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    2089 results match your criteria Candidiasis Mucosal

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    Antifungal defense of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is mediated by blocking adhesion and nutrient depletion.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0184438. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany.
    Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Read More

    Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
    Curr Med Mycol 2016 Dec;2(4):24-29
    Departement of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background And Purpose: Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance in C. Read More

    Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test.
    Adv Biomed Res 2017 28;6:103. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. Read More

    A clinicopathologic and epidemiologic study of chronic white lesions in the oral mucosa.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Aug;96(8):E13-E17
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Star Hospitals, 8-2-594/B Rd., No. 10, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad-500 034, India.
    Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma is often preceded by the presence of clinically identifiable premalignant changes of the oral mucosa, including white lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to assess the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic aspects of chronic oral mucosal white lesions to determine the necessity of early biopsy in these cases. Our study population was made up of 77 patients-50 males and 27 females, aged 15 to 70 years (mean: 42. Read More

    Ecological Therapeutic Opportunities for Oral Diseases.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Aug;5(4)
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030.
    The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Read More

    Comparative study: Oral mucosal lesions, signs and symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients with end stage renal disease with analogous findings in diabetes mellitus patients with non-end stage renal disease.
    Indian J Dent Res 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):406-412
    Department of Diabetology, Voluntary Health Services, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions type and prevalence, in end stage renal disease (ESRD) with non-end stage renal disease (NESRD) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

    Methodology: Two groups of DM patients were studied, Group 1 includes 100 patients with ESRD, who were under hemodialysis therapy, and Group 2 includes100 patients with NESRD whose serum creatinine level is <2.0 mg/dl. Read More

    Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.
    J Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Aug 1;18(8):695-699. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kannur Dental College, Kannur, Kerala, India.
    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. Read More

    Overexpression of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases 2 or 5 is not sufficient for exacerbation of immunopathology in a murine model of vaginitis.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163
    The secreted aspartyl protineases of C. albicans have long been implicated in virulence at the mucosal surface, including contribution to colonization and immunopathogenesis during vulvovaginal candidiasis. In an effort to disentangle hypha-associated virulence factor regulation from morphological transition, the purpose of this study was to determine if overexpression of SAP2 or SAP5 in a efg1Δ/Δ/cph1Δ/Δ mutant could restore capacity to cause immunopathology during murine vaginitis to this avirulent hypofilamentous strain. Read More

    An Ocular Commensal Protects against Corneal Infection by Driving an Interleukin-17 Response from Mucosal γδ T Cells.
    Immunity 2017 Jul 11;47(1):148-158.e5. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. Read More

    Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Nov 3;46(11):1497-1504. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was conducted in seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, Embase, Web of Science, and OpenGrey), without restriction on publication period or language. Read More

    Control of mucosal candidiasis in the zebrafish swimbladder depends on neutrophils that block filament invasion and drive extracellular trap production.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Read More

    CMCD: Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Disease.
    Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi 2017 ;40(2):109-117
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is an infectious phenotype which is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida species. Th17 cells produce interleukin-17 (IL-17) and play an important role in host mucosal immunity to Candida. Recent studies revealed that an impairment of IL-17 immunity underlies development of CMC. Read More

    Testing Antifungal Vaccines in an Animal Model of Invasive Candidiasis and in Human Mucosal Candidiasis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:343-353
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B 39040, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel.
    The following article will concentrate on the NDV-3 anti-Candida and Staphylococcus vaccine. The vaccine is composed of the N-terminal portion of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (Als3p) and aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. The vaccine conferred protection to mice against experimental vaginal, oral, and intravenous challenge with C. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions in teenagers: a cross-sectional study.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 31;43(1):50. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Dental School, Pediatric Dentistry Department, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: Adolescence is a period of transition to adulthood. Little is known about oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in teenagers, in which the emergence of new habits, unfamiliar to children, could affect the type of lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a wide sample of adolescents. Read More

    Treatment and Prevention of Oral Candidiasis in Elderly Patients.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):J43-J49
    Director of Dental Practice, Ryohoku Hospital.
    The incidence of oral candidiasis has increased in the elderly in recent years. Although the increase of the elderly population plays a big role in this rise of oral candidiasis, the broader recognition that elderly people have higher infection rates for oral candidiasis is considered to be also an important factor. Oral candidiasis can be categorized into three types. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Candida albicans isolates from bloodstream and mucosal infections.
    Mycoses 2017 Aug 22;60(8):534-545. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    The interaction of Candida albicans with the host is of a complex nature involving fungal factors and host's response. In this study, we concentrated on the phenotypic expression of virulence attributes and genotypic characteristics of C. albicans isolates from two distinct clinical entities of candidiasis-blood stream and vaginal infections, and the possible role of these factors. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 13;59:e14. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Estomatologia, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Read More

    Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis.
    Cell Host Microbe 2017 Apr;21(4):478-493.e7
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Electronic address:
    Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell-driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop APECED-like phenotypes, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Read More

    Esophageal mucosa in HIV infection: A"deeper" look at this little spoken organ.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Nov;32(11):1832-1838
    Laboratório da Disciplina de Patologia de Moléstias Transmissíveis, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background And Aim: Although the esophagus is a common site of opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, little is known about the impact of HIV as well as opportunistic infection in the esophageal mucosa. Our aim is to analyze the esophageal immune profile in HIV+ patients with different immunological status with and without the opportunistic Candida infection.

    Methods: Immunohistochemistry to CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, γ-interferon, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 was performed in esophageal samples of 40 chronically HIV+ patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy (16 with Candida esophagitis, 12 virologically non-supressed with blood CD4 count < 500, and 12 virologically suppressed with blood CD4 count > 500; the latter two groups without esophageal candidiasis). Read More

    A Novel Heterozygous Mutation in the STAT1 SH2 Domain Causes Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis, Atypically Diverse Infections, Autoimmunity, and Impaired Cytokine Regulation.
    Front Immunol 2017 13;8:274. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent skin and mucosal surface infections with Candida species. Different gene mutations leading to CMC have been identified. These include various heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) that are not only associated with infections but also with autoimmune manifestations. Read More

    Oral Mucosal Infections: Insights into Specimen Collection and Medication Management.
    Dent Clin North Am 2017 Apr;61(2):283-304
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522601, India.
    Oral mucosal infections appear as localized or generalized lesions. Symptoms range from almost unnoticeable lesions to severe pain. Systemic disease, age, immunocompromised condition, and medication use are common causes. Read More

    Human α-Defensin 6: A Small Peptide That Self-Assembles and Protects the Host by Entangling Microbes.
    Acc Chem Res 2017 Apr 15;50(4):960-967. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.
    Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). Read More

    Candida albicans infection and intestinal immunity.
    Microbiol Res 2017 May 13;198:27-35. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Trauma-Emergency & Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University; Shanghai 200240, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fungal infections cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in intensive care and immunocompromised patients, and can represent a life-threatening disease. As a microorganism commonly found in the intestine, Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade the gut epithelium barrier via microfold cells and enter the bloodstream. Read More

    Studying the Prevalence, Species Distribution, and Detection of In vitro Production of Phospholipase from Candida Isolated from Cases of Invasive Candidiasis.
    J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):8-11
    Department of Hematology, Laboratory Diagnostic Services, St. Stephen's Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background And Aim: Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens both in invasive and mucosal infections. C. Read More

    Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 10;10:47-50. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital, Tamba.
    Introduction: Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy.

    Case Presentation: An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. Read More

    Encapsulation of Antifungals in Micelles Protects Candida albicans during Gall-Bladder Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 1;8:117. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell InstituteJena, Germany; Fungal Genetics and Biology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of NottinghamNottingham, UK.
    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Read More

    New developments and directions in the clinical application of the echinocandins.
    Arch Toxicol 2017 Apr 8;91(4):1613-1621. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum. Read More

    Supramolecular Chitosan Micro-Platelets Synergistically Enhance Anti-Candida albicans Activity of Amphotericin B Using an Immunocompetent Murine Model.
    Pharm Res 2017 May 6;34(5):1067-1082. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Faculté de Pharmacie, Institut Galien Paris Sud, Junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France, UMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 5, rue J-B. Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Purpose: The aim of this work is to design new chitosan conjugates able to self-organize in aqueous solution in the form of micrometer-size platelets. When mixed with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-DOC), micro-platelets act as a drug booster allowing further improvement in AmB-DOC anti-Candida albicans activity.

    Methods: Micro-platelets were obtained by mixing oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. Read More

    Congenital Cutaneous Candidiasis: Prompt Systemic Treatment Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Neonates.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May;64(10):1387-1395
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC) is a challenging diagnosis due to various rash presentations. Inadequate early treatment is associated with high rates of dissemination and death. The effects of early diagnosis, dermatologic presentation, and antifungal treatment on outcomes are lacking. Read More

    Cyclodextrin-mediated self-associating chitosan micro-platelets act as a drug booster against Candida glabrata mucosal infection in immunocompetent mice.
    Int J Pharm 2017 Mar 24;519(1-2):381-389. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Institut Galien Paris Sud, Junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France, UMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Pharmacie, 5, rue J-B. Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:
    This study reports design and evaluation of chitosan-based microparticle activity against Candida glabrata in vitro and in vivo in immunocompetent mice model artificially maintained in oestrus state. Because their flattened shape, chitosan microparticles are called here micro-platelets. They were obtained by self-association of oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. Read More

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease associated with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity.
    Clin Transl Immunology 2016 Dec 2;5(12):e114. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences , Hiroshima, Japan.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Read More

    Oral Manifestations of Job's Syndrome in a Paediatric Dental Patient - A Case Report.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Nov 1;10(11):ZD04-ZD05. Epub 2016 Nov 1.
    Professor and Head, Department of Pedodontics, Government Dental College , Calicut, Kerala, India .
    Job's syndrome or Hyperimmunoglobulin E Syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency with marked increase in serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and eczematous dermatitis. Individuals with HIES share characteristic facial features, with many oral manifestations like retained deciduous teeth, fissured tongue, missing permanent tooth buds, recurrent oral candidiasis, oral mucosal and gingival lesions. Two forms of disease have been identified based on the defective gene as autosomal dominant form and autosomal recessive form. Read More

    Filaggrin gene mutations and the distribution of filaggrin in oral mucosa of patients with oral lichen planus and healthy controls.
    J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017 May 9;31(5):887-893. Epub 2017 Jan 9.
    Department of Odontology, Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen N, Denmark.
    Background: Lichen planus (LP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown aetiology affecting the skin and oral mucosa. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs), like oral contact reactions, may resemble oral lichen planus (OLP) both clinically and histopathologically. As OLP and OLL are hyperkeratotic diseases and filaggrin is essential to keratinization, the distribution of filaggrin may be altered in these lesions. Read More

    Invasive Aspergillosis of the Stomach and Co-infection With Candida krusei in a Patient With Terminal Liver Failure: A Case Report.
    Transplant Proc 2016 Nov;48(9):3149-3152
    Department of Microbiology, Central Clinical Hospital in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Dental Microbiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:
    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is diagnosed almost exclusively in immunocompromised patients. It is located mainly in the lungs or paranasal sinuses, but occasionally other organs and the gastrointestinal tract may also be affected either alone or as a part of a disseminated disease. The main risk factors predisposing to IA are neutropenia, immunosuppressive and steroid therapy, as well as severe underlying disease. Read More

    IL-17 Receptor Signaling in Oral Epithelial Cells Is Critical for Protection against Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.
    Cell Host Microbe 2016 Nov 27;20(5):606-617. Epub 2016 Oct 27.
    Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA; Department of Mucosal and Salivary Biology, King's College London, London SE1 1UL, UK. Electronic address:
    Signaling through the IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) is required to prevent oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in mice and humans. However, the IL-17-responsive cell type(s) that mediate protection are unknown. Using radiation chimeras, we were able to rule out a requirement for IL-17RA in the hematopoietic compartment. Read More

    Esophageal tuberculosis with coexisting opportunistic infections in a renal allograft transplant recipient.
    Transpl Infect Dis 2017 Feb;19(1)
    Department of Renal Transplant Surgery, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India.
    We report a renal allograft transplant recipient with esophageal tuberculosis (TB) coinfected with herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Candida. The patient presented with oropharyngeal candidiasis and was started on fluconazole. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed whitish patches with mucosal ulcers in the esophagus. Read More

    The effects of photodynamic treatment with new methylene blue N on the Candida albicans proteome.
    Photochem Photobiol Sci 2016 Nov;15(12):1503-1513
    Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
    Candida albicans is a human pathogenic fungus mainly affecting immunocompromised patients. Resistance to the commonly used fungicides can lead to poor treatment of mucosal infections which, in turn, can result in life-threatening systemic candidiasis. In this scenario, antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (PDT) has emerged as an effective alternative to treat superficial and localized fungal infections. Read More

    Efficacy and safety of itraconazole use in infants.
    World J Pediatr 2016 Nov 10;12(4):399-407. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
    Department of Dermatovenereology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: Itraconazole has been used to treat fungal infections, in particular invasive fungal infections in infants or neonates in many countries.

    Data Sources: Literature search was conducted through Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, CNKI and Google scholarship using the following key words: "pediatric" or "infant" or "neonate" and "fungal infection" in combination with "itraconazole". Based on the literature and our clinical experience, we outline the administration of itraconazole in infants in order to develop evidence-based pharmacotherapy. Read More

    Mycological Profile of Sputum of HIV Positive Patients with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and its Correlation with CD4+ T Lymphocyte Count.
    J Clin Diagn Res 2016 Sep 1;10(9):DC28-DC31. Epub 2016 Sep 1.
    Senior Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, S.M.S. Medical College , Jaipur, Rajasthan, India .
    Introduction: Fungal respiratory infections are important cause of mortality and morbidity among HIV positive individuals. They account for up to 70% of illness in Acquired Immunodeficiency Disease Syndrome cases (AIDS). The range of illness varies from asymptomatic mucosal candidiasis to overwhelming disseminated infections. Read More

    Significance of hyphae formation in virulence of Candida tropicalis and transcriptomic analysis of hyphal cells.
    Microbiol Res 2016 Nov 17;192:65-72. Epub 2016 Jun 17.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:
    Recently, the proportion of Candida tropicalis in clinical isolates has significantly increased. Some C. tropicalis strains colonize the skin or mucosal surfaces as commensals; others trigger invasive infection. Read More

    IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa.
    PLoS Pathog 2016 Sep 15;12(9):e1005882. Epub 2016 Sep 15.
    Section of Immunology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. Read More

    Global Identification of Biofilm-Specific Proteolysis in Candida albicans.
    MBio 2016 Sep 13;7(5). Epub 2016 Sep 13.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Merced, California, USA
    Unlabelled: Candida albicans is a fungal species that is part of the normal human microbiota and also an opportunistic pathogen capable of causing mucosal and systemic infections. C. albicans cells proliferate in a planktonic (suspension) state, but they also form biofilms, organized and tightly packed communities of cells attached to a solid surface. Read More

    Effect of Antifungal Treatment in a Diet-Based Murine Model of Disseminated Candidiasis Acquired via the Gastrointestinal Tract.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 Nov 21;60(11):6703-6708. Epub 2016 Oct 21.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
    Candida albicans, normally found as a commensal in the gut, is a major human fungal pathogen responsible for both mucosal and systemic infections in a wide variety of immunocompromised individuals, including cancer patients and organ transplant recipients. The gastrointestinal tract represents a major portal of entry for the establishment of disseminated candidiasis in many of these individuals. Here we report the development of a diet-based mouse model for disseminated candidiasis acquired via the gastrointestinal tract. Read More

    Candidal carriage predicts candidiasis during topical immunosuppressive therapy: a preliminary retrospective cohort study.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2016 Oct 29;122(4):448-54. Epub 2016 Jun 29.
    Associate Professor, Department of Oral Medicine, Infection, and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; Director of Clinical Affairs, Department of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
    Objectives: To determine (1) the prevalence of candidal carriage in patients with oral mucosal disease to be treated with topical immunosuppressive therapy, and (2) the incidence of oral candidiasis among carriers and noncarriers after initiation of therapy to assess any correlation between carriage and the development of candidiasis.

    Study Design: Records of patients who underwent swab cultures for Candida between January 2009 and October 2014 at the Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, were retrospectively reviewed. The prevalence of candidal carriage and incidence of candidiasis were determined by using descriptive statistics. Read More

    Histone Deacetylases and Their Inhibition in Candida Species.
    Front Microbiol 2016 5;7:1238. Epub 2016 Aug 5.
    Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale U1038, Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives, Biosciences and Biotechnology Institute of Grenoble - Large Scale Biology Laboratory Grenoble, France.
    Fungi are generally benign members of the human mucosal flora or live as saprophytes in the environment. However, they can become pathogenic, leading to invasive and life threatening infections in vulnerable patients. These invasive fungal infections are regarded as a major public health problem on a similar scale to tuberculosis or malaria. Read More

    Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.
    Acta Odontol Scand 2016 Oct 19;74(7):565-569. Epub 2016 Aug 19.
    a Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences , University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawila , Nugegoda , Sri Lanka.
    Objectives: The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka.

    Materials And Methods: Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Read More

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