58 results match your criteria Cannabis Compound Abuse


Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors mediate ∆ -THC dependence: Mouse and human studies.

Addict Biol 2018 Oct 31. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

Cessation from prolonged use of ∆ -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary active compound responsible for the cannabimimetic effects of cannabis, results in a mild to moderate withdrawal syndrome in humans and laboratory animals. Whereas manipulations of the endogenous cannabinoid system (eg, cannabinoid receptors and endocannabinoid regulating enzymes) alter nicotine withdrawal, in this study we asked the reciprocal question. Do nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate THC withdrawal? To assess the role of different nAChR subtypes in THC withdrawal, we used transgenic mouse, preclinical pharmacological, and human genetic correlation approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.12691DOI Listing
October 2018
12 Reads

Translational Investigation of the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabidiol (CBD): Toward a New Age.

Front Immunol 2018 21;9:2009. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Among the many cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound that does not produce the typical subjective effects of marijuana. The aim of the present review is to describe the main advances in the development of the experimental and clinical use of cannabidiol CBD in neuropsychiatry. A non-systematic search was performed for studies dealing with therapeutic applications of CBD, especially performed by Brazilian researchers. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.02009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161644PMC
September 2018
4 Reads

Recurrent STEMI Precipitated by Marijuana Use: Case Report and Literature Review.

Am J Med Case Rep 2018 ;6(8):163-168

Department of Internal Medicine, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, N.Y, U.S.A-11203.

Marijuana abuse is rapidly growing and currently it is the most coimnon drug of abuse in the United States due to increased legalization for recreational and medicinal use. Delta 9-tetrahydrocannibol, the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, acts via the endocannabinoid system to elicit various cardiovascular physiological effects, and has been associated with many adverse cardiovascular effects such as acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death that have previously been reported by our group and others. We present a case of a 30-year-old African-American male with no cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with recurrent ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI) whose coronary angiography revealed recurrent 100% occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) in the setting of marijuana smoking. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajmcr-6-8-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173205PMC
January 2018
3 Reads

A rapid method to determine nine natural cannabinoids in beverages and food derived from Cannabis sativa by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry on a QTRAP 4000.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2018 Oct;32(19):1728-1736

Department of Chemistry, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno, via Salute 2, Portici, NA, 80055, Italy.

Rationale: Phytocannabinoids are natural compounds produced by Cannabis spp. Some of these compounds show psychotropic effects on humans and are therefore used as drugs of abuse. These compounds are present in food and beverages containing ingredients from hemp, and thus can reach consumers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8242DOI Listing
October 2018
9 Reads

Interpretation of Cannabis Findings in the Hair of Very Young Children: Mission Impossible.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2017 ;18(10):791-795

Institut de Medecine legale, 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

Background: Hair has been suggested since the middle of the 90's to be a suitable matrix to document repetitive exposure to cannabis. Because it is possible to detect Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in cannabis smoke, the identification of the metabolite, 11-nor-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) has been considered to allow the discrimination of active use.

Objective: Although the identification of an active compound in a child's hair shows contamination of the local environment, it is a challenge to discriminate between hair incorporation after ingestion or inhalation and environmental external deposition from dust, smoke, or even contaminated surfaces by hand contact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666171129180206DOI Listing
May 2018
18 Reads

Methodology for controlled administration of smoked synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073.

Neuropharmacology 2018 05 14;134(Pt A):92-100. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, USA.

Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are a significant public health concern given their widespread use and severe effects associated with intoxication. However, there is a paucity of controlled human studies investigating the behavioral and physiological effects and pharmacokinetics of these compounds. Designing a reliable method to administer consistent, concentration-dependent synthetic cannabinoids is an integral component of controlled study of these compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.020DOI Listing
May 2018
25 Reads

Long-term Administration of Antipsychotic Drugs in Schizophrenia and Influence of Substance and Drug Abuse on the Disease Outcome.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev 2017 ;10(1):19-24

Laboratory of Neuroanatomy of the Peptidergic Systems (Lab. 14), Institute of Neurosciences of Castilla y Leon (INCYL), University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Castilla-Leon, 37007, Spain.

Background: Many schizophrenic patients with a long-term administration of antipsychotic drugs do not regularly adhere to the prescribed pharmacotherapy. Antipsychotic drugs constitute a palliative, but not a curative treatment, and the long-term effect of these drugs is not secure. Patients tend to consume nicotine and alcohol, as well as some patients consume drugs such as cannabis and amphetamines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874473710666171020104524DOI Listing
October 2018
14 Reads

A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

QJM 2018 Jan;111(1):9-14

Clinical Toxicology, 3rd Floor, Block C, South Wing, St. Thomas' Hospital, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Background: There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS).

Aim: To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/qjmed/article/111/1/9/4158164
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcx178DOI Listing
January 2018
29 Reads

Differentiation and identification of 5F-PB-22 and its isomers.

Forensic Sci Int 2017 Oct 12;279:53-59. Epub 2017 Aug 12.

Illicit Drugs Laboratory, Illicit Drugs Division, Applied Sciences Group, Health Sciences Authority, 11 Outram Road, 169078, Singapore. Electronic address:

Quinolin-8-yl 1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxylate (5-Fluoro-PB-22 or 5F-PB-22; QUPIC N-(5-fluoropentyl) analog), is a synthetic cannabinoid which mimics the effects of cannabis. Several countries have reported numerous detections of this compound and its abuse has led to adverse effects including death. The aim of this study was to separate and identify the fluoropentyl positional isomers of fluoro-PB-22 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, solid deposition gas chromatography-infrared detection spectroscopy and H and C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.08.009DOI Listing
October 2017
12 Reads

Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor (CB1) Ligands with Therapeutic Potential for Withdrawal Syndrome in Chemical Dependents of Cannabis sativa.

ChemMedChem 2017 08 4;12(16):1408-1416. Epub 2017 May 4.

Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Federal University of Amapá, Rod. JK, Km 02, Macapá, Brazil.

Cannabis sativa withdrawal syndrome is characterized mainly by psychological symptoms. By using computational tools, the aim of this study was to propose drug candidates for treating withdrawal syndrome based on the natural ligands of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1). One compound in particular, 2-n-butyl-5-n-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol (ZINC1730183, also known as stemphol), showed positive predictions as a human CB1 ligand and for facile synthetic accessibility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cmdc.201700129DOI Listing
August 2017
11 Reads

Chronic low-grade peripheral inflammation is associated with severe nicotine dependence in schizophrenia: results from the national multicentric FACE-SZ cohort.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2017 Aug 25;267(5):465-472. Epub 2017 Feb 25.

Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, France.

Chronic peripheral inflammation (CPI) has been associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (SZ). However, its sources remain unclear, more specifically it is not known whether tobacco smoking is a source of inflammation or not in SZ subjects. Moreover, nicotine (NIC), the major psychoactive compound of tobacco, shows strong anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, as well as inducing a severe biological dependence when administered repeatedly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-017-0771-4DOI Listing
August 2017
5 Reads

Effects of an acute cannabidiol treatment on cocaine self-administration and cue-induced cocaine seeking in male rats.

J Psychopharmacol 2017 01 26;31(1):96-104. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Department of Psychology, CSBN/GRNC, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Cannabidiol is a non-psychoactive compound that is the second most abundant component of cannabis. It has been shown to have a potential therapeutic value for a wide range of disorders, including anxiety, psychosis, and depression. Recently, it was suggested that cannabidiol might be a potential treatment for heroin craving and relapse. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269881116667706DOI Listing
January 2017
3 Reads

[The current aspects of the use of ecstasy/MDMA in France].

Therapie 2016 Dec 7;71(6):553-562. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Service de pharmacologie, centre d'addictovigilance de Caen, CHU Côte de Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex 09, France. Electronic address:

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), the active compound of ecstasy, has been used for several years, especially by young adults to benefit of psychostimulant properties. By raising the level of neuromodulators in the synapsis, MDMA can cause psychiatric and physical injuries. After reduced supplies in 2009 (number of ecstasy seizures equal to 10 percent of those recorded in 2002), judicial authorities now observed an increased availability (a half more part of seizures in 2012 than 2010). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.therap.2016.05.005DOI Listing
December 2016
20 Reads

Substance use during pregnancy.

Authors:
Ariadna Forray

F1000Res 2016 13;5. Epub 2016 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Prenatal substance use is a critical public health concern that is linked with several harmful maternal and fetal consequences. The most frequently used substance in pregnancy is tobacco, followed by alcohol, cannabis and other illicit substances. Unfortunately, polysubstance use in pregnancy is common, as well as psychiatric comorbidity, environmental stressors, and limited and disrupted parental care, all of which can compound deleterious maternal and fetal outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.7645.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870985PMC
May 2016
5 Reads

Cannabinoids and Schizophrenia: Risks and Therapeutic Potential.

Neurotherapeutics 2015 Oct;12(4):816-24

Department of Psychiatry, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

A convergence of evidence shows that use of Cannabis sativa is associated with increased risk of developing psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia, and earlier age at which psychotic symptoms first manifest. Cannabis exposure during adolescence is most strongly associated with the onset of psychosis amongst those who are particularly vulnerable, such as those who have been exposed to child abuse and those with family histories of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia that develops after cannabis use may have a unique clinical phenotype, and several genetic polymorphisms may modulate the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs13311-015-03
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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13311-015-0382-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13311-015-0382-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604190PMC
October 2015
9 Reads

Light microscopy can reveal the consumption of a mixture of psychotropic plant and fungal material in suspicious death.

J Forensic Leg Med 2015 Aug 4;34:73-80. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Department of Geography and Environment, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK; Department of Archaeology, School of Geosciences, University of Aberdeen, Elphinstone Road, Aberdeen AB24 3UF, UK.

Light microscopical examination of plant and fungal remains in the post mortem gut may be capable of demonstrating the ingestion of unexpected natural psychotropic materials. This is demonstrated here in a case in which a 'shaman' was accused of causing the death of a young man. The deceased had participated in a ceremony which involved the drinking of ayahuasca in order to induce a psychotropic experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.05.010DOI Listing
August 2015
7 Reads

Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

J Forensic Leg Med 2015 Jul 27;33:61-7. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. Electronic address:

Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.04.010DOI Listing
July 2015
12 Reads

Nabilone therapy for cannabis withdrawal presenting as protracted nausea and vomiting.

BMJ Case Rep 2014 Sep 22;2014. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

Division of General Internal Medicine, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Cannabis is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs worldwide. Psychoactive properties of the principal compound, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol include euphoria, a sense of relaxation and increased appetite. Chronic cannabis use has been associated with the development of a withdrawal syndrome on abrupt discontinuation. Read More

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http://casereports.bmj.com/content/2014/bcr-2014-205287.full
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http://casereports.bmj.com/cgi/doi/10.1136/bcr-2014-205287
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2014-205287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4173142PMC
September 2014
7 Reads

Synthetic cannabinoids: epidemiology, pharmacodynamics, and clinical implications.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2014 Nov 18;144:12-41. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are a heterogeneous group of compounds developed to probe the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutics. Clandestine laboratories subsequently utilized published data to develop SC variations marketed as abusable designer drugs. In the early 2000s, SC became popular as "legal highs" under brand names such as Spice and K2, in part due to their ability to escape detection by standard cannabinoid screening tests. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03768716140103
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2014.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4253059PMC
November 2014
25 Reads

Occurrence and removal of drugs of abuse in Wastewater Treatment Plants of Valencia (Spain).

Environ Pollut 2014 Nov 8;194:152-162. Epub 2014 Aug 8.

Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés, s/n, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain.

The occurrence of 8 drugs of abuse and metabolites in the influent and effluent of the 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP) that treat wastewater from Valencia was studied in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Target drugs except 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-ACMOR) were detected in 100% of the influents. The WWTPs eliminate cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2014.07.019DOI Listing
November 2014
28 Reads

Comparison between drug screening by immunoassay and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry in post-mortem urine.

Drug Test Anal 2015 May 20;7(5):420-7. Epub 2014 Jun 20.

Hjelt Institute, Department of Forensic Medicine, Forensic Toxicology Division, University of Helsinki, PO Box 40, 00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Immunoassay is currently the most common approach for urine drug screening. However, the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) and their low urinary concentrations have challenged the scope and sensitivity of immunoassays. Consequently, specialized toxicology laboratories rely more and more on mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1683DOI Listing
May 2015
30 Reads

Improvements in analytical methodology for the determination of frequently consumed illicit drugs in urban wastewater.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2014 Jul 22;406(17):4261-72. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, 12071, Castellón, Spain.

Rapid and sensitive analytical methodology based on ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the determination of widely consumed drugs of abuse (amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, opioids, cannabis and ketamine) and their major metabolites in urban wastewaters. Sample clean-up and pre-concentration was performed by a generic off-line SPE procedure using Oasis HLB. Special effort was made to incorporate amphetamine, which was found highly problematic in the wastewater samples tested, including an additional clean-up with Oasis MCX SPE and dispersive primary secondary amine. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00216-014-7818-4
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-014-7818-4DOI Listing
July 2014
9 Reads

Rapid analysis of Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in hair using direct analysis in real time ambient ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2014 Apr;28(7):682-90

Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Wageningen University, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Rationale: Forensic hair analysis methods are laborious, time-consuming and provide only a rough retrospective estimate of the time of drug intake. Recently, hair imaging methods using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) were reported, but these methods require the application of MALDI matrix and are performed under vacuum. Direct analysis of entire locks of hair without any sample pretreatment and with improved spatial resolution would thus address a need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.6831DOI Listing
April 2014
29 Reads

Trend analysis of anonymised pooled urine from portable street urinals in central London identifies variation in the use of novel psychoactive substances.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2014 Mar 10;52(3):160-5. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners , London , UK.

Context: There is increasing interest in the analysis of waste water at sewage treatment plants to monitor recreational drug use. This technique is limited for novel psychoactive substances (NPS) due to limited knowledge on their human and bacterial metabolism and stability in waste water. Small studies have reported the detection of NPS using pooled anonymous urine samples, which eliminates some of these potential confounders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2014.885982DOI Listing
March 2014
10 Reads
4 Citations
3.122 Impact Factor

Functional connectivity alterations in brain networks relevant to self-awareness in chronic cannabis users.

J Psychiatr Res 2014 Apr 28;51:68-78. Epub 2013 Dec 28.

Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; INCT Translational Medicine (CNPq), Brazil.

Background: Recreational drugs are generally used to intentionally alter conscious experience. Long-lasting cannabis users frequently seek this effect as a means to relieve negative affect states. As with conventional anxiolytic drugs, however, changes in subjective feelings may be associated with memory impairment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.12.008DOI Listing
April 2014
58 Reads

Rates of fetal polydrug exposures in methadone-maintained pregnancies from a high-risk population.

PLoS One 2013 2;8(12):e82647. Epub 2013 Dec 2.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Unlabelled: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard of care during pregnancy for opioid-dependency, showing efficacy in improving prenatal care and reducing risk of relapse. By design, however, MMT is only intended to prevent withdrawal thus facilitating cognitive behavioural interventions. In order to maximize the benefits of MMT, it is essential that methadone is both properly prescribed and that additional addiction treatment is concurrently administered. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082647PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3846722PMC
February 2015
4 Reads

Investigation of cannabis biomarkers and transformation products in waters by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

Chemosphere 2014 Mar 8;99:64-71. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, Avda. Sos Baynat, E-12071 Castellón, Spain. Electronic address:

11-Nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) is commonly selected as biomarker for the investigation of cannabis consumption through wastewater analysis. The removal efficiency of THC-COOH in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has been reported to vary between 31% and 98%. Accordingly, possible transformation products (TPs) of this metabolite might be formed during treatment processes or in receiving surface water under environmental conditions. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S00456535130138
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.007DOI Listing
March 2014
10 Reads

Palmitoylethanolamide: from endogenous cannabimimetic substance to innovative medicine for the treatment of cannabis dependence.

Authors:
M Coppola R Mondola

Med Hypotheses 2013 Oct 26;81(4):619-22. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Department of Addiction, ASL CN2, Viale Coppino 46, 12051 Alba (CN), Italy. Electronic address:

Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is a fatty acid amide showing some pharmacodynamic similarities with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound present in the cannabis plant. Like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, PEA can produce a direct or indirect activation of cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, it acts as an agonist at TRPV1 receptor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2013.07.016DOI Listing
October 2013
16 Reads

Acute psychosis associated with recreational use of benzofuran 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB) and cannabis.

J Med Toxicol 2013 Sep;9(3):278-81

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK,

Introduction: There is evidence from around Europe of the availability and use of 6-(2-aminopropyl)benzofuran (6-APB) as a recreational drug. However, there is currently limited information on the acute toxicity of this compound. We describe here a case of acute toxicity associated with recreational use of legal high (6-APB) and cannabis, in which the comprehensive toxicological analysis confirmed the presence of a significant amount of 6-APB together with metabolites of both tetrahydrocannabinol and the synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (JWH-122). Read More

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http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s13181-013-0306
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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s13181-013-0306-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-013-0306-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3770991PMC
September 2013
33 Reads
3 Citations

Optimization, validation, and the application of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of new drugs of abuse in wastewater.

Drug Test Anal 2014 Jul-Aug;6(7-8):861-7. Epub 2013 Feb 19.

Toxicological Center, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610, Antwerp, Belgium.

Recently it was demonstrated that the analysis of drugs of abuse (DOA) in wastewater can be used to track their use in communities. This paper presents the optimization, validation, and application of an analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the determination of some emerging drugs in influent wastewater. The compounds of interest were the cathinone derivatives methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone (MEPH)), ketamine (KET) and its metabolites norketamine (NK) and dehydronorketamine (DHNK), as well as the major metabolite of cannabis, 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dta.1460DOI Listing
March 2015
7 Reads

Analysis of anonymous pooled urine from portable urinals in central London confirms the significant use of novel psychoactive substances.

QJM 2013 Feb 22;106(2):147-52. Epub 2012 Nov 22.

Medical Toxicology Office, 3rd Floor, Block C, South Wing, St Thomas' Hospital, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, Westminster Bridge Road, London, SE1 7EH, UK.

Aim: Analysis of urine samples collected across a city centre, for the detection of novel psychoactive substances (NPS).

Design: Cross-sectional study of anonymized urine samples used for the analysis of classical recreational drugs, NPS and metabolites.

Methods: Pooled urine samples collected from portable stand-alone four-person urinals across a city centre were analysed using full-scan accurate-mass high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcs219DOI Listing
February 2013
6 Reads
1 Citation

Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark.

Forensic Sci Int 2013 Jan 9;224(1-3):44-50. Epub 2012 Nov 9.

Section of Forensic Chemistry, Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederik V's vej 11, 3, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

This study assesses the presence of a number of psychoactive substances, including alcohol, based on blood samples from 840 seriously injured drivers admitted to five selected hospitals located in five different regions of Denmark. The study was a part of the EU 6th framework program DRUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol and Medicines). Blood samples were screened for 30 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.10.025DOI Listing
January 2013
6 Reads

Cannabis in sport: anti-doping perspective.

Sports Med 2011 Nov;41(11):949-66

Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA.

Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsibility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11591430-000000000-00000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3717337PMC
November 2011
19 Reads

Synthetic cannabinoids in oral fluid.

J Anal Toxicol 2011 Sep;35(7):424-30

Toxicology Research and Development, Immunalysis Corporation, 829 Towne Center Drive, Pomona, California 91767, USA.

At the end of 2010, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) used its emergency scheduling authority to temporarily control five chemicals, JWH-018, JWH-073, JWH-200, CP-47497, and cannabicyclohexanol (CP-47497 C8), often referred to as "Spice", K2, or "synthetic cannabinoids" because of their reported cannabis-like effects. Read More

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September 2011
7 Reads

Cannabinoid potentiation of glycine receptors contributes to cannabis-induced analgesia.

Nat Chem Biol 2011 May 3;7(5):296-303. Epub 2011 Apr 3.

Laboratory for Integrative Neuroscience, US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Cannabinoids enhance the function of glycine receptors (GlyRs). However, little is known about the mechanisms and behavioral implication of cannabinoid-GlyR interaction. Using mutagenesis and NMR analysis, we have identified a serine at 296 in the GlyR protein critical for the potentiation of I(Gly) by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a major psychoactive component of marijuana. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3388539PMC
May 2011
9 Reads

Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

Addict Biol 2011 Jul 4;16(3):405-15. Epub 2010 Nov 4.

Preclinical Pharmacology Section, Behavioral Neuroscience Research Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health/DHHS, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00258.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3115444PMC
July 2011
21 Reads
19 Citations

A comparison of psychosocial and cognitive functioning between depressed and non-depressed patients with cannabis dependence.

J Addict Dis 2010 Jul;29(3):325-37

Division of Substance Abuse, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10032, USA.

Cannabis use and depressive disorders are thought to impair cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning. Both disorders co-occurring may compound the negative effects of these diagnoses. In this study, the authors used the California Computerized Assessment Package as the cognitive performance measure and the Addiction Severity Index as the psychosocial functioning measure to compare individuals who were cannabis dependent and either depressed or not depressed (N= 108: 54 cannabis dependent only, 54 cannabis dependent and depressed or dysthymic). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10550887.2010.489444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065775PMC
July 2010
5 Reads

Detection of cannabigerol and its presumptive metabolite in human urine after Cannabis consumption.

Pharmazie 2010 Jun;65(6):408-11

National Institute of Forensic Toxicology, Budapest, Hungary.

Kemp et al. (1995) could detect delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC), cannabinol and cannabidiol, three neutral cannabinoids, and the metabolites of delta9-THC in urine samples of Cannabis consumers. In this study we aimed to identify cannabigerol (CBG), which in its acid form is one of the main intermediate compounds of the biosynthesis of cannabinoids in hemp, in authority urine samples of proved Cannabis consumers. Read More

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June 2010
5 Reads

[Analytical, toxicological and forensic aspects of drug-facilitated crimes: 10 years of experience].

Authors:
G Pépin

Ann Pharm Fr 2010 Mar 10;68(2):61-75. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

Laboratoire Toxlab, 7, rue Jacques-Cartier, 75018 Paris, France.

Although being a relatively old phenomenon, drug-facilitated crime has been well described over the past 20 years as being the administration without the knowledge of the victim of a psychoactive substance in criminal purposes (rape, robbery, theft, money extortion, even murder). Drug-facilitated crime involves also mistreatment of older people or children treated by their parents in order to obtain sedation. Drug-facilitated crimes are often difficult to solve mainly due to analytical issues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pharma.2010.01.002DOI Listing
March 2010
5 Reads

Overweight, obesity, youth, and health-risk behaviors.

Am J Prev Med 2010 Mar;38(3):258-67

Prevention Research Branch, Division of Epidemiology, Statistics and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 6100 Executive Boulevard, Bethesda MD 20892-7510, USA.

Background: The prevalence and severity of obesity have increased among children and adolescents. Although the medical and psychosocial consequences of youth obesity have been well documented, comparatively less information exists on the association of overweight/obesity with health-risk behaviors, which are considered to be a primary threat to adolescent health.

Purpose: This study aims to examine the association of overweight and obesity with health-risk behaviors among U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2009.10.038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2826832PMC
March 2010
24 Reads

11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt): unsuccessful search for a marker of combined cannabis and alcohol consumption.

Forensic Sci Int 2010 Mar 13;196(1-3):78-84. Epub 2010 Jan 13.

Institute of Legal Medicine, University Hospital Charité, Hittorfstr. 18, 14195 Berlin, Germany.

11-Nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (THC-COOEt) can be presumed to be a mixed metabolite formed during combined consumption of cannabinoids and alcohol. In order to examine this hypothesis, THC-COOEt and its deuterated analogue D(3)-THC-COOEt were synthesized as reference substance and internal standard from the corresponding carboxylic acids and diazoethane and methods were developed for the sensitive detection of THC-COOEt in plasma and hair based on gas chromatography-electron impact mass spectrometry after silylation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide and gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS) as well as tandem mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-MS-MS) after derivatization with pentafluoropropionyl anhydride. The methods were applied for THC-COOEt determination to plasma samples from 22 drunk driving cases which contained both ethanol (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.12.026DOI Listing
March 2010
17 Reads

Neurobiology of cannabis addiction.

Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2008 Jul-Sep;52(3):217-32

National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029.

Cannabis has emerged as a common substance of abuse and dependence and the peculiarities associated with this widely available and used substance has triggered substantial research in this field. The earlier held concept of rather benign nature of this compound as a substance of abuse and dependence has changed as a result of the ongoing clinical and research findings. Cannabis has been found to have multiple physical and mental effects in human beings. Read More

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July 2009
8 Reads

The effects of cannabis abuse on the symptoms of schizophrenia: patient perspectives.

Int J Ment Health Nurs 2008 Aug;17(4):227-35

School of Nursing and Midwifery, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

This study explored explanatory models used by individuals with schizophrenia in relation to continuing cannabis abuse. Cannabis is known to exacerbate positive symptoms, compound the effects of negative symptoms, and lead to relapse, having a negative effect upon quality of life. If this is so, why would people choose to continue the drug use? Most previous studies exploring this phenomenon have used quantitative methodology where the questions asked have been preset by the researchers and the subjective experience of the patient has been minimized. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00538.x
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1447-0349.2008.00538.xDOI Listing
August 2008
9 Reads

Simultaneous determination of amphetamine-type stimulants and cannabinoids in fingernails by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Arch Pharm Res 2008 Jun 19;31(6):805-13. Epub 2008 Jun 19.

Drug Analysis Laboratory, Forensic Science Division, Supreme Prosecutors' Office, 706, Banporo, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-730, Korea.

A gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of four amphetamine-type stimulants (amphetamine (AP), methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)) and two cannabinoids (Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) and 11-nor-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THCCOOH)) in fingernails. Fingernail clippings (30 mg) were washed with distilled water and methanol, and then incubated in 1.0 M sodium hydroxide at 95 degrees C for 30 min. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-001-1230-5DOI Listing
June 2008
2 Reads

Disturbances of visual information processing in early states of psychosis and experimental delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol altered states of consciousness.

Schizophr Res 2006 Dec 26;88(1-3):142-50. Epub 2006 Sep 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Cologne, 50924 Cologne, Germany.

Recent data on alterations of the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia have raised the question of its functional role in this disease. The psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC), has been shown to induce psychotic symptoms, but it is unknown to what extend prodromal states of psychoses are reflected by these experimental approaches. This study compares four groups of subjects: antipsychotic-naïve patients suffering from acute paranoid schizophrenic or schizophreniform psychosis (SZ), patients in the prodromal state (IPS), healthy controls without any pharmacological intervention (HC) and a second group of healthy volunteers who were orally administered synthetic Delta9-THC (Dronabinol) (HC-THC). Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S09209964060035
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2006.07.023DOI Listing
December 2006
11 Reads

Stromelysin-1 5A/6A and eNOS T-786C polymorphisms, MTHFR C677T and A1298C mutations, and cigarette-cannabis smoking: a pilot, hypothesis-generating study of gene-environment pathophysiological associations with Buerger's disease.

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006 Oct;12(4):427-39

Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati, Ohio 45229, USA.

Buerger's disease (BD) etiologies are poorly understood. Beyond smoking cessation, medical-surgical treatments have limited success. We hypothesized that mutations associated with arterial vasospasm (stromelysin-1 5A/6A, eNOS T-786C) and C677T-A1298C methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) interacted with cigarette-cannabis smoking, reducing vasodilatory nitric oxide (NO), promoting arterial spasm-thrombosis. Read More

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http://cat.sagepub.com/content/12/4/427.full.pdf
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http://cat.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1076029606293429
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1076029606293429DOI Listing
October 2006
7 Reads

Detection of cannabis use in drivers with the drugwipe device and by GC-MS after Intercept device collection.

J Anal Toxicol 2005 Oct;29(7):724-7

X'pertise Consulting, Laboratoire ChemTox, 3, rue Grüninger, F-67400 Illkirch, France.

Saliva or "oral fluid" has been presented as an alternative matrix in the establishment of drug exposure. The noninvasive collection of a saliva sample, which is relatively easy to perform and can be achieved under close supervision, is one of the most important benefits in a driving under the influence situation. Moreover, the presence of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in oral fluid is a better indication of recent use than when the drug is detected in urine, so there is a higher probability that the subject is experiencing pharmacological effects at the time of sampling. Read More

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October 2005
31 Reads

Tetrahydrocannabinols in clinical and forensic toxicology.

Przegl Lek 2005 ;62(6):576-80

Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Kraków, Poland.

Cannabinoids are the natural constituents of marihuana (cannabis). The main of them are delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (9THC)--psychoactive agent, cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabis is administered either by smoking or orally. Read More

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December 2005
9 Reads

Strong increase in total delta-THC in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops.

Addict Biol 2005 Jun;10(2):171-80

Trimbos Institute for Mental Health and Addiction, PO Box 725, 3500, AS Utrecht,The Netherlands.

The total concentration of THC has been monitored in cannabis preparations sold in Dutch coffee shops since 1999. This annual monitoring was issued by the Ministry of Health after reports of increased potency. The level of the main psychoactive compound, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is measured in marijuana and hashish. Read More

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http://www.ukcia.org/research/IncreaseInTHCInCoffeeshops.pdf
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http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13556210500
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13556210500123217DOI Listing
June 2005
7 Reads