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    Th17 cells differentiated with mycelial membranes of Candida albicans prevent oral candidiasis.
    FEMS Yeast Res 2018 Feb 15. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Section of Infection Biology, Department of Functional Bioscience, Fukuoka Dental College, 2-15-1 Tamura, Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan.
    Candida albicans is a human commensal and causes opportunistic infections. Th17 cells provide resistance against mucosal infection with C. albicans; however, the determination of T cell antigens remains little known. Read More

    Anti-inflammatory effect of two Lactobacillus strains during infection with Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in a HeLa cell culture model.
    Microbiology 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    1​Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Lactobacilli are the dominant bacteria of the vaginal tract of healthy women and they play a major role in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis, preventing genital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). It is now known that one mechanism of this protection is the influence that lactobacilli can exert on host immune responses. In this context, we evaluated two Lactobacillus strains (L. Read More

    Histopathological Analysis of the Effects of Corticosteroids on Vocal Cords: Experimental Study.
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2018 Mar 9;70(1):111-114. Epub 2015 Jan 9.
    1Okmeydanı Training and Research Hospital ENT Clinic, Darulaceze cad., Şişli, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Local treatment with corticosteroids results in side effects involving the upper respiratory tract including candidiasis, sore throat, and dysphonia. Although these effects are well known, they have not been evaluated using a histopathological approach. This study investigated the histopathological aspects of steroid-induced dysphonia. Read More

    Experimental in Vivo Models of Candidiasis.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2018 Feb 6;4(1). Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel.
    Candidiasis is a multifaceted fungal disease including mucosal-cutaneous, visceral, and disseminated infections caused by yeast species of the genus.infections are among the most common human mycoses.species are the third to fourth most common isolates from bloodstream infections in neutropenic or immunocompromised hospitalized patients. Read More

    Development and anti-Candida evaluation of the vaginal delivery system of amphotericin B nanosuspension-loaded thermogel.
    J Drug Target 2018 Feb 5:1-11. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    a Department of Pharmaceutics, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines , China Pharmaceutical University , Nanjing , China.
    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a typical kind of vaginal mucosal infection. Herein, we developed a novel vaginal delivery system of amphotericin B (AmB) nanosuspension-loaded thermogel (AmB NPs/thermogel) utilising pharmaceutical technique of high-pressure homogenisation and Poloxamer P407/P188 hydrogel. The stabiliser and hydrogel materials of the formulation were tested to maintain proper sol-gel transition as well as the relative stability of the particle size of AmB nanosuspension in the thermogel. Read More

    Innate Immunity to Mucosal Candida Infections.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Oct 31;3(4). Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90502, USA.
    Mucosal epithelial tissues are exposed to high numbers of microbes, including commensal fungi, and are able to distinguish between those that are avirulent and those that cause disease. Epithelial cells have evolved multiple mechanisms to defend against colonization and invasion byspecies. The interplay between mucosal epithelial tissues and immune cells is key for control and clearance of fungal infections. Read More

    The Role of IL-17 in Protection against Mucosal Candida Infections.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2017 Sep 27;3(4). Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606, USA.
    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a proinflammatory cytokine produced by adaptive CD4+ T helper cells and innate lymphocytes, such as γδ-T cells and TCRβ+ "natural" Th17 cells. IL-17 activates signaling through the IL-17 receptor, which induces other proinflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides and neutrophil chemokines that are important for antifungal activity. The importance of IL-17 in protective antifungal immunity is evident in mice and humans, where various genetic defects related to the IL-17-signaling pathway render them highly susceptible to forms of candidiasis such oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) or more broadly chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC), both caused mainly by the opportunistic fungal pathogen. Read More

    Patient Susceptibility to Candidiasis-A Potential for Adjunctive Immunotherapy.
    J Fungi (Basel) 2018 Jan 9;4(1). Epub 2018 Jan 9.
    Department of Internal Medicine and Radboud Center for Infectious diseases (RCI), Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    spp. are colonizing fungi of human skin and mucosae of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract, present in 30-50% of healthy individuals in a population at any given moment. The host defense mechanisms prevent this commensal fungus from invading and causing disease. Read More

    A survey on cellular RNA editing activity in response to Candida albicans infections.
    BMC Genomics 2018 01 19;19(Suppl 1):43. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Key Laboratory of Molecular Virology and Immunology, Institute Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 20031, China.
    Background: Adenosine-to-Inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing is catalyzed by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes, which induces alterations in mRNA sequence. It has been shown that A-to-I RNA editing events are of significance in the cell's innate immunity and cellular response to viral infections. However, whether RNA editing plays a role in cellular response to microorganism/fungi infection has not been determined. Read More

    Processing ofEce1p Is Critical for Candidalysin Maturation and Fungal Virulence.
    MBio 2018 Jan 23;9(1). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Mucosal and Salivary Biology Division, Dental Institute, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.
    is an opportunistic fungal pathogen responsible for superficial and life-threatening infections in humans. During mucosal infection,undergoes a morphological transition from yeast to invasive filamentous hyphae that secrete candidalysin, a 31-amino-acid peptide toxin required for virulence. Candidalysin damages epithelial cell plasma membranes and stimulates the activating protein 1 (AP-1) transcription factor c-Fos (via p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK]), and the MAPK phosphatase MKP1 (via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 [ERK1/2]-MAPK), which trigger and regulate proinflammatory cytokine responses, respectively. Read More

    antifungal activity of essential oils extracted from plants against fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant.
    Curr Med Mycol 2017 Jun;3(2):1-6
    Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran.
    Background And Purpose: is the most common cause of candidal infections. Various studies have shown drug resistance amongisolates; thus, it is necessary to discover replacement treatments forinfections. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of different essential oils against azoles-resistant and azoles-susceptible isolates. Read More

    Oral features in patients with psoriasis: an observational study.
    Minerva Stomatol 2018 02;67(1):12-19
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in a group of psoriatic patients and healthy subjects.

    Methods: 120 psoriatic patients were enrolled in this observational study. Clinical examination, panoramic X-ray, magnetic nuclear resonance of temporo-mandibular joint, parodontal evaluation, oropharyngeal buffer and incisional biopsies by scalpel, as applicable, were done in order to value the patients. Read More

    Improved vaginal retention and enhanced antifungal activity of miconazole microsponges gel: Formulation development and in vivo therapeutic efficacy in rats.
    Eur J Pharm Sci 2018 Mar 28;114:255-266. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Kasr El-Aini, 12411 Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:
    Traditional azole antifungal formulations suffer from poor retention in the vaginal cavity, irritation and burning of the vaginal area. In the present work, we aim at the development of a novel miconazole (MCZ) microsponges gel as an attractive dosage form for vaginal candidiasis. The proposed formula has the potential to minimize the local side effects of the drug due to the controlled release characteristic, which increases patient compliance. Read More

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma as innovative method to crosslink and enhance mucoadhesion of econazole-loaded gelatin films for buccal drug delivery.
    Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2018 Mar 19;163:73-82. Epub 2017 Dec 19.
    Department of Pharmacy and BioTechnology, Via S. Donato 19/2, 40127 University of Bologna, Italy.
    In this paper we developed an innovative, effective and rapid one-step approach to crosslink mucoadhesive gelatin films for buccal drug delivery. The method, which involves the application of non-equilibrium pressure plasma for 3 or 5 minutes/side, was compared with a classical approach based on the use of a chemical crosslinking agent, namely genipin. Econazole nitrate (ECN), an imidazole antifungal agent used for the treatment of skin infections and mucosal candidiasis, was selected as model drug. Read More

    Probiotic Bacteria Alter Pattern-Recognition Receptor Expression and Cytokine Profile in a Human Macrophage Model Challenged withand Lipopolysaccharide.
    Front Microbiol 2017 29;8:2280. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Laboratory of Oral Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefits to the host health. The infection rate of potentially pathogenic organisms such as, the most common agent associated with mucosal candidiasis, can be reduced by probiotics. However, the mechanisms by which the probiotics interfere with the immune system are largely unknown. Read More

    A Review of the Effectiveness and Side-Effects of Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.1% in the Treatment of Oral Mucosal Diseases.
    Acta Stomatol Croat 2017 Sep;51(3):240-247
    Oral Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand.
    Topical steroids have been widely used in the treatment of symptomatic oral lesions to reduce pain and inflammation. Potent topical steroids such as clobetasol propionate, fluocinolone acetonide (FA), and fluocinonide have been widely used in the treatment of severe oral mucosal lesions. Many reports have demonstrated that these steroids were effective in treating oral lesions with only minor side-effects. Read More

    Approach to a Child with Primary Immunodeficiency Made Simple.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):391-405
    Allergy Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of disorders affecting the capability to fight against infection. These include defects in T cells and B cells affecting cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively, combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency, defects in phagocytosis, complement defects, and defects in cytokine or cytokine signalling pathways which are detrimental for immune function. Depending upon the type and severity, age at onset of symptoms can vary from neonatal period to late childhood. Read More

    Isolated Cutaneous Granuloma Caused by Candida glabrata: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, No. 158, Shangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang, China.
    The incidence of candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (especially Candida glabrata) has significantly increased in recent decades. Candida glabrata often invades immunocompromised hosts and causes systemic or mucosal infections, whereas cutaneous infections are rarely reported. We present a rare case of cutaneous infection caused by C. Read More

    Discriminating between Interstitial and Circulating Leukocytes in Tissues of the Murine Oral Mucosa Avoiding Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Contamination.
    Front Immunol 2017 30;8:1398. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.
    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on() colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Read More

    Oral hygiene and oral health in older people with dementia: a comprehensive review with focus on oral soft tissues.
    Clin Oral Investig 2018 Jan 15;22(1):93-108. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Gustav Mahler Laan 3004, 1081, LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published.

    Objective: To provide a comprehensive literature overview following a systematic approach of the level of oral hygiene and oral health status in older people with dementia with focus on oral soft tissues. Read More

    EphA2 is an epithelial cell pattern recognition receptor for fungal β-glucans.
    Nat Microbiol 2018 Jan 13;3(1):53-61. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.
    Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Read More

    Is MBL serum concentration a reliable predictor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?
    Mycoses 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Medical Mycology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is acommon opportunistic, mucosal fungal infection, predominantly caused by the fungus Candida albicans.Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an acute-phase protein that plays a key role in the innate immunity defense against infectious disease.

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the MBL serum level and the relative expression of MBL mRNA in RVVC using real-time PCR for the first time. Read More

    Candidalysin drives epithelial signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immunopathology at the vaginal mucosa.
    Infect Immun 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Memphis, TN, USA
    Unlike other forms of candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by the fungal pathogen, is a disease of immunocompetent and otherwise healthy women. Despite its prevalence, the fungal factors responsible for initiating symptomatic infection remain poorly understood. One of the hallmarks of vaginal candidiasis is the robust recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, which seemingly do not clear the fungus, but rather exacerbate disease symptomatology. Read More

    Common oral complications of head and neck cancer radiation therapy: mucositis, infections, saliva change, fibrosis, sensory dysfunctions, dental caries, periodontal disease, and osteoradionecrosis.
    Cancer Med 2017 Dec 25;6(12):2918-2931. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, 90048.
    Patients undergoing radiation therapy for the head and neck are susceptible to a significant and often abrupt deterioration in their oral health. The oral morbidities of radiation therapy include but are not limited to an increased susceptibility to dental caries and periodontal disease. They also include profound and often permanent functional and sensory changes involving the oral soft tissue. Read More

    The yeast form of the fungus Candida albicans promotes persistence in the gut of gnotobiotic mice.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Oct 25;13(10):e1006699. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Many microorganisms that cause systemic, life-threatening infections in humans reside as harmless commensals in our digestive tract. Yet little is known about the biology of these microbes in the gut. Here, we visualize the interface between the human commensal and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and the intestine of mice, a surrogate host. Read More

    Antifungal Activity of Oleylphosphocholine onandBiofilms.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2018 Jan 21;62(1). Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    KU Leuven, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, Heverlee-Leuven, Belgium.
    In this study, we investigated the potential antifungal activity of the alkylphospholipid oleylphosphocholine (OlPC), a structural analogue of miltefosine, onandbiofilm formation. The effect of OlPC onandbiofilms inside triple-lumen polyurethane catheters was studied.biofilms were developed subcutaneously after catheter implantation on the lower back of Sprague-Dawley rats. Read More

    Salivary Flow Rate, Oral Yeast Colonization and Dental Status in Institutionalized and Non-Institutionalized Elderly
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 09;55(3):390-395
    Department of Oral Pathology and Periodontology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia
    Elderly people, especially those institutionalized in long-term care facilities, are at risk of various oral diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of hyposalivation and colonization/oral fungal infection of oral cavity with yeasts, as well as dental status in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly. The study included 280 institutionalized and 61 non-institutionalized elderly people. Read More

    VT-1161 protects mice against oropharyngeal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Jan;73(1):151-155
    Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology & Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, causes chronic mucosal infections in patients with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity that rely heavily on chronic, often lifelong, azole antifungal agents for treatment. However, a rise in azole resistance has predicated a need for developing new antifungal drugs.

    Objectives: To test the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of VT-1161 and VT-1129 in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis with azole-susceptible or -resistant C. Read More

    Antifungal defense of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is mediated by blocking adhesion and nutrient depletion.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0184438. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany.
    Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Read More

    Overexpression ofandgenes in fluconazole resistance ofisolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
    Curr Med Mycol 2016 Dec;2(4):24-29
    Departement of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background And Purpose: () is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance inare the candida drug resistance () and multi drug resistance () genes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate theandgene expression patterns instrains isolated from patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Read More

    Isolation ofSpecies from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test.
    Adv Biomed Res 2017 28;6:103. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on thecolonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. Read More

    A clinicopathologic and epidemiologic study of chronic white lesions in the oral mucosa.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Aug;96(8):E13-E17
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Star Hospitals, 8-2-594/B Rd., No. 10, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad-500 034, India.
    Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma is often preceded by the presence of clinically identifiable premalignant changes of the oral mucosa, including white lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to assess the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic aspects of chronic oral mucosal white lesions to determine the necessity of early biopsy in these cases. Our study population was made up of 77 patients-50 males and 27 females, aged 15 to 70 years (mean: 42. Read More

    Ecological Therapeutic Opportunities for Oral Diseases.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Aug;5(4)
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030.
    The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Read More

    Comparative study: Oral mucosal lesions, signs and symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients with end stage renal disease with analogous findings in diabetes mellitus patients with non-end stage renal disease.
    Indian J Dent Res 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):406-412
    Department of Diabetology, Voluntary Health Services, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions type and prevalence, in end stage renal disease (ESRD) with non-end stage renal disease (NESRD) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

    Methodology: Two groups of DM patients were studied, Group 1 includes 100 patients with ESRD, who were under hemodialysis therapy, and Group 2 includes100 patients with NESRD whose serum creatinine level is <2.0 mg/dl. Read More

    Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.
    J Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Aug 1;18(8):695-699. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kannur Dental College, Kannur, Kerala, India.
    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. Read More

    Candida Infections and Human Defensins.
    Protein Pept Lett 2017 ;24(8):747-756
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste. Italy.
    Background: Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. Read More

    Overexpression ofSecreted Aspartyl Proteinases 2 or 5 is not sufficient for exacerbation of immunopathology in a murine model of vaginitis.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163
    The secreted aspartyl protineases ofhave long been implicated in virulence at the mucosal surface, including contribution to colonization and immunopathogenesis during vulvovaginal candidiasis. In an effort to disentangle hypha-associated virulence factor regulation from morphological transition, the purpose of this study was to determine if overexpression oforin aΔ/Δ/Δ/Δ mutant could restore capacity to cause immunopathology during murine vaginitis to this avirulent hypofilamentous strain. Two similar, yet distinct, genetic approaches were used to construct expression vectors to achieve SAP overexpression and both genetic and functional assays confirmed elevated SAP activity in transformed strains. Read More

    An Ocular Commensal Protects against Corneal Infection by Driving an Interleukin-17 Response from Mucosal γδ T Cells.
    Immunity 2017 07 11;47(1):148-158.e5. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. Read More

    Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Nov 3;46(11):1497-1504. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was conducted in seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, Embase, Web of Science, and OpenGrey), without restriction on publication period or language. Read More

    Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of amphotericin B-loaded MPEG-PCL-g-PEI micelles for local treatment of oral.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2017 6;12:4269-4283. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Pharmacology.
    Fatalinfections in the mucosal system can occur in association with immune-compromised diseases and dysbacteriosis. Currently, amphotericin B (AmB) is considered to be the most effective antibiotic in the treatment ofinfections, but its clinical application is limited by side effects and poor bioavailability. In order to use AmB in the local treatment of oralinfections, AmB/MPEG-PCL-g-PEI (monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-graft-polyethylenimine, MPP) micelles were prepared. Read More

    Control of mucosal candidiasis in the zebrafish swimbladder depends on neutrophils that block filament invasion and drive extracellular trap production.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
    is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Read More

    CMCD: Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Disease.
    Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi 2017 ;40(2):109-117
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is an infectious phenotype which is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida species. Th17 cells produce interleukin-17 (IL-17) and play an important role in host mucosal immunity to Candida. Recent studies revealed that an impairment of IL-17 immunity underlies development of CMC. Read More

    Testing Antifungal Vaccines in an Animal Model of Invasive Candidiasis and in Human Mucosal Candidiasis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:343-353
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B 39040, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel.
    The following article will concentrate on the NDV-3 anti-Candida and Staphylococcus vaccine. The vaccine is composed of the N-terminal portion of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (Als3p) and aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. The vaccine conferred protection to mice against experimental vaginal, oral, and intravenous challenge with C. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions in teenagers: a cross-sectional study.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 31;43(1):50. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Dental School, Pediatric Dentistry Department, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: Adolescence is a period of transition to adulthood. Little is known about oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in teenagers, in which the emergence of new habits, unfamiliar to children, could affect the type of lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a wide sample of adolescents. Read More

    Treatment and Prevention of Oral Candidiasis in Elderly Patients.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):J43-J49
    Director of Dental Practice, Ryohoku Hospital.
    The incidence of oral candidiasis has increased in the elderly in recent years. Although the increase of the elderly population plays a big role in this rise of oral candidiasis, the broader recognition that elderly people have higher infection rates for oral candidiasis is considered to be also an important factor. Oral candidiasis can be categorized into three types. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Candida albicans isolates from bloodstream and mucosal infections.
    Mycoses 2017 Aug 22;60(8):534-545. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    The interaction of Candida albicans with the host is of a complex nature involving fungal factors and host's response. In this study, we concentrated on the phenotypic expression of virulence attributes and genotypic characteristics of C. albicans isolates from two distinct clinical entities of candidiasis-blood stream and vaginal infections, and the possible role of these factors. Read More

    Adaptation of Candida albicans to environmental pH induces cell wall remodelling and enhances innate immune recognition.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 22;13(5):e1006403. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Institute of Microbiology and Infection, and School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 13;59:e14. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Estomatologia, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Read More

    Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis.
    Cell Host Microbe 2017 Apr;21(4):478-493.e7
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Electronic address:
    Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell-driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop APECED-like phenotypes, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Read More

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