85 results match your criteria Cannabis Compound Abuse

Differential Effects of Cannabidiol and a Novel Cannabidiol Analog on Oxycodone Place Preference and Analgesia in Mice: an Opioid Abuse Deterrent with Analgesic Properties.

Cannabis Cannabinoid Res 2021 Dec 24. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

National Center for Natural Products Research, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi, USA.

This study sought to determine whether cannabidiol (CBD) or a CBD derivative, CBD monovalinate monohemisuccinate (CBD-val-HS), could attenuate the development of oxycodone reward while retaining its analgesic effects. To determine the effect on oxycodone reward, animals were enrolled in the conditioned place preference paradigm and received either saline or oxycodone (3.0 mg/kg) in combination with either CBD or CBD-val-HS utilizing three sets of drug-/no drug-conditioning trials. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

The Cannabidiol Analog PECS-101 Prevents Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathic Pain via PPARγ Receptors.

Neurotherapeutics 2021 Dec 13. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacology, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is the main dose-limiting adverse effect of chemotherapy drugs such as paclitaxel (PTX). PTX causes marked molecular and cellular damage, mainly in the peripheral nervous system, including sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Several studies have shown the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychotomimetic compound found in the Cannabis plant, to treat peripheral neuropathies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Adolescent administration of Δ-THC decreases the expression and function of muscarinic-1 receptors in prelimbic prefrontal cortical neurons of adult male mice.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Dec 1;11:144-155. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Brain and Mind Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA.

Long-term cannabis use during adolescence has deleterious effects in brain that are largely ascribed to the activation of cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), the primary psychoactive compound in marijuana. Systemic administration of ∆9-THC inhibits acetylcholine release in the prelimbic-prefrontal cortex (PL-PFC). In turn, PL-PFC acetylcholine plays a role in executive activities regulated by CB1R-targeting endocannabinoids, which are generated by cholinergic stimulation of muscarinic-1 receptors (M1Rs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Phytocannabinoids and schizophrenia: Focus on adolescence as a critical window of enhanced vulnerability and opportunity for treatment.

Pharmacol Res 2021 12 14;174:105938. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy. Electronic address:

The recent shift in socio-political debates and growing liberalization of Cannabis use across the globe has raised concern regarding its impact on vulnerable populations such as adolescents. Concurrent with declining perception of Cannabis harms, more adolescents are using it daily in several countries and consuming marijuana strains with high content of psychotropic delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). These dual, related trends seem to facilitate the development of compromised social and cognitive performance at adulthood, which are described in preclinical and human studies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2021

Role of Cannabidiol in the Therapeutic Intervention for Substance Use Disorders.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:626010. Epub 2021 May 20.

Instituto de Neurociencias, Universidad Miguel Hernández-CSIC, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.

Drug treatments available for the management of substance use disorders (SUD) present multiple limitations in efficacy, lack of approved treatments or alarming relapse rates. These facts hamper the clinical outcome and the quality of life of the patients supporting the importance to develop new pharmacological agents. Lately, several reports suggest that cannabidiol (CBD) presents beneficial effects relevant for the management of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, or Alzheimer's diseases. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Microbial Biotransformation of Cannabidiol (CBD) from Cannabis sativa.

Planta Med 2022 Apr 26;88(5):389-397. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

National Center for Natural Products Research, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, University, MS, USA.

Microbial biotransformation of cannabidiol was assessed using 31 different microorganisms. Only (ATCC 9628), (ATCC 7195), and (ATCC 22 752) were able to metabolize cannabidiol. (ATCC 9628) yielded five metabolites, namely, 7,4″-dihydroxycannabidiol (1: ), 6,4″-dihydroxycannabidiol (2: ), 6,2″-dihydroxycannabidiol (3: ), 6,3″-dihydroxycannabidiol (4: ), and 6,7,4″-trihydroxycannabidiol (5: ). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Cannabis use, abuse, and withdrawal: Cannabinergic mechanisms, clinical, and preclinical findings.

J Neurochem 2021 06 16;157(5):1674-1696. Epub 2021 May 16.

Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Center on Compulsive Behaviors, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Cannabis sativa is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Its main psychoactive component is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of over 100 phytocannabinoid compounds produced by the cannabis plant. THC is the primary compound that drives cannabis abuse potential and is also used and prescribed medically for therapeutic qualities. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of Cannabidiol and Beta-Caryophyllene Alone or in Combination in a Mouse Model of Permanent Ischemia.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 11;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Center for Substance Abuse Research, Department of Pharmacology, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.

Current treatments for stroke, which account for 6.5 million global deaths annually, remain insufficient for treatment of disability and mortality. One targetable hallmark of stroke is the inflammatory response following infarct, which leads to significant damage post-infarct. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Overview of Synthetic Cannabinoids ADB-FUBINACA and AMB-FUBINACA: Clinical, Analytical, and Forensic Implications.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Feb 25;14(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

UCIBIO-REQUIMTE, Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.

ADB-FUBINACA and AMB-FUBINACA are two synthetic indazole-derived cannabinoid receptor agonists, up to 140- and 85-fold more potent, respectively, than -∆-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆-THC), the main psychoactive compound of cannabis. Synthesised in 2009 as a pharmaceutical drug candidate, the recreational use of ADB-FUBINACA was first reported in 2013 in Japan, with fatal cases being described in 2015. ADB-FUBINACA is one of the most apprehended and consumed synthetic cannabinoid (SC), following AMB-FUBINACA, which emerged in 2014 as a drug of abuse and has since been responsible for several intoxication and death outbreaks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Cannabis: A Toxin-Producing Plant with Potential Therapeutic Uses.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 02 5;13(2). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of European Cultures (DICEM), University of Basilicata, 75100 Matera, Italy.

For thousands of years, has been utilized as a medicine and for recreational and spiritual purposes. Phytocannabinoids are a family of compounds that are found in the cannabis plant, which is known for its psychotogenic and euphoric effects; the main psychotropic constituent of cannabis is Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC). The pharmacological effects of cannabinoids are a result of interactions between those compounds and cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, located in many parts of the human body. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD) for Skin Health and Disorders.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2020 8;13:927-942. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Innovation and Science, Amway Corporation, Ada, MI, 49355, USA.

Though there is limited research confirming the purported topical benefits of cannabinoids, it is certain that cutaneous biology is modulated by the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). Receptors from the ECS have been identified in the skin and systemic abuse of synthetic cannabinoids, and their analogs, have also been associated with the manifestation of dermatological disorders, indicating the effects of the ECS on cutaneous biology. In particular, cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive compound from the cannabis plant, has garnered significant attention in recent years for its anecdotal therapeutic potential for various pathologies, including skin and cosmetic disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2020

Identifying and Quantifying Cannabinoids in Biological Matrices in the Medical and Legal Cannabis Era.

Clin Chem 2020 07;66(7):888-914

Institute of Emerging Health Professions, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Cannabinoid analyses generally included, until recently, the primary psychoactive cannabis compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and/or its inactive metabolite, 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, in blood, plasma, and urine. Technological advances revolutionized the analyses of major and minor phytocannabinoids in diverse biological fluids and tissues. An extensive literature search was conducted in PubMed for articles on cannabinoid analyses from 2000 through 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Opioid use disorders and hospital palliative care among patients with gastrointestinal cancers: Ten-year trend and associated factors in the U.S. from 2005 to 2014.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jun;99(25):e20723

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nevada Las Vegas, School of Medicine, Las Vegas, Nevada.

This study aimed to analyze the trends of opioid use disorders, cannabis use disorders, and palliative care among hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal cancer and to identify their associated factors.We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample data from 2005 to 2014 and included hospitalized patients with gastrointestinal cancers. The trends of hospital palliative care and opioid or cannabis use disorders were analyzed using the compound annual growth rates (CAGR) with Rao-Scott correction for χ tests. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

US Trends of Opioid-use Disorders and Associated Factors Among Hospitalized Patients With Spinal Conditions and Treatment From 2005 to 2014.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jan;45(2):124-133

Department of Health Care Administration and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV.

Study Design: Serial cross-sectional study utilizing the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2005 to 2014.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trends of opioid-use disorders among hospitalized patients with spinal conditions and treatment and to identify its contributing factors.

Summary Of Background Data: The opioid is widely used in chronic spinal conditions, and misuse of prescriptions is the main culprit of the opioid crisis. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Investigating causality between liability to ADHD and substance use, and liability to substance use and ADHD risk, using Mendelian randomization.

Addict Biol 2021 01 16;26(1):e12849. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

School of Psychological Science, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has consistently been associated with substance use, but the nature of this association is not fully understood. To inform intervention development and public health messages, a vital question is whether there are causal pathways from ADHD to substance use and/or vice versa. We applied bidirectional Mendelian randomization, using summary-level data from the largest available genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on ADHD, smoking (initiation, cigarettes per day, cessation, and a compound measure of lifetime smoking), alcohol use (drinks per week, alcohol problems, and alcohol dependence), cannabis use (initiation), and coffee consumption (cups per day). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2021

Cannabinoid Antagonist Drug Discrimination in Nonhuman Primates.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2020 01 22;372(1):119-127. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (B.D.K., J.B.); Behavioral Biology Program, McLean Hospital, Belmont, Massachusetts (B.D.K., A.S.Z., J.B.); and Center for Drug Discovery, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (K.V., S.O.A., S.J., S.P.N., A.M.).

Despite a growing acceptance that withdrawal symptoms can emerge following discontinuation of cannabis products, especially in high-intake chronic users, there are no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment options. Drug development has been hampered by difficulties studying cannabis withdrawal in laboratory animals. One preclinical approach that has been effective in studying withdrawal from drugs in several pharmacological classes is antagonist drug discrimination. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings.

Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2019 28;167:25-75. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Translational Addiction Research Laboratory, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada; Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON,Canada; Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Acute Care Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is one of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Oral Fluid and Drug Impairment: Pairing Toxicology with Drug Recognition Expert Observations.

J Anal Toxicol 2019 Sep;43(8):637-643

Department of Forensic Science, College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, 1003 Bowers Blvd, Huntsville, Texas, USA.

According to the Governors Highway Safety Association, drugs are detected more frequently in fatally injured drivers than alcohol. Due to the variety of drugs (prescribed and/or illicit) and their various physiological effects on the body, it is difficult for law enforcement to detect/prosecute drug impairment. While blood and urine are typical biological specimens used to test for drugs, oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Oral manifestations of illicit drug use.

Aust Dent J 2019 09 30;64(3):213-222. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Melbourne Dental School, The University of Melbourne, Carlton, Victoria, Australia.

The use of illicit and misuse of licit drugs is a global public health problem, with illicit drug use being responsible for 1.8% of the total disease burden in Australia in 2011. Oral adverse effects associated with illicit drug use are well-established, with aggressive caries, periodontitis, bruxism, poor oral hygiene and general neglect documented. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Tentative identification of the metabolites of (1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone, and the product of its thermal degradation, by in vitro and in vivo methods.

Drug Test Anal 2019 Sep 10;11(9):1387-1402. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Forensic-Chemical Division, Bureau of Forensic-Medical Expertise's, Moscow, Russia.

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), mimicking the psychoactive effects of cannabis, consist of a vast array of structurally diverse compounds. A novel compound belonging to the SC family, (1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indol-3-yl)-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone (named TMCP-CHM in this article) contains a cyclopropane ring that isomerizes during the smoking process, resulting in a ring-opened thermal degradant with a terminal double bond in its structure. Metabolites of TMCP-CHM were tentatively identified in vitro (after incubation of the parent substance with S9 pooled human liver fraction) and in vivo (rat experimental model) studies by accurate-mass liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Effects of cannabidiol on alcohol-related outcomes: A review of preclinical and human research.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2019 Aug 23;27(4):359-369. Epub 2019 May 23.

Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health.

Increased access to medicinal and recreational cannabis will be accompanied by greater exposure to its chemical constituents, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), the primary nonpsychoactive compound. Increasing attention has focused on CBD, in part, due to its potential therapeutic properties. Relatively little is known about how CBD might interact with other commonly used drugs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intoxication is associated with increased prefrontal activation as assessed with functional near-infrared spectroscopy: A report of a potential biomarker of intoxication.

Neuroimage 2019 08 7;197:575-585. Epub 2019 May 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) Department of Psychiatry, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The primary psychoactive compound in cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), binds to cannabinoid receptors (CB1) present in high concentrations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It is unknown whether the PFC hemodynamic response changes with THC intoxication. We conducted the first double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of the effect of THC intoxication on functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measures of PFC activation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Exploring associations between early substance use and longitudinal socio-occupational functioning in young people engaged in a mental health service.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(1):e0210877. Epub 2019 Jan 17.

Youth Mental Health Team, Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Neuropsychiatric disorders (including substance misuse) are associated with the greatest burden of functional disability in young people, and contributory factors remain poorly understood. Early-onset substance use is one candidate risk factor which may inform functional prognosis and facilitate direction of interventions aiming to curtail impairment. Accordingly, we modelled associations between early-onset use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATSs) and longitudinal socio-occupational functioning (indexed by the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale) in an observational cohort presenting to early intervention mental health services. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2019

Increased BDNF-TrkB signaling in the nucleus accumbens plays a role in the risk for psychosis after cannabis exposure during adolescence.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2019 02 8;177:61-68. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, Japan. Electronic address:

Although epidemiological data suggest that repeated use of cannabis during adolescence may increase the risk for psychosis, its precise molecular mechanisms remain undetermined. In this study, we examined whether brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB signaling plays a role in the risk for psychosis after exposure of cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonist during adolescence. Repeated administration of the CB receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (2 mg/kg/day) during adolescence (P35 - P45) significantly increased methamphetamine (METH: 1 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion in adulthood (P70 - P74) compared with vehicle-treated mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019

Higher average potency across the United States is associated with progression to first cannabis use disorder symptom.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 02 17;195:186-192. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan Addiction Center, 4250 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine if higher potency cannabis is associated with earlier progression to regular cannabis use, daily cannabis use, and cannabis use disorder symptom onset.

Methods: Data sources were the Michigan Longitudinal Study, an ongoing prospective, high-risk family study investigating the course and predictors for substance use disorders among youth beginning prior to school entry and time-parallel national average trends in delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (i.e. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2019

Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate ∆ -THC dependence: Mouse and human studies.

Addict Biol 2020 01 31;25(1):e12691. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Cessation from prolonged use of ∆ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active compound responsible for the cannabimimetic effects of cannabis, results in a mild to moderate withdrawal syndrome in humans and laboratory animals. Whereas manipulations of the endogenous cannabinoid system (eg, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid regulating enzymes) alter nicotine withdrawal, in this study we asked the reciprocal question. Do nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate THC withdrawal? To assess the role of different nAChR subtypes in THC withdrawal, we used transgenic mouse, preclinical pharmacological, and human genetic correlation approaches. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2020

Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.

Front Immunol 2018 21;9:2009. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana. The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry. A non-systematic search was performed for studies dealing with therapeutic applications of CBD, especially performed by Brazilian researchers. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
September 2019

Recurrent STEMI Precipitated by Marijuana Use: Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Med Case Rep 2018 ;6(8):163-168

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y, U.S.A-11203.

Marijuana abuse is rapidly growing and currently it is the most coimnon drug of abuse in the United States due to increased legalization for recreational and medicinal use. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannibol, the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, acts via the endocannabinoid system to elicit various cardiovascular physiological effects, and has been associated with many adverse cardiovascular effects such as acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death that have previously been reported by our group and others. We present a case of a 30-year-old African-American male with no cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with recurrent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) whose coronary angiography revealed recurrent 100% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in the setting of marijuana smoking. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
January 2018

Colorimetric Determination of (Aminoalkyl)indole-containing Synthetic Cannabimimetics.

Anal Sci 2018 Dec 7;34(12):1419-1425. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa.

Cannabis is an important industrial plant, in addition to its illicit drug use. Compound Δ-THC (Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol) is mainly responsible for the hallucinogenic effect on humans. The aminoalkylindole group cannabimimetics targets at the same physiological receptors to mimic the analgesic effects of Δ-THC. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
December 2018

Impact of substance use disorder on gray matter volume in schizophrenia.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2018 10 3;280:9-14. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Substance use may confound the study of brain structure in schizophrenia. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine whether differences in regional gray matter volumes exist between schizophrenia patients with (n = 92) and without (n = 66) clinically significant cannabis and/or alcohol use histories compared to 88 healthy control subjects. Relative to controls, patients with schizophrenia had reduced gray matter volume in the bilateral precentral gyrus, right medial frontal cortex, right visual cortex, right occipital pole, right thalamus, bilateral amygdala, and bilateral cerebellum regardless of substance use history. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
October 2018