59 results match your criteria Carbon[Journal]


Carbon nanospikes have better electrochemical properties than carbon nanotubes due to greater surface roughness and defect sites.

Carbon N Y 2019 Dec 26;155:250-257. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901.

Carbon nanomaterials are used to improve electrodes for neurotransmitter detection, but what properties are important for maximizing those effects? In this work, we compare a newer form of graphene, carbon nanospikes (CNSs), with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown on wires and carbon fibers (CFs). CNS electrodes have a short, dense, defect-filled surface that produces remarkable electrochemical properties, much better than CNTs or CFs. The CNS surface roughness is 5. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2019.08.064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777722PMC
December 2019

Carbon nanotube bottles for incorporation, release and enhanced cytotoxic effect of cisplatin.

Carbon N Y 2019 May 2;50(4):1625-1634. Epub 2011 Dec 2.

Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, Science Drive 2, S15#05-PI-03, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as promising drug delivery systems particularly for cancer therapy, due to their abilities to overcome some of the challenges faced by cancer treatment, namely non-specificity, poor permeability into tumour tissues, and poor stability of anticancer drugs. Encapsulation of anticancer agents inside CNTs provides protection from external deactivating agents. However, the open ends of the CNTs leave the encapsulated drugs exposed to the environment and eventually their uncontrolled release before reaching the desired target. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.11.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522380PMC
May 2019
3 Reads

Gateless and reversible carrier density tunability in epitaxial graphene devices functionalized with chromium tricarbonyl.

Carbon N Y 2019 ;142

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

Monolayer epitaxial graphene (EG) has been shown to have clearly superior properties for the development of quantized Hall resistance (QHR) standards. One major difficulty with QHR devices based on EG is that their electrical properties drift slowly over time if the device is stored in air due to adsorption of atmospheric molecular dopants. The crucial parameter for device stability is the charge carrier density, which helps determine the magnetic flux density required for precise QHR measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.10.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6512977PMC
January 2019
2 Reads

Atypical Quantized Resistances in Millimeter-Scale Epitaxial Graphene Junctions.

Carbon N Y 2019 ;154

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

We have demonstrated the millimeter-scale fabrication of monolayer epitaxial graphene junction devices using simple ultraviolet photolithography, thereby significantly reducing device processing time compared to that of electron beam lithography typically used for obtaining sharp junctions. This work presents measurements yielding nonconventional, fractional multiples of the typical quantized Hall resistance at = 2 ( ≈ 12906 Ω) that take the form: . Here, and have been observed to take on values such 1, 2, 3, and 5 to form various coefficients of Additionally, we provide a framework for exploring future device configurations using the LTspice circuit simulator as a guide to understand the abundance of available fractions one may be able to measure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2019.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7067286PMC
January 2019

Manganese deception on graphene and implications in catalysis.

Carbon N Y 2018 Jun 24;132:623-631. Epub 2018 Feb 24.

Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, Texas 77005, USA.

Heteroatom-doped metal-free graphene has been widely studied as the catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Depending on the preparation method and the dopants, the ORR activity varies ranging from a two-electron to a four-electron pathway. The different literature reports are difficult to correlate due to the large variances. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223183021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.02.082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6157277PMC
June 2018
47 Reads

Chemistry below graphene: decoupling epitaxial graphene from metals by potential-controlled electrochemical oxidation.

Carbon N Y 2018 Apr 27;129:837-846. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Materials Science Factory, Dept. Surfaces, Coatings and Molecular Astrophysics, Institute of Material Science of Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

While high-quality defect-free epitaxial graphene can be efficiently grown on metal substrates, strong interaction with the supporting metal quenches its outstanding properties. Thus, protocols to transfer graphene to insulating substrates are obligatory, and these often severely impair graphene properties by the introduction of structural or chemical defects. Here we describe a simple and easily scalable general methodology to structurally and electronically decouple epitaxial graphene from Pt(111) and Ir(111) metal surfaces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.12.104DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6120681PMC
April 2018
7 Reads

Synthesis and Characterization of Graphite-Encapsulated Iron Nanoparticles from Ball Milling-Assisted Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition.

Carbon N Y 2017 Nov 23;124:170-179. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4034, USA.

Graphite-encapsulated Fe nanoparticles were synthesized using a combined method of high-energy ball milling and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD). FeO and graphite powders were milled to increase their surface areas and obtain a more homogeneous distribution. LPCVD was performed at a pressure of ~0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.08.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807011PMC
November 2017
5 Reads

Graphene as a functional layer for semiconducting carbon nanotube transistor sensors.

Carbon N Y 2017 Dec 11;125:49-55. Epub 2017 Sep 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 20742, United States.

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) hold vast potential for future electronic devices due to their outstanding properties, however covalent functionalization often destroys the intrinsic properties of SWCNTs, thus limiting their full potential. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of a functionalized graphene/semiconducting SWCNT (T@fG) heterostructured thin film transistor as a chemical sensor. In this structural configuration, graphene acts as an atom-thick, impermeable layer that can be covalently functionalized facile diazonium chemistry to afford a high density of surface functional groups while protecting the underlying SWCNT network from chemical modification, even during a covalent chemical reaction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5754036PMC
December 2017
5 Reads

Modified Facile Synthesis for Quantitatively Fluorescent Carbon Dots.

Carbon N Y 2017 Oct 28;122:389-394. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Emerging Materials and Technology, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, USA.

A simple yet consequential modification was made to the popular carbonization processing of citric acid - polyethylenimine precursor mixtures to produce carbon dots (CDots). The modification was primarily on pushing the carbonization processing a little harder at a higher temperature, such as the hydrothermal processing condition of around 330 °C for 6 hours. The CDots thus produced are comparable in spectroscopic and other properties to those obtained in other more controlled syntheses including the deliberate chemical functionalization of preprocessed and selected small carbon nanoparticles, demonstrating the consistency in CDots and reaffirming their general definition as carbon nanoparticles with surface passivation by organic or other species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.06.093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5697797PMC
October 2017
7 Reads

Enhanced durability of carbon nanotube grafted hierarchical ceramic microfiber-reinforced epoxy composites.

Carbon N Y 2017 Dec 6;125:63-75. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

As carbon nanotube (CNT) infused hybrid composites are increasingly identified as next-generation aerospace materials, it is vital to evaluate their long-term structural performance under aging environments. In this work, the durability of hierarchical, aligned CNT grafted aluminoborosilicate microfiber-epoxy composites (CNT composites) are compared against baseline aluminoborosilicate composites (baseline composites), before and after immersion in water at 25 °C (hydro) and 60 °C (hydrothermal), for extended durations (90 d and 180 d). The addition of CNTs is found to reduce water diffusivities by approximately 1. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223173088
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.09.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695714PMC
December 2017
9 Reads

Formation of Holmium Oxide in Pores of Mesoporous Carbon Nanoparticles as Substrates for Neutron-Activatable Radiotherapeutics.

Carbon N Y 2017 Jun 27;117:92-99. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599.

Radionuclide therapy with nano-sized carriers is a very promising approach to treat various types of cancer. The preparation of radioactive nanocarriers can be achieved with minimum handling using a neutron-activation approach. However, the nanocarrier material must possess certain characteristics such as low density, heat-resistance, high metal adsorption, easy surface modification and low toxicity in order to be useful. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.02.085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619678PMC
June 2017
2 Reads

Epitaxial graphene homogeneity and quantum Hall effect in millimeter-scale devices.

Carbon N Y 2017 May 30;115:229-236. Epub 2016 Dec 30.

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8171, USA.

Quantized magnetotransport is observed in 5.6 × 5.6 mm epitaxial graphene devices, grown using highly constrained sublimation on the Si-face of SiC(0001) at high temperature (1900 °C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.12.087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5600207PMC
May 2017
30 Reads

Thermally conductive thin films derived from defect free graphene-natural rubber latex nanocomposite: Preparation and properties.

Carbon N Y 2017 Aug;119:527-534

Corporate R&D Center, HLL Lifecare Limited, Akkulam, Sreekariyam (P.O), Trivandrum, 695017, India.

Commercially useful rubber products . gloves, condoms, tyres, and rubber hoses used in high temperature environments, etc., require efficient thermal conductivity, which increases the lifetime of these products. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223173043
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.04.068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465946PMC
August 2017
17 Reads

Exposure of few layer graphene to modifies the graphene and changes its bioaccumulation by other organisms.

Carbon N Y 2016 11 16;109:566-574. Epub 2016 Aug 16.

Biosystems and Biomaterials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Stop 8311, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001, United States.

While graphene has substantial commercial promise, numerous aspects regarding its ecological effects such as its potential for bioaccumulation are not well known. C-labeled few layer graphene (FLG) was dispersed in artificial freshwater and uptake of FLG by , an oligochaete, was assessed. After exposure for 36 h to a 1 mg/L FLG suspension, the FLG body burden in the organism was nearly 60 ng/mg (on a dry mass basis). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.08.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5500867PMC
November 2016
14 Reads

Correlation between X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra of 16 commercial graphene-based materials and their resulting classification.

Carbon N Y 2017 Jan 8;111:380-384. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

Structural properties of sixteen (16) commercial samples of graphene-based materials (GBM) labelled as graphene, graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide are investigated at room temperature using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed correlation between the results obtained with these two techniques, these samples are classified into three groups: Group A of seven samples consisting of graphitic nanosheets with evaluated thickness ≃20 nm and exhibiting both the 2H and 3R phases in XRD; Group B of six samples exhibiting XRD spectra characteristic of either graphene oxides (GO) or carbons with some order; and Group C of three samples with XRD spectra characteristic of disordered carbons. The relative intensities and widths of D, G, D', 2D and (D + D') bands in the Raman spectra are equally distinguishable between the samples in groups A, B and C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5497829PMC
January 2017
4 Reads

Growth of Monolayer Graphene on Nanoscale Copper-Nickel Alloy Thin Films.

Carbon N Y 2017 May 11;115:441-448. Epub 2017 Jan 11.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712.

Growth of high quality and monolayer graphene on copper thin films on silicon wafers is a promising approach to massive and direct graphene device fabrication in spite of the presence of potential dewetting issues in the copper film during graphene growth. Current work demonstrates roles of a nickel adhesion coupled with the copper film resulting in mitigation of dewetting problem as well as uniform monolayer graphene growth over 97 % coverage on films. The feasibility of monolayer graphene growth on Cu-Ni alloy films as thin as 150 nm in total is also demonstrated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.01.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5486230PMC
May 2017
8 Reads

Impact of UV irradiation on multiwall carbon nanotubes in nanocomposites: formation of entangled surface layer and mechanisms of release resistance.

Carbon N Y 2017 May 31;116:191-200. Epub 2017 Jan 31.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899.

Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are nanofillers used in consumer and structural polymeric products to enhance a variety of properties. Under weathering, the polymer matrix will degrade and the nanofillers may be released from the products potentially impacting ecological or human health. In this study, we investigated the degradation of a 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.01.097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5460675PMC
May 2017
11 Reads

High-quality PVD graphene growth by fullerene decomposition on Cu foils.

Carbon N Y 2017 Aug;119:535-543

Materials Science Factory, Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC), Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid, Spain.

We present a new protocol to grow large-area, high-quality single-layer graphene on Cu foils at relatively low temperatures. We use C molecules evaporated in ultra high vacuum conditions as carbon source. This clean environment results in a strong reduction of oxygen-containing groups as depicted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.04.067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5428744PMC
August 2017
7 Reads

Synthesis of graphene oxide membranes and their behavior in water and isopropanol.

Carbon N Y 2017 May 30;116:145-153. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Dept. Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA.

Graphene oxide (GO) membrane has been synthesized on commercial polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes (Pore size: 17 nm) using the drop casting method followed by baking at 90 C for 24 h. Baking resulted in the reduction of GO and removal of bulk water intercalated in the GO sheets. Deposited GO film showed high stability under shear stress variation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.01.086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6532981PMC
May 2017
16 Reads

NanoRelease: Pilot interlaboratory comparison of a weathering protocol applied to resilient and labile polymers with and without embedded carbon nanotubes.

Carbon N Y 2017 Mar;113:346-360

EPA, ORD, National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), 960 College Station Rd., Athens, GA, USA.

A major use of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is as functional fillers embedded in a solid matrix, such as plastics or coatings. Weathering and abrasion of the solid matrix during use can lead to environmental releases of the MWCNTs. Here we focus on a protocol to identify and quantify the primary release induced by weathering, and assess reproducibility, transferability, and sensitivity towards different materials and uses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104645PMC
March 2017
34 Reads

Thermochemistry and kinetics of graphite oxide exothermic decomposition for safety in large-scale storage and processing.

Carbon N Y 2016 01 11;96:20-28. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States; Institute for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, United States.

The success of graphene technologies will require the development of safe and cost-effective nano-manufacturing methods. Special safety issues arise for manufacturing routes based on graphite oxide (GO) as an intermediate due to its energetic behavior. This article presents a detailed thermochemical and kinetic study of GO exothermic decomposition designed to identify the conditions and material compositions that avoid explosive events during storage and processing at large scale. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.09.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5227653PMC
January 2016
9 Reads

Influence of External Heating Rate on the Structure and Porosity of Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide.

Carbon N Y 2017 Jan 21;111:651-657. Epub 2016 Oct 21.

School of Engineering, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI, USA, 02912.

Fast external heating rates in graphite oxide thermal exfoliation have been reported to be advantageous for generating high surface area graphene-based materials for a variety of applications. The study yields the surprising result that the surface area and porosity developed in reduced graphite oxide under some conditions are independent of instrument-set external heating rates. The true "total" heating rate experienced by the sample is shown to be the sum of the external rate and the local self-heating rate associated with the exothermicity of graphite oxide exfoliation, and under many conditions, the local self-heating contribution dominates. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223163091
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.10.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5198721PMC
January 2017
8 Reads

Fe-catalyzed etching of exfoliated graphite through carbon hydrogenation.

Carbon N Y 2016 01 25;96:311-315. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Semiconductor and Dimensional Metrology Division, Physical Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA.

We present an investigation on Fe-catalyzed etching of graphite by dewetting Fe thin films on graphite in forming gas. Raman mapping of the etched graphite shows thickness variation in the etched channels and reveals that the edges are predominately terminated in zigzag configuration. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy measurements identify that the catalytic particles are Fe with the presence of iron carbide and iron oxides. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.09.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5103320PMC
January 2016
39 Reads

Detecting Carbon in Carbon: Exploiting Differential Charging to Obtain Information on the Chemical Identity and Spatial Location of Carbon Nanotube Aggregates in Composites by Imaging X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

Carbon N Y 2016 01 24;96:1208-1216. Epub 2015 Oct 24.

Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899.

To better assess risks associated with nano-enabled products including multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) within polymer matrices, it is important to understand how MWCNT are dispersed throughout the composite. The current study presents a method which employs imaging X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to chemically detect spatially segregated MWCNT rich regions at an epoxy composites surface by exploiting differential charging. MWCNT do not charge due to high conductivity and have previously been shown to energetically separate from their insulating surroundings when characterized by XPS. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5066165PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.10.073DOI Listing
January 2016
10 Reads

Graphene and water-based elastomers thin-film composites by dip-moulding.

Carbon N Y 2016 Sep;106:228-232

School of Materials and National Graphene Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Thin-film elastomers (elastic polymers) have a number of technologically significant applications ranging from sportswear to medical devices. In this work, we demonstrate that graphene can be used to reinforce 20 micron thin elastomer films, resulting in over 50% increase in elastic modulus at a very low loading of 0.1 wt%, while also increasing the elongation to failure. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4913555PMC
September 2016
5 Reads

Retention of 14C-labeled multiwall carbon nanotubes by humic acid and polymers: Roles of macromolecule properties.

Carbon N Y 2016 Apr;99:229-237

Stockbridge School of Agriculture, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003, USA.

Developing methods to measure interactions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with soils and sediments and understanding the impact of soil and sediment properties on CNT deposition are essential for assessing CNT environmental risks. In this study, we utilized functionalized carbon-14 labeled nanotubes to systematically investigate retention of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs) by 3 humic acids, 3 natural biopolymers, and 10 model solid-phase polymers, collectively termed macromolecules. Surface properties, rather than bulk properties of macromolecules, greatly influenced MWCNT retention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.12.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4957827PMC
April 2016
21 Reads

Radical scavenging reaction kinetics with multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

Carbon N Y 2015 Mar 13;83:232-239. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

;

Progress in the development of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has stimulated great interest among industries providing new applications. Meanwhile, toxicological evaluations on nanomaterials are advancing leading to a predictive exposure limit for CNTs, which implies the possibility of designing safer CNTs. To pursue safety by design, the redox potential in reactions with CNTs has been contemplated recently. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4809211PMC
March 2015
34 Reads

Differentiation of chemical reaction activity of various carbon nanotubes using redox potential: Classification by physical and chemical structures.

Carbon N Y 2015 Dec;95:302-308

Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Nagano 380-8553, Japan.

The present study systematically examined the kinetics of a hydroxyl radical scavenging reaction of various carbon nanotubes (CNTs) including double-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs and MWCNTs), and carbon nano peapods (AuCl@DWCNT). The theoretical model that we recently proposed based on the redox potential of CNTs was used to analyze the experimental results. The reaction kinetics for DWCNTs and thin MWCNTs agreed well with the theoretical model and was consistent with each other. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4714795PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.08.048DOI Listing
December 2015
7 Reads

Detection and quantification of 2H and 3R phases in commercial graphene-based materials.

Carbon N Y 2015 Dec 4;85:818-823. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA.

Graphene-based material (GBM) samples acquired from commercial sources are investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Of the 18 GBM samples investigated here, seven samples show XRD patterns with features characteristic of the graphite structure. The XRD patterns of the seven samples are analyzed showing the presence of both the ABA (2H) structure and the ABCA (3R) structure. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223153021
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.08.109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5354470PMC
December 2015
13 Reads

Photoluminescent carbon nanotubes interrogate the permeability of multicellular tumor spheroids.

Carbon N Y 2016 02;97:99-109

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, United States.

Nanomaterials have been extensively investigated for cancer drug delivery and imaging applications. Nanoparticles that show promise in two-dimensional cell culture systems often fail in more complex environments, possibly due to the lack of penetration in dense, three-dimensional structures. Multicellular tumor spheroids are an emerging model system to investigate interactions of nanoparticles with 3D cell culture environments. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223153014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.08.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4594636PMC
February 2016
21 Reads

Microwave Induced Reactive Base Wash for the Removal of Oxidation Debris from Carboxylated Carbon Nanotubes.

Carbon N Y 2015 Jul;88:233-238

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, New Jersey 07102, USA.

Removal of oxidation debris for generating high purity functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been a challenge, where base washing has been found to be an effective purification treatment. In this paper we report microwave induced reactive base wash (MRW) as a fast, green alternate to conventional filtrate washing. Carboxylated CNTs of three different dimensions were subjected to MRW and the results were compared to conventional base-wash. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392719PMC
July 2015
1 Read

Wrinkled, wavelength-tunable graphene-based surface topographies for directing cell alignment and morphology.

Carbon N Y 2016 Feb;97:14-24

School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 ; Center for Biomedical Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 ; Institute for Molecular and Nanoscale Innovation, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.

Textured surfaces with periodic topographical features and long-range order are highly attractive for directing cell-material interactions. They mimic physiological environments more accurately than planar surfaces and can fundamentally alter cell alignment, shape, gene expression, and cellular assembly into superstructures or microtissues. Here we demonstrate for the first time that wrinkled graphene-based surfaces are suitable as textured cell attachment substrates, and that engineered wrinkling can dramatically alter cell alignment and morphology. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223150023
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2015.03.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4384125PMC
February 2016
26 Reads

Purification, separation and extraction of inner tubes from double-walled carbon nanotubes by tailoring density gradient ultracentrifugation using optical probes.

Carbon N Y 2014 Aug;74:282-290

Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, 1090 Wien, Austria.

We studied the effect of varying sonication and centrifugation parameters on double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNT) by measuring optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) of the samples. We found that by using a low sonication intensity before applying density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU), only inner tube species with a diameter [Formula: see text]0.8 nm can be identified in absorption measurements. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.03.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375560PMC
August 2014
11 Reads

Ordered phases of ethylene adsorbed on charged fullerenes and their aggregates.

Carbon N Y 2014 Apr;69:206-220

Institut für Ionenphysik und Angewandte Physik, University of Innsbruck, Technikerstrasse 25, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria ; Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824, USA.

In spite of extensive investigations of ethylene adsorbed on graphite, bundles of nanotubes, and crystals of fullerenes, little is known about the existence of commensurate phases; they have escaped detection in almost all previous work. Here we present a combined experimental and theoretical study of ethylene adsorbed on free C and its aggregates. The ion yield of [Formula: see text] measured by mass spectrometry reveals a propensity to form a structurally ordered phase on monomers, dimers and trimers of C in which all sterically accessible hollow sites over carbon rings are occupied. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.12.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4375791PMC
April 2014
29 Reads

Multi-walled carbon nanotube length as a critical determinant of bioreactivity with primary human pulmonary alveolar cells.

Carbon N Y 2014 Nov;78:26-37

Lung Cell Biology, Section of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Dovehouse Street, London SW3 6LY, UK.

Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) length is suggested to critically determine their pulmonary toxicity. This stems from and rodent studies and human studies using cell lines (typically cancerous). There is little data using primary human lung cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.06.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4357847PMC
November 2014
8 Reads

Tetracyanoethylene oxide- functionalized graphene and graphite characterized by Raman and Auger spectroscopy.

Carbon N Y 2015 Jan;81:216-222

Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA ; Department of Materials Engineering, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801, USA.

The tetracyanoethylene oxide (TCNEO) functionalization of chemical vapor deposition grown large area graphene and graphite was performed using reaction of TCNEO with carbon surface in chlorobenzene. The successful functionalization has been confirmed by Raman and Auger spectroscopy, and by numerical modeling of the structure and vibrational modes of TCNEO-functionalized graphene. Raman spectra of TCNEO-functionalized graphene and graphite show several groups of lines corresponding to vibrations of attached carbonyl ylide. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.09.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4251559PMC
January 2015
8 Reads
6.196 Impact Factor

The importance of an extensive elemental analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube soot.

Carbon N Y 2014 Oct;77:912-919

Department of Chemistry, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.

Few manufacturers provide elemental analysis information on the certificates of analysis of their single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) soot products, and those who do primarily perform surface sensitive analyses that may not accurately represent the bulk properties of heterogeneous soot samples. Since the accurate elemental analysis of SWCNT soot is a requisite for exacting assessments of product quality and environmental health and safety (EH&S) risk, the purpose of this work was to develop a routine laboratory procedure for an extensive elemental analysis of SWCNT soot using bulk methods of analyses. Herein, a combination of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (CHNS/O) combustion analyses, oxygen flask combustion/anion chromatography (OFC/AC), graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) were used to generate a 77-element analysis of two as-received CoMoCAT SWCNT soot products. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4125567PMC
October 2014
5 Reads

Filtration and inactivation of aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 by a CNT air filter fabricated using electro-aerodynamic deposition.

Carbon N Y 2014 Aug 13;75:401-410. Epub 2014 Apr 13.

Mechanical Engineering Department, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were coated on a sample of glass fiber air filter medium at atmospheric pressure and room temperature using electro-aerodynamic deposition (EAD). In the EAD method, CNTs (diameter: 50 nm, length: 2-3 μm) were aerosolized, electrically charged, and injected through a nozzle. A voltage was applied externally between the ground nozzle and a planar electrode on which the sample was located. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.04.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094535PMC

Explosive thermal reduction of graphene oxide-based materials: mechanism and safety implications.

Carbon N Y 2014 Jun;72:215-223

School of Engineering, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI, USA, 02912.

Thermal reduction of graphene oxide or graphite oxide (GO) is an important processing step in the fabrication of many graphene-based materials and devices. Here we show that some bulk solid GO samples can undergo explosive decomposition when small samples are heated slowly in inert gas environments, while others do not. These micro-explosions can occur for samples as small as few milligrams and are sufficiently energetic to cause laboratory equipment damage. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223140012
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2014.02.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4088991PMC
June 2014
13 Reads

EELS Analysis of Nylon 6 Nanofibers Reinforced with Nitroxide-Functionalized Graphene Oxide.

Carbon N Y 2014;70:164-171

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (CIMAV-Unidad Monterrey), Av. Alianza Norte # 202, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, PIIT, Apodaca, N. L., México, C.P. 66600.

A detailed analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) of nitroxide-functionalized graphene oxide layers (GOFT) dispersed in Nylon 6 nanofibers is reported herein. The functionalization and exfoliation process of graphite oxide to GOFT was confirmed by TEM using electron diffraction patterns (EDP), wherein 1 to 4 graphene layers of GOFT were observed. The distribution and alignment of GOFT layers within a sample of Nylon 6 nanofiber reveals that GOFT platelets are mainly within the fiber, but some were partially protruding from it. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.12.087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949993PMC
January 2014
9 Reads
6.200 Impact Factor

Porous Structures in Stacked, Crumpled and Pillared Graphene-Based 3D Materials.

Carbon N Y 2014 Jan;66:476-484

School of Engineering, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI, USA, 02912.

Graphene, an atomically thin material with the theoretical surface area of 2600 mg, has great potential in the fields of catalysis, separation, and gas storage if properly assembled into functional 3D materials at large scale. In ideal non-interacting ensembles of non-porous multilayer graphene plates, the surface area can be adequately estimated using the simple geometric law ~ 2600 mg/N, where N is the number of graphene sheets per plate. Some processing operations, however, lead to secondary plate-plate stacking, folding, crumpling or pillaring, which give rise to more complex structures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.09.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606457PMC
January 2014
9 Reads

New insights into the properties and interactions of carbon chains as revealed by HRTEM and DFT analysis.

Carbon N Y 2014 Jan;66

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249, USA.

Atomic carbon chains have raised interest for their possible applications as graphene interconnectors as the thinnest nanowires; however, they are hard to synthesize and subsequently to study. We present here a reproducible method to synthesize carbon chains TEM. Moreover, we present a direct observation of the bond length alternation in a pure carbon chain by aberration corrected TEM. Read More

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https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867604/
Web Search
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/carbon/vol/66
Web Search
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235666356_Electrica
Web Search
https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00086223130087
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.09.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3867604PMC
January 2014
12 Reads

Nitroxide-Functionalized Graphene Oxide from Graphite Oxide.

Carbon N Y 2013 Nov;63

Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados S. C. (CIMAV-Unidad Monterrey), Av. Alianza Norte 202, Autopista Monterrey-Aeropuerto Km 10, PIIT, Apodaca-Nuevo León, México, C.P. 66600. Tel/

A facile method for preparing functionalized graphene oxide single layers with nitroxide groups is reported herein. Highly oxidized graphite oxide (GO=90.6%) was obtained, slightly modifying an improved Hummer's method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.06.093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3859446PMC
November 2013
20 Reads
3 Citations
6.200 Impact Factor

Luminescent graphene quantum dots fabricated by pulsed laser synthesis.

Carbon N Y 2013 Nov 31;64:341-350. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

Institute of Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931-3334, USA; Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico - Rio Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR 00936-8377, USA.

Graphene has been the subject of intense research in recent years due to its unique electrical, optical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is expected that quantum dots of graphene would make their way into devices due to their structure and composition which unify graphene and quantum dots properties. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) are planar nano flakes with a few atomic layers thick and with a higher surface-to-volume ratio than spherical carbon dots (CDs) of the same size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.07.084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4999264PMC
November 2013
7 Reads
5 Citations
6.200 Impact Factor

Disruption of Model Cell Membranes by Carbon Nanotubes.

Carbon N Y 2013 Aug;60:67-75

Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115.

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have one of the highest production volumes among carbonaceous engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) worldwide and are have potential uses in applications including biomedicine, nanocomposites, and energy conversion. However, CNTs possible widespread usage and associated likelihood for biological exposures have driven concerns regarding their nanotoxicity and ecological impact. In this work, we probe the responses of planar suspended lipid bilayer membranes, used as model cell membranes, to functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, and a control organic compound, melittin, using an electrophysiological measurement platform. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.03.057DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474754PMC

Benzyne-functionalized graphene and graphite characterized by Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis.

Carbon N Y 2013 Apr 21;54:192-200. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Chemistry Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro NM 87801.

The benzyne functionalization of chemical vapor deposition grown large area graphene and graphite was performed using a mixture of o-trimethylsilylphenyl triflate and cesium fluoride that react with the carbon surface. The reaction requires at least 2 days of treatment before the appearance of Raman and energy-dispersive X-ray spectral signatures that verify modification. Raman spectra of modified graphene and graphite show a rich structure of lines corresponding to C=C-C, C-H, and low frequency modes of surface-attached benzyne rings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3597774PMC
April 2013
5 Reads

Fabrication and Characterization of Three-Dimensional Macroscopic All-Carbon Scaffolds.

Carbon N Y 2013 Mar 24;53:90-100. Epub 2012 Oct 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5281.

We report a simple method to fabricate macroscopic, 3-D, free standing, all-carbon scaffolds (porous structures) using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the starting materials. The scaffolds prepared by radical initiated thermal crosslinking, and annealing of MWCNTs possess macroscale interconnected pores, robust structural integrity, stability, and conductivity. The porosity of the three-dimensional structure can be controlled by varying the amount of radical initiator, thereby allowing the design of porous scaffolds tailored towards specific potential applications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.10.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3578711PMC
March 2013
12 Reads

The production of oxygenated polycrystalline graphene by one-step ethanol-chemical vapor deposition.

Carbon N Y 2011 Oct;49(12):3789-3795

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Large-area mono- and bilayer graphene films were synthesized on Cu foil (~ 1 inch(2)) in about 1 min by a simple ethanol-chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Raman spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the synthesized graphene films to have polycrystalline structures with 2-5 nm individual crystallite size which is a function of temperature up to 1000°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigations showed about 3 atomic% carboxylic (COOH) functional groups were formed during growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.04.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3293400PMC
October 2011
15 Reads

Enhanced enzyme activity through electron transfer between single-walled carbon nanotubes and horseradish peroxidase.

Carbon N Y 2012 Mar;50(3):1303-1310

Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521, USA.

Better understanding of electron transfer (ET) taking place at the nano-bio interface can guide design of more effective functional materials used in fuel cells, biosensors, and medical devices. Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) coupled with biological enzymes serves as a model system for studying the ET mechanism, as demonstrated in the present study. SWCNT enhanced the activity of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the solution-based redox reaction by binding to HRP at a site proximate to the enzyme's activity center and participating in the ET process. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2011.10.053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249833PMC
March 2012
1 Read

Catalytic Activity of Ultrathin Pt Films on Aligned Carbon Nanotube Arrays.

Carbon N Y 2011 Apr;49(4):1145-1150

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Kentucky 40506 (USA).

Uniform ultrathin Pt films were electrodeposited onto an aligned array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) for high-area chemically stable methanol fuel cell anodes. Electrochemical treatment of the graphitic CNT surfaces by diazoniumbenzoic acid allowed for uniform Pt electroplating. The mass activity of the Pt thin film can reach 400 A/g at a scan rate of 20 mV/s and in a solution of 1 M CHOH/0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2010.11.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134329PMC
April 2011
3 Reads