 96720 USA.
    Background: Spatially explicit forest carbon (C) monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha(-1)) on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha) using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. Read More

    Choice of satellite imagery and attribution of changes to disturbance type strongly affects forest carbon balance estimates.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2015 Dec 15;10(1):30. Epub 2015 Dec 15.
    Proyecto Mexico-Noruega, Comision Nacional Forestal, Coyoacán, D.F. Col. del Carmen Coyoacán, CP 04100 Mexico, Mexico.
    Background: Remote sensing products can provide regular and consistent observations of the Earth´s surface to monitor and understand the condition and change of forest ecosystems and to inform estimates of terrestrial carbon dynamics. Yet, challenges remain to select the appropriate satellite data source for ecosystem carbon monitoring. In this study we examine the impacts of three attributes of four remote sensing products derived from Landsat, Landsat-SPOT, and MODIS satellite imagery on estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and removals: (1) the spatial resolution (30 vs. Read More

    Robustness of model-based high-resolution prediction of forest biomass against different field plot designs.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2015 Dec 2;10(1):29. Epub 2015 Dec 2.
    Arbonaut Ltd, Kaislakatu 2, 80130 Joensuu, Finland.
    Background: Participatory forest monitoring has been promoted as a means to engage local forest-dependent communities in concrete climate mitigation activities as it brings a sense of ownership to the communities and hence increases the likelihood of success of forest preservation measures. However, sceptics of this approach argue that local community forest members will not easily attain the level of technical proficiency that accurate monitoring needs. Thus it is interesting to establish if local communities can attain such a level of technical proficiency. Read More

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