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    197 results match your criteria Carbon Balance and Management [Journal]

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    Delineating managed land for reporting national greenhouse gas emissions and removals to the United Nations framework convention on climate change.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 May 29;13(1). Epub 2018 May 29.
    National Institute for Space Research, Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation and Communication (INPE/MCTIC), São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Land use and management activities have a substantial impact on carbon stocks and associated greenhouse gas emissions and removals. However, it is challenging to discriminate between anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic sources and sinks from land. To address this problem, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change developed a managed land proxy to determine which lands are contributing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Read More

    Science-based approach for credible accounting of mitigation in managed forests.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 May 17;13(1). Epub 2018 May 17.
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1M5, Canada.
    Background: The credibility and effectiveness of country climate targets under the Paris Agreement requires that, in all greenhouse gas (GHG) sectors, the accounted mitigation outcomes reflect genuine deviations from the type and magnitude of activities generating emissions in the base year or baseline. This is challenging for the forestry sector, as the future net emissions can change irrespective of actual management activities, because of age-related stand dynamics resulting from past management and natural disturbances. The solution implemented under the Kyoto Protocol (2013-2020) was accounting mitigation as deviation from a projected (forward-looking) "forest reference level", which considered the age-related dynamics but also allowed including the assumed future implementation of approved policies. Read More

    Landsat phenological metrics and their relation to aboveground carbon in the Brazilian Savanna.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 May 15;13(1). Epub 2018 May 15.
    Geography Department, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: The quantification and spatially explicit mapping of carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems is important to better understand the global carbon cycle and to monitor and report change processes, especially in the context of international policy mechanisms such as REDD+ or the implementation of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Especially in heterogeneous ecosystems, such as Savannas, accurate carbon quantifications are still lacking, where highly variable vegetation densities occur and a strong seasonality hinders consistent data acquisition. In order to account for these challenges we analyzed the potential of land surface phenological metrics derived from gap-filled 8-day Landsat time series for carbon mapping. Read More

    Potential carbon loss associated with post-settlement wetland conversion in southern Ontario, Canada.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Apr 20;13(1). Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Institute for Wetland and Waterfowl Research, Ducks Unlimited Canada, PO Box 1160, Stonewall, MB, R0C 2Z0, Canada.
    Background: Natural wetlands can mitigate ongoing increases in atmospheric carbon by storing any net balance of organic carbon (peat) between plant production (carbon uptake) and microbial decomposition (carbon release). Efforts are ongoing to quantify peat carbon stored in global wetlands, with considerable focus given to boreal/subarctic peatlands and tropical peat swamps. Many wetlands in temperate latitudes have been transformed to anthropogenic landscapes, making it difficult to investigate their natural/historic carbon balance. Read More

    Estimation of forest aboveground biomass and uncertainties by integration of field measurements, airborne LiDAR, and SAR and optical satellite data in Mexico.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Feb 21;13(1). Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Earth Observation, Institute of Geography, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 07743, Jena, Germany.
    Background: Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed for understanding and managing processes involved in the carbon cycle and supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Furthermore, these products provide important baseline data for the development of sustainable management strategies to local stakeholders. The use of remote sensing data can provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales. Read More

    Assessment of soil organic carbon fractions and carbon management index under different land use types in Olesharo Catchment, Narok County, Kenya.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Feb 12;13(1). Epub 2018 Feb 12.
    Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology, University of Nairobi, P.O Box 29053, Nairobi, 00625, Kenya.
    Background: The changes in land use and land cover have a strong effect on the total soil organic carbon, its fractions and its overall soil health. This study carried out in Olesharo Catchment, Kenya, was to quantify the differences in total organic carbon (TOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), mineral organic carbon (MOC) and carbon management index (CMI) among four land use types: grasslands, shrublands, agricultural lands and barelands. It was also purported to evaluate the use of CMI as an indicator for soil degradation or improvement in response to land use and land cover changes. Read More

    Recycling of phenolic compounds in Borneo's tropical peat swamp forests.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Feb 7;13(1). Epub 2018 Feb 7.
    Tropical Medicine and Biology Multidisciplinary Platform, School of Science, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Background: Tropical peat swamp forests (TPSF) are globally significant carbon stores, sequestering carbon mainly as phenolic polymers and phenolic compounds (particularly as lignin and its derivatives) in peat layers, in plants, and in the acidic blackwaters. Previous studies show that TPSF plants have particularly high levels of phenolic compounds which inhibit the decomposition of organic matter and thus promote peat accumulation. The studies of phenolic compounds are thus crucial to further understand how TPSF function with respect to carbon sequestration. Read More

    Accounting of GHG emissions and removals from forest management: a long road from Kyoto to Paris.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Jan 3;13(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 1, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.
    Background: Forests have always played an important role in agreeing on accounting rules during the past two decades of international climate policy development. Starting from activity-based gross-net accounting of selected forestry activities to mandatory accounting against a baseline-rules have changed quite rapidly and with significant consequences for accounted credits and debits. Such changes have direct consequences on incentives for climate-investments in forestry. Read More

    Ecosystem carbon emissions from 2015 forest fires in interior Alaska.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2018 Jan 8;13(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA, USA.
    Background: In the summer of 2015, hundreds of wildfires burned across the state of Alaska, and consumed more than 1.6 million ha of boreal forest and wetlands in the Yukon-Koyukuk region. Mapping of 113 large wildfires using Landsat satellite images from before and after 2015 indicated that nearly 60% of this area was burned at moderate-to-high severity levels. Read More

    Correction to: Quantifying and understanding carbon storage and sequestration within the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, a tropical biodiversity hotspot.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 7;12(1):20. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
    Upon publication of the original article [1], the authors noticed that the figure labelling for Fig. 4 in the online version was processed wrong. The top left panel should be panel a, with the panels to its right being b and c. Read More

    Synergizing community-based forest monitoring with remote sensing: a path to an effective REDD+ MRV system.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 1;12(1):19. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    REDD Implementation Center, Babarmahal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Background: The reliable monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and removals from the forest sector is an important part of the efforts on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Forest-dependent local communities are engaged to contribute to MRV through community-based monitoring systems. The efficiency of such monitoring systems could be improved through the rational integration of the studies at permanent plots with the geospatial technologies. Read More

    Implications of allometric model selection for county-level biomass mapping.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Oct 18;12(1):18. Epub 2017 Oct 18.
    Department of Geographical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, USA.
    Background: Carbon accounting in forests remains a large area of uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Forest aboveground biomass is therefore an attribute of great interest for the forest management community, but the accuracy of aboveground biomass maps depends on the accuracy of the underlying field estimates used to calibrate models. These field estimates depend on the application of allometric models, which often have unknown and unreported uncertainties outside of the size class or environment in which they were developed. Read More

    High resolution remote sensing for reducing uncertainties in urban forest carbon offset life cycle assessments.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Oct 4;12(1):17. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
    Geoinformation Science Lab, Department of Geography, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Unter den Linden 6, 10099, Berlin, Germany.
    Background: Urban forests reduce greenhouse gas emissions by storing and sequestering considerable amounts of carbon. However, few studies have considered the local scale of urban forests to effectively evaluate their potential long-term carbon offset. The lack of precise, consistent and up-to-date forest details is challenging for long-term prognoses. Read More

    Revised methane emissions factors and spatially distributed annual carbon fluxes for global livestock.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Sep 29;12(1):16. Epub 2017 Sep 29.
    Joint Global Change Research Institute, 5825 University Research Court, Suite 3500, College Park, MD, 20740, USA.
    Background: Livestock play an important role in carbon cycling through consumption of biomass and emissions of methane. Recent research suggests that existing bottom-up inventories of livestock methane emissions in the US, such as those made using 2006 IPCC Tier 1 livestock emissions factors, are too low. This may be due to outdated information used to develop these emissions factors. Read More

    Historical effects of dissolved organic carbon export and land management decisions on the watershed-scale forest carbon budget of a coastal British Columbia Douglas-fir-dominated landscape.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12(1):15. Epub 2017 Jul 14.
    Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC, V8Z 1M5, Canada.
    Background: To address how natural disturbance, forest harvest, and deforestation from reservoir creation affect landscape-level carbon (C) budgets, a retrospective C budget for the 8500 ha Sooke Lake Watershed (SLW) from 1911 to 2012 was developed using historical spatial inventory and disturbance data. To simulate forest C dynamics, data was input into a spatially-explicit version of the Carbon Budget Model-Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3). Transfers of terrestrial C to inland aquatic environments need to be considered to better capture the watershed scale C balance. Read More


    Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 7;12(1):13. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Tecnosylva, Parque Tecnológico de León, 24009, León, Spain.
    Background: LiDAR remote sensing is a rapidly evolving technology for quantifying a variety of forest attributes, including aboveground carbon (AGC). Pulse density influences the acquisition cost of LiDAR, and grid cell size influences AGC prediction using plot-based methods; however, little work has evaluated the effects of LiDAR pulse density and cell size for predicting and mapping AGC in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LiDAR pulse density and grid cell size on AGC prediction accuracy at plot and stand-levels using airborne LiDAR and field data. Read More

    An appraisal of Indonesia's immense peat carbon stock using national peatland maps: uncertainties and potential losses from conversion.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 19;12(1):12. Epub 2017 May 19.
    USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 1831 Hwy 169 East, Grand Rapids, MN, 55744, USA.
    Background: A large proportion of the world's tropical peatlands occur in Indonesia where rapid conversion and associated losses of carbon, biodiversity and ecosystem services have brought peatland management to the forefront of Indonesia's climate mitigation efforts. We evaluated peat volume from two commonly referenced maps of peat distribution and depth published by Wetlands International (WI) and the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), and used regionally specific values of carbon density to calculate carbon stocks.

    Results: Peatland extent and volume published in the MoA maps are lower than those in the WI maps, resulting in lower estimates of carbon storage. Read More

    Future productivity and phenology changes in European grasslands for different warming levels: implications for grassland management and carbon balance.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 4;12(1):11. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Sorbonne Universités (UPMC), CNRS-IRD-MNHN, LOCEAN/IPSL, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France.
    Background: Europe has warmed more than the global average (land and ocean) since pre-industrial times, and is also projected to continue to warm faster than the global average in the twenty-first century. According to the climate models ensemble projections for various climate scenarios, annual mean temperature of Europe for 2071-2100 is predicted to be 1-5.5 °C higher than that for 1971-2000. Read More

    Relevance of carbon stocks of marine sediments for national greenhouse gas inventories of maritime nations.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 10;12(1):10. Epub 2017 May 10.
    Geological Institute, ETH Zurich, Sonneggstr. 5, 8092, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Background: Determining national carbon stocks is essential in the framework of ongoing climate change mitigation actions. Presently, assessment of carbon stocks in the context of greenhouse gas (GHG)-reporting on a nation-by-nation basis focuses on the terrestrial realm, i.e. Read More

    Current remote sensing approaches to monitoring forest degradation in support of countries measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) systems for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 17;12(1). Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Office, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Forest degradation is a global phenomenon and while being an important indicator and precursor to further forest loss, carbon emissions due to degradation should also be accounted for in national reporting within the frame of UN REDD+. At regional to country scales, methods have been progressively developed to detect and map forest degradation, with these based on multi-resolution optical, synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and/or LiDAR data. However, there is no one single method that can be applied to monitor forest degradation, largely due to the specific nature of the degradation type or process and the timeframe over which it is observed. Read More

    Combining airborne laser scanning and Landsat data for statistical modeling of soil carbon and tree biomass in Tanzanian Miombo woodlands.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 17;12(1). Epub 2017 Apr 17.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Background: Soil carbon and biomass depletion can be used to identify and quantify degraded soils, and by using remote sensing, there is potential to map soil conditions over large areas. Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data and airborne laser scanning data were evaluated separately and in combination for modeling soil organic carbon, above ground tree biomass and below ground tree biomass. The test site is situated in the Liwale district in southeastern Tanzania and is dominated by Miombo woodlands. Read More

    Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12(1). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    UCD School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Background: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Read More

    Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12(1). Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Read More

    From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 16;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Environmental Systems, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA, USA.
    Background: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Read More

    Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Geography, Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK.
    Background: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Read More

    Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Winrock International, 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA, 22101, USA.
    Background: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Read More

    A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 25;12(1). Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Eastern Geographic Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA, 20192, USA.
    Background: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Read More

    Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12(1). Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
    Background: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Read More

    Detecting peatland drains with Object Based Image Analysis and Geoeye-1 imagery.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    UCD School of Biosystems and Food Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
    Background: Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon cycle. They provide important ecosystem services including carbon sequestration and storage. Drainage disturbs peatland ecosystem services. Read More

    Scenarios in tropical forest degradation: carbon stock trajectories for REDD.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 9;12. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Department of Forest Resources Management, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Background: Human-caused disturbance to tropical rainforests-such as logging and fire-causes substantial losses of carbon stocks. This is a critical issue to be addressed in the context of policy discussions to implement REDD+. This work reviews current scientific knowledge about the temporal dynamics of degradation-induced carbon emissions to describe common patterns of emissions from logging and fire across tropical forest regions. Read More

    From berries to blocks: carbon stock quantification of a California vineyard.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 16;12. Epub 2017 Feb 16.
    Environmental Systems, University of California, Merced, Merced, CA USA.
    Background: Quantifying terrestrial carbon (C) stocks in vineyards represents an important opportunity for estimating C sequestration in perennial cropping systems. Considering 7.2 M ha are dedicated to winegrape production globally, the potential for annual C capture and storage in this crop is of interest to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Read More

    Impact of data model and point density on aboveground forest biomass estimation from airborne LiDAR.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 15;12. Epub 2017 Feb 15.
    Department of Geography, Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH UK.
    Background: Accurate estimation of aboveground forest biomass (AGB) and its dynamics is of paramount importance in understanding the role of forest in the carbon cycle and the effective implementation of climate change mitigation policies. LiDAR is currently the most accurate technology for AGB estimation. LiDAR metrics can be derived from the 3D point cloud (echo-based) or from the canopy height model (CHM). Read More

    Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 14;12. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    Winrock International, 2121 Crystal Drive, Suite 500, Arlington, VA 22101 USA.
    Background: The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Read More

    Carbon uptake by mature Amazon forests has mitigated Amazon nations' carbon emissions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 1;12. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT UK.
    Background: Several independent lines of evidence suggest that Amazon forests have provided a significant carbon sink service, and also that the Amazon carbon sink in intact, mature forests may now be threatened as a result of different processes. There has however been no work done to quantify non-land-use-change forest carbon fluxes on a national basis within Amazonia, or to place these national fluxes and their possible changes in the context of the major anthropogenic carbon fluxes in the region. Here we present a first attempt to interpret results from ground-based monitoring of mature forest carbon fluxes in a biogeographically, politically, and temporally differentiated way. Read More

    A carbon balance model for the great dismal swamp ecosystem.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2017 Dec 25;12. Epub 2017 Jan 25.
    Eastern Geographic Science Center, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA 20192 USA.
    Background: Carbon storage potential has become an important consideration for land management and planning in the United States. The ability to assess ecosystem carbon balance can help land managers understand the benefits and tradeoffs between different management strategies. This paper demonstrates an application of the Land Use and Carbon Scenario Simulator (LUCAS) model developed for local-scale land management at the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge. Read More

    Erratum to: Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11:22. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, The College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ; West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), Accra, Ghana.
    [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13021-016-0058-5.]. Read More

    Assessing the INDCs' land use, land use change, and forest emission projections.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 8;11(1):26. Epub 2016 Dec 8.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Background: In preparation for the 2015 international climate negotiations in Paris, Parties submitted Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) expressing each countries' respective post-2020 climate actions. In this paper we assess individual Parties' expected reduction of emissions/removals from land use, land use change, and forest (LULUCF) sector for reaching their INDC target, and the aggregate global effect on the INDCs on the future development of emission and removals from the LULUCF sector. This has been done through analysis Parties' official information concerning the role of LULUCF mitigation efforts for reaching INDC targets as presented in National Communications, Biennial Update Reports, and Additional file 1. Read More

    Savanna burning methodology for fire management and emissions reduction: a critical review of influencing factors.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 16;11(1):25. Epub 2016 Nov 16.
    Institute for Agriculture and the Environment, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 Australia.
    Savanna fire is a major source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Australia, savanna fire contributes about 3% of annual GHG emissions reportable to the Kyoto Protocol. In order to reduce GHG emissions from savanna burning, the Australian government has developed and approved a Kyoto compliant savanna controlled burning methodology-the first legal instrument of this kind at a global level-under its Emission Reduction Fund. Read More

    Attribution of net carbon change by disturbance type across forest lands of the conterminous United States.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 14;11(1):24. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
    NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 USA.
    Background: Locating terrestrial sources and sinks of carbon (C) will be critical to developing strategies that contribute to the climate change mitigation goals of the Paris Agreement. Here we present spatially resolved estimates of net C change across United States (US) forest lands between 2006 and 2010 and attribute them to natural and anthropogenic processes.

    Results: Forests in the conterminous US sequestered -460 ± 48 Tg C year, while C losses from disturbance averaged 191 ± 10 Tg C year. Read More

    Improving carbon monitoring and reporting in forests using spatially-explicit information.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):23. Epub 2016 Oct 26.
    Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada, 506 West Burnside Road, Victoria, BC Canada.
    Background: Understanding and quantifying carbon (C) exchanges between the biosphere and the atmosphere-specifically the process of C removal from the atmosphere, and how this process is changing-is the basis for developing appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies for climate change. Monitoring forest systems and reporting on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and removals are now required components of international efforts aimed at mitigating rising atmospheric GHG. Spatially-explicit information about forests can improve the estimates of GHG emissions and removals. Read More

    Material flows accounting for Scotland shows the merits of a circular economy and the folly of territorial carbon reporting.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 8;11(1):21. Epub 2016 Sep 8.
    School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, The King's Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF UK.
    Background: It is essential that the human race limits the environmental damage created by our consumption. A realistic pathway to limiting consumption would be to transition to a system where materials are conserved and cycled through the economy as many times as possible and as slowly as possible, greatly reducing the greenhouse gas intensive processes of resource extraction, resource processing and waste management. Material flow analysis (MFA) is a method used to understand how materials are consumed within a nation. Read More

    Modelling forest carbon stock changes as affected by harvest and natural disturbances. II. EU-level analysis.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):20. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate D - Sustainable Resources - Bio-Economy Unit, Via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA Italy.
    Background: Forests and the forest sector may play an important role in mitigating climate change. The Paris Agreement and the recent legislative proposal to include the land use sector in the EU 2030 climate targets reflect this expectation. However, greater confidence on estimates from national greenhouse gas inventories (GHGI) and more comprehensive analyses of mitigation options are needed to seize this mitigation potential. Read More

    Comparison of national level biomass maps for conterminous US: understanding pattern and causes of differences.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 26;11(1):19. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
    College of Earth, Ocean, Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR USA.
    Background: As Earth observation satellite data proliferate, so too do maps derived from them. Even when two co-located maps are produced with low overall error, the spatial distribution of error may not be the same. Increasingly, methods will be needed to understand differences among purportedly similar products. Read More

    Performance of non-parametric algorithms for spatial mapping of tropical forest structure.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):18. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Agence National des Parks Nationaux, Battery 4, B.P. 20379, Libreville, Gabon.
    Background: Mapping tropical forest structure is a critical requirement for accurate estimation of emissions and removals from land use activities. With the availability of a wide range of remote sensing imagery of vegetation characteristics from space, development of finer resolution and more accurate maps has advanced in recent years. However, the mapping accuracy relies heavily on the quality of input layers, the algorithm chosen, and the size and quality of inventory samples for calibration and validation. Read More

    Shade tree diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in agroforestry systems: implications for REDD+ implementation in a West African cacao landscape.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):17. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
    Forestry Research Institute of Ghana (FORIG), Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Kumasi, Ghana.
    Background: The promotion of cacao agroforestry is one of the ways of diversifying farmer income and creating incentives through their inclusion in REDD+ interventions. We estimated the aboveground carbon stocks in cacao and shade trees, determined the floristic diversity of shade trees and explored the possibility of implementing REDD+ interventions in cacao landscapes. Using replicated multi-site transect approach, data were collected from nine 1-ha plots established on 5 km long transects in ten cacao growing districts in Ghana West Africa. Read More

    Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 17;11(1):16. Epub 2016 Aug 17.
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, The College of Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana ; West African Science Service Centre on Climate Change and Adapted Land Use (WASCAL), Accra, Ghana.
    Background: The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones. Read More

    A methodological framework to assess the carbon balance of tropical managed forests.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11(1):15. Epub 2016 Jul 29.
    Cirad, UMR EcoFoG (AgroParisTech, CNRS, Inra, Université de la Guyane, Université des Antilles), Campus agronomique, 97310 Kourou, French Guiana.
    Background: Managed forests are a major component of tropical landscapes. Production forests as designated by national forest services cover up to 400 million ha, i.e. Read More

    Indirect approach for estimation of forest degradation in non-intact dry forest: modelling biomass loss with Tweedie distributions.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 29;11(1):14. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 23, DK-1958 Frb C, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Background: Implementation of REDD+ requires measurement and monitoring of carbon emissions from forest degradation in developing countries. Dry forests cover about 40 % of the total tropical forest area, are home to large populations, and hence often display high disturbance levels. They are susceptible to gradual but persistent degradation and monitoring needs to be low cost due to the low potential benefit from carbon accumulation per unit area. Read More

    Mapping and estimating the total living biomass and carbon in low-biomass woodlands using Landsat 8 CDR data.
    Carbon Balance Manag 2016 Dec 24;11(1):13. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
    Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3009, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania.
    Background: A functional forest carbon measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) system to support climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+, requires estimates of forest biomass carbon, as an input to estimate emissions. A combination of field inventory and remote sensing is expected to provide those data. By linking Landsat 8 and forest inventory data, we (1) developed linear mixed effects models for total living biomass (TLB) estimation as a function of spectral variables, (2) developed a 30 m resolution map of the total living carbon (TLC), and (3) estimated the total TLB stock of the study area. Read More

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