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    Oral Mucosal Infections: Insights into Specimen Collection and Medication Management.
    Dent Clin North Am 2017 Apr;61(2):283-304
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522601, India.
    Oral mucosal infections appear as localized or generalized lesions. Symptoms range from almost unnoticeable lesions to severe pain. Systemic disease, age, immunocompromised condition, and medication use are common causes. Read More

    Human α-Defensin 6: A Small Peptide That Self-Assembles and Protects the Host by Entangling Microbes.
    Acc Chem Res 2017 Mar 15. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.
    Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). Read More

    Studying the Prevalence, Species Distribution, and Detection of In vitro Production of Phospholipase from Candida Isolated from Cases of Invasive Candidiasis.
    J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):8-11
    Department of Hematology, Laboratory Diagnostic Services, St. Stephen's Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background And Aim: Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens both in invasive and mucosal infections. C. Read More

    Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 10;10:47-50. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital, Tamba.
    Introduction: Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy.

    Case Presentation: An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. Read More

    Encapsulation of Antifungals in Micelles Protects Candida albicans during Gall-Bladder Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 1;8:117. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell InstituteJena, Germany; Fungal Genetics and Biology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of NottinghamNottingham, UK.
    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Read More

    New developments and directions in the clinical application of the echinocandins.
    Arch Toxicol 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum. Read More

    Supramolecular Chitosan Micro-Platelets Synergistically Enhance Anti-Candida albicans Activity of Amphotericin B Using an Immunocompetent Murine Model.
    Pharm Res 2017 Feb 6. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Faculté de Pharmacie, Institut Galien Paris Sud, Junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France, UMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 5, rue J-B. Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Purpose: The aim of this work is to design new chitosan conjugates able to self-organize in aqueous solution in the form of micrometer-size platelets. When mixed with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-DOC), micro-platelets act as a drug booster allowing further improvement in AmB-DOC anti-Candida albicans activity.

    Methods: Micro-platelets were obtained by mixing oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. Read More

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease associated with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity.
    Clin Transl Immunology 2016 Dec 2;5(12):e114. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences , Hiroshima, Japan.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Read More

    Oral Manifestations of Job's Syndrome in a Paediatric Dental Patient - A Case Report.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Nov 1;10(11):ZD04-ZD05. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Pedodontics, Government Dental College , Calicut, Kerala, India .
    Job's syndrome or Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with marked increase in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and eczematous dermatitis. Individuals with HIES share characteristic facial features, with many oral manifestations like retained deciduous teeth, fissured tongue, missing permanent tooth buds, recurrent oral candidiasis, oral mucosal and gingival lesions. Two forms of disease have been identified based on the defective gene as autosomal dominant form and autosomal recessive form. Read More

    Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2016 Dec 21. Epub 2016 Dec 21.
    Department of Odontology, Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization, the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. Read More

    IL-17 Receptor Signaling in Oral Epithelial Cells Is Critical for Protection against Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.
    Cell Host Microbe 2016 Nov 27;20(5):606-617. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Mucosal and Salivary Biology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:
    Signaling through the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) is required to prevent oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in mice and humans. However, the IL-17-responsive cell type(s) that mediate protection are unknown. Using radiation chimeras, we were able to rule out a requirement for IL-17RA in the hematopoietic compartment. Read More

    Esophageal tuberculosis with coexisting opportunistic infections in a renal allograft transplant recipient.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Feb;19(1)
    Department of Renal Transplant Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
    We report a renal allograft transplant recipient with esophageal tuberculosis (TB) coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. The patient presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and was started on fluconazole. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed whitish patches with mucosal ulcers in the esophagus. Read More

    The effects of photodynamic treatment with new methylene blue N on the Candida albicans proteome.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 Nov;15(12):1503-1513
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Candida albicans is a human pathogenic fungus mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. Resistance to the commonly used fungicides can lead to poor treatment of mucosal infections which, in turn, can result in life-threatening systemic candidiasis. In this scenario, antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (PDT) has emerged as an effective alternative to treat superficial and localized fungal infections. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of itraconazole use in infants.
    World J Pediatr 2016 Nov 10;12(4):399-407. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Department of Dermatovenereology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: Itraconazole has been used to treat fungal infections, in particular invasive fungal infections in infants or neonates in many countries.

    Data Sources: Literature search was conducted through Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CNKI and Google scholarship using the following key words: "pediatric" or "infant" or "neonate" and "fungal infection" in combination with "itraconazole". Based on the literature and our clinical experience, we outline the administration of itraconazole in infants in order to develop evidence-based pharmacotherapy. Read More

    Mycological Profile of Sputum of HIV Positive Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and its Correlation with CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Sep 1;10(9):DC28-DC31. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Senior Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, S.M.S. Medical College , Jaipur, Rajasthan, India .
    Introduction: Fungal respiratory infections are important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV positive individuals. They account for up to 70% of illness in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome cases (AIDS). The range of illness varies from asymptomatic mucosal candidiasis to overwhelming disseminated infections. Read More

    IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Sep 15;12(9):e1005882. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Section of Immunology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. Read More

    Effect of Antifungal Treatment in a Diet-Based Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis Acquired via the Gastrointestinal Tract.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Nov 21;60(11):6703-6708. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
    Candida albicans, normally found as a commensal in the gut, is a major human fungal pathogen responsible for both mucosal and systemic infections in a wide variety of immunocompromised individuals, including cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. The gastrointestinal tract represents a major portal of entry for the establishment of disseminated candidiasis in many of these individuals. Here we report the development of a diet-based mouse model for disseminated candidiasis acquired via the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

    Candidal carriage predicts candidiasis during topical immunosuppressive therapy: a preliminary retrospective cohort study.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Oct 29;122(4):448-54. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Associate Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Director of Clinical Affairs, Department of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objectives: To determine (1) the prevalence of candidal carriage in patients with oral mucosal disease to be treated with topical immunosuppressive therapy, and (2) the incidence of oral candidiasis among carriers and noncarriers after initiation of therapy to assess any correlation between carriage and the development of candidiasis.

    Study Design: Records of patients who underwent swab cultures for Candida between January 2009 and October 2014 at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of candidal carriage and incidence of candidiasis were determined by using descriptive statistics. Read More

    Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species.
    Front Microbiol 2016 5;7:1238. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1038, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Biosciences and Biotechnology Institute of Grenoble - Large Scale Biology Laboratory Grenoble, France.
    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Read More

    Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.
    Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Oct 19;74(7):565-569. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    a Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences , University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila , Nugegoda , Sri Lanka.
    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Materials And Methods: Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Read More

    [ERRORS IN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF IMMUNODEPENDENT PATHOLOGY (ORIGINAL CONCEPT)].
    Lik Sprava 2015 Oct-Dec(7-8):9-17
    Based on many years of experience in 2009, we developed the original concept of a mixed approach to the treatment of infectious diseases in patients. During 2.5 years(from 2013 to June 2015) to have applied for consultative-diagnostic help of 3965 patients who had not verified the primary diagnosis. Read More

    Intraoral Pain Disorders.
    Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2016 Aug;28(3):275-88
    Oral Medicine Residency Program, Department of Oral Medicine, Carolinas Healthcare System, PO Box 32861, Charlotte, NC 28232, USA. Electronic address:
    Those experiencing intraoral pain associated with dental and oral diseases are likely to pursue treatment from medical and dental providers. The causes for intraoral pain include odontogenic, periodontal, oral mucosal, or contiguous hard and soft tissue structures to the oral cavity. Providers should be vigilant when diagnosing these, as they should be among the first in their differential diagnoses to be ruled out. Read More

    Th2 and Th9 responses in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and hyper-IgE syndrome.
    Clin Exp Allergy 2016 Dec 18;46(12):1564-1574. Epub 2016 Sep 18.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Background: STAT1 mutations cause chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), while STAT3 mutations cause hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES). CMC and HIES patients have T helper (Th) 17 defects suffering from mucosal Candida infections, but only patients with HIES show an allergic phenotype with eczema, eosinophilia and high IgE levels.

    Objective: We investigated whether differential Th2 and Th9 responses may explain the clinical differences. Read More

    Quantification of oral palatine Langerhans cells in HIV/AIDS associated oral Kaposi sarcoma with and without oral candidiasis.
    J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Apr-Jun;12(2):705-11
    Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Context: Langerhans cells (LCs) are effective antigen-presenting cells that function as "custodians" of mucosa, modifying the immune system to pathogen entry, and tolerance to self-antigen and commensal microbes. A reduction in number of LCs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals may predispose to local mucosal infections.

    Aims: To quantitatively determine the number of oral mucosal LCs in HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated oral Kaposi sarcoma (KS) with/without oral candidiasis (OC) and to define in situ interrelationships between the cells, OC, and HIV infection. Read More

    Therapeutic activity of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based probiotic and inactivated whole yeast on vaginal candidiasis.
    Virulence 2017 Jan 19;8(1):74-90. Epub 2016 Jul 19.
    a Department of Experimental Medicine , Microbiology Section, University of Perugia , Perugia , Italy.
    Vulvovaginal candidiasis is the most prevalent vaginal infection worldwide and Candida albicans is its major agent. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by disruption of the vaginal microbiota composition, as happens following large spectrum antibiotic usage. Recent studies support the effectiveness of oral and local probiotic treatment for prevention of recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Read More

    Lack of Correlation between Aberrant p16, RAR-β2, TIMP3, ERCC1, and BRCA1 Protein Expression and Promoter Methylation in Squamous Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Candida albicans-Induced Inflammation.
    PLoS One 2016 13;11(7):e0159090. Epub 2016 Jul 13.
    Laboratory of Pathology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Setsunan University, Osaka, Japan.
    Hyperplastic candidiasis is characterized by thickening of the mucosal epithelia with Candida albicans infection with occasional progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). C. albicans is a critical factor in tumor development; however, the oncogenic mechanism is unclear. Read More

    Development, characterization, and in vivo assessment of mucoadhesive nanoparticles containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2016 10;11:2641-53. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Ege University, Bornova, Turkey.
    This study aimed to develop a suitable buccal mucoadhesive nanoparticle (NP) formulation containing fluconazole for the local treatment of oral candidiasis. The suitability of the prepared formulations was assessed by means of particle size (PS), polydispersity index, and zeta potential measurements, morphology analysis, mucoadhesion studies, drug entrapment efficiency (EE), in vitro drug release, and stability studies. Based on the optimum NP formulation, ex vivo drug diffusion and in vitro cytotoxicity studies were performed. Read More

    Sequential Dysfunction and Progressive Depletion of Candida albicans-Specific CD4 T Cell Response in HIV-1 Infection.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Jun 9;12(6):e1005663. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    Department of Microbiology & Immunology and Sealy Center for Vaccine Development, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas, United States of America.
    Loss of immune control over opportunistic infections can occur at different stages of HIV-1 (HIV) disease, among which mucosal candidiasis caused by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans (C. albicans) is one of the early and common manifestations in HIV-infected human subjects. The underlying immunological basis is not well defined. Read More

    Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".
    N Y State Dent J 2016 Mar;82(2):36-7
    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome. Read More

    Batf3-dependent CD103(+) dendritic cell accumulation is dispensable for mucosal and systemic antifungal host defense.
    Virulence 2016 Oct 18;7(7):826-35. Epub 2016 May 18.
    a Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health , Bethesda , MD , USA.
    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for defense against a variety of pathogens and the formation of adaptive immune responses. The transcription factor Batf3 is critical for the development of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs, which promote IL-12-dependent protective immunity during viral and parasitic infections, dampen Th2 immunity during helminthic infection, and exert detrimental effects during bacterial infection. Whether CD103(+) DCs modulate immunity during systemic or mucosal fungal disease remains unknown. Read More

    Secukinumab long-term safety experience: A pooled analysis of 10 phase II and III clinical studies in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.
    J Am Acad Dermatol 2016 Jul 12;75(1):83-98.e4. Epub 2016 May 12.
    Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.
    Background: Secukinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin-17A monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated efficacy and safety in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    Objective: We reviewed safety data from the secukinumab psoriasis phase II/III program.

    Methods: Data were pooled from 10 phase II/III secukinumab psoriasis studies. Read More

    Candidal Infection of the Gingiva Mimicking Desquamative Gingivitis: A Case Report.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Mar 1;10(3):ZD04-5. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Former Post Graduate, Department of Periodontics, Drs. Sudha & Nageswara Rao Siddhartha Institute of Dental Sciences , Chinaoutpalli, Gannavaram Mandal, Krishna, Andhra Pradesh, India .
    There has been an increase in the occurrence of fungal infections in humans in the recent years due to the discrete use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive therapies. The genus candida is the most frequently found fungi in humans. Candida albicans is a mucosal microbiota although it can cause infections which can be mucosal or life threatening infections in susceptible individuals. Read More

    Oral Candida isolates and fluconazole susceptibility patterns in older Mexican women.
    Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2016 Jul-Aug;65:204-10. Epub 2016 Apr 9.
    Oral Microbiology, Pathology and Biochemical laboratory, Faculty of Stomatology, University Autonomous of San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Electronic address:
    Objectives: To assess the epidemiologic and microbiologic profile and in vitro fluconazole susceptibility of yeasts isolated from the oral mucosa colonization/infection of elderly patients.

    Background: It has been reported that in older adults increases the oral colonization by Candida particularly C. non-albicans, showing a decreased response to fluconazole, which increases the risk of recalcitrant local and disseminated candidiasis. Read More

    Probiotic lactobacilli inhibit early stages of Candida albicans biofilm development by reducing their growth, cell adhesion, and filamentation.
    Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016 Jul 18;100(14):6415-26. Epub 2016 Apr 18.
    UQ Oral Health Centre, School of Dentistry, The University of Queensland, 288, Herston Road, Brisbane, QLD, 4006, Australia.
    We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus species on different phases of Candida albicans biofilm development. Quantification of biofilm growth and ultrastructural analyses were performed on C. albicans biofilms treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus acidophilus planktonic cell suspensions as well as their supernatants. Read More

    Efficacy of ozonized olive oil in the management of oral lesions and conditions: A clinical trial.
    Contemp Clin Dent 2016 Jan-Mar;7(1):51-4
    Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Swami Devi Dyal Hospital and Dental College, Barwala, Haryana, India.
    Unlabelled: The oral cavity is an open ecosystem that shows a dynamic balance between the entrance of microorganisms (bacterial, viral or fungal), colonization modalities, nutritional balance, and host defenses against their removal. The oral lesions including aphthous ulcerations, herpes labialis, oral candidiasis, oral lichen planus, and angular cheilitis some of the common entities encountered in the clinical practice. A variety of treatment options is available in the literature for all of these lesions and conditions. Read More

    The Pharmacologic Management of Common Lesions of the Oral Cavity.
    Dent Clin North Am 2016 Apr 2;60(2):407-20. Epub 2016 Feb 2.
    Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Woodhull Medical Center, 760 Broadway, Brooklyn, NY 11206, USA. Electronic address:
    The oral ulcerations caused by aphtous lesions, herpetic lesions, candidiasis, ulcerative lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris are managed in a step-up approach that can involve topical, intarlesional, and systemic pharmacologic management. This article reviews the common treatment agents, modalities, and dosages. The emphasis is on local pharmacologic therapies, yet systemic conditions that often present with such oral lesions are briefly reviewed, along with the appropriate management. Read More

    Candidalysin is a fungal peptide toxin critical for mucosal infection.
    Nature 2016 Apr 30;532(7597):64-8. Epub 2016 Mar 30.
    Mucosal &Salivary Biology Division, Dental Institute, King's College London SE1 1UL, UK.
    Cytolytic proteins and peptide toxins are classical virulence factors of several bacterial pathogens which disrupt epithelial barrier function, damage cells and activate or modulate host immune responses. Such toxins have not been identified previously in human pathogenic fungi. Here we identify the first, to our knowledge, fungal cytolytic peptide toxin in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Read More

    Chronic and Invasive Fungal Infections in a Family with CARD9 Deficiency.
    J Clin Immunol 2016 Apr 9;36(3):204-9. Epub 2016 Mar 9.
    Clinical Immunology Research Laboratory, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.
    Chronic mucocutaneous or invasive fungal infections are generally the result of primary or secondary immune dysfunction. Patients with autosomal recessive CARD9 mutations are also predisposed to recurrent mucocutaneous and invasive fungal infections with Candida spp., dermatophytes (e. Read More

    Intestinal Cell Tight Junctions Limit Invasion of Candida albicans through Active Penetration and Endocytosis in the Early Stages of the Interaction of the Fungus with the Intestinal Barrier.
    PLoS One 2016 2;11(3):e0149159. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    UMR 1347, Univ Bourgogne-Franche Comté, 17 Rue Sully, BP 86 510, F-21065 Dijon Cedex, France.
    C. albicans is a commensal yeast of the mucous membranes in healthy humans that can also cause disseminated candidiasis, mainly originating from the digestive tract, in vulnerable patients. It is necessary to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the interaction of C. Read More

    Adjuvant antifungal therapy using tissue tolerable plasma on oral mucosa and removable dentures in oral candidiasis patients: a randomised double-blinded split-mouth pilot study.
    Mycoses 2016 Jul 2;59(7):467-75. Epub 2016 Mar 2.
    Department of Oral Medicine, Dental Radiology and Oral Surgery, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Extended use of antimycotics in oral candidiasis therapy gives rise to problems related to fungal drug resistance. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the efficacy of tissue tolerable plasma (TTP) in denture stomatitis patients. It was hypothesised that (I): erythema and (IIa): complaint remission would be accelerated and (IIb): colony forming unit (CFU) reduction would be improved. Read More

    Diagnosis of HIV-Associated Oral Lesions in Relation to Early versus Delayed Antiretroviral Therapy: Results from the CIPRA HT001 Trial.
    PLoS One 2016 1;11(3):e0150656. Epub 2016 Mar 1.
    Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.
    Oral mucosal lesions that are associated with HIV infection can play an important role in guiding the decision to initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART). The incidence of these lesions relative to the timing of ART initiation has not been well characterized. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted at the GHESKIO Center in Port-au-Prince, Haiti between 2004 and 2009. Read More

    Isolation and identification of Candida species in patients with orogastric cancer: susceptibility to antifungal drugs, attributes of virulence in vitro and immune response phenotype.
    BMC Infect Dis 2016 Feb 23;16:86. Epub 2016 Feb 23.
    Laboratory of Mycology, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Background: Because of the inherent immunosuppression of cancer patients opportunistic infections by Candida spp, occur frequently. This study aimed to identify Candida species in the oral mucosa of 59 patients with orogastric cancer (OGC) and to analyze the immunological phenotype of these patients.

    Methods: The yeasts were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). Read More

    Basic Genetics and Immunology of Candida Infections.
    Infect Dis Clin North Am 2016 Mar;30(1):85-102
    Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, Nijmegen, 6525 GA, The Netherlands; Radboud Center for Infectious Diseases (RCI), Geert Grooteplein Zuid 8, Nijmegen, 6525 GA, The Netherlands. Electronic address:
    Candida infections can cause superficial and invasive disease. Several essential mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these infections were known for some time, such as neutropenia predisposing to invasive disease, and CD4 lymphopenia causing increased susceptibility to mucosal candidiasis. However, the development of novel genetic screening techniques has led to several new insights in the genetics and immunology of candida infections. Read More

    Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.
    J Comp Pathol 2016 Feb-Apr;154(2-3):161-4. Epub 2016 Feb 16.
    Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, USA; Fort Collins Diagnostic Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Read More

    Rapid detection of Candida species in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary symptoms.
    Braz J Microbiol 2016 Jan-Mar;47(1):172-6. Epub 2016 Jan 27.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine and Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:
    Candida species, especially C. albicans, are commensals on human mucosal surfaces, but are increasingly becoming one of the important invasive pathogens as seen by a rise in its prevalence in immunocompromised patients and in antibiotic consumption. Thus, an accurate identification of Candida species in patients with pulmonary symptoms can provide important information for effective treatment. Read More

    Clinically Significant Drug Interaction Between Clotrimazole and Tacrolimus in Pancreas Transplant Recipients and Associated Risk of Allograft Rejection.
    Pharmacotherapy 2016 Mar 11;36(3):335-41. Epub 2016 Mar 11.
    Division of Transplant, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics, Madison, Wisconsin.
    Study Objective: To examine the clinical significance of clotrimazole troche discontinuation on tacrolimus trough levels and risk of allograft rejection after pancreas transplantation.

    Design: Retrospective cohort study.

    Setting: Academic medical center. Read More

    Gastrointestinal granuloma due to Candida albicans in an immunocompetent cat.
    Med Mycol Case Rep 2015 Dec 12;10:14-7. Epub 2015 Dec 12.
    Faculty of Veterinary Science, Valentine Charlton Cat Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia.
    A 3.5 year-old cat was admitted to the University of Melbourne Veterinary Teaching Hospital for chronic vomiting. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a focal, circumferential thickening of the wall of the duodenum extending from the pylorus aborally for 3 cm, and an enlarged gastric lymph node. Read More

    Vitamin D and Its Relevance in the Etiopathogenesis of Oral Cavity Diseases.
    Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 2016 Oct 9;64(5):385-97. Epub 2016 Feb 9.
    Department of Oral Mucosa Diseases, University of Medical Sciences, Bukowska 70, 60-812, Poznan, Poland.
    Vitamin D belongs to a group of fat-soluble secosteroids which assume many roles in the human organism. In humans the most important forms are vitamin D3 and vitamin D2. Their primary function is the regulation of the calcium and phosphorus balance, which promote the growth of healthy bony tissue. Read More

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