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    A Review of the Effectiveness and Side-Effects of Fluocinolone Acetonide 0.1% in the Treatment of Oral Mucosal Diseases.
    Acta Stomatol Croat 2017 Sep;51(3):240-247
    Oral Medicine Department, Faculty of Dentistry Chulalongkorn University Bangkok, Thailand.
    Topical steroids have been widely used in the treatment of symptomatic oral lesions to reduce pain and inflammation. Potent topical steroids such as clobetasol propionate, fluocinolone acetonide (FA), and fluocinonide have been widely used in the treatment of severe oral mucosal lesions. Many reports have demonstrated that these steroids were effective in treating oral lesions with only minor side-effects. Read More

    Approach to a Child with Primary Immunodeficiency Made Simple.
    Indian Dermatol Online J 2017 Nov-Dec;8(6):391-405
    Allergy Immunology Unit, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
    Primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) are a group of disorders affecting the capability to fight against infection. These include defects in T cells and B cells affecting cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively, combined humoral and cell-mediated immunodeficiency, defects in phagocytosis, complement defects, and defects in cytokine or cytokine signalling pathways which are detrimental for immune function. Depending upon the type and severity, age at onset of symptoms can vary from neonatal period to late childhood. Read More

    Isolated Cutaneous Granuloma Caused by Candida glabrata: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.
    Mycopathologia 2017 Nov 22. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
    Department of Dermatology, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, No. 158, Shangtang Road, Hangzhou, 310014, Zhejiang, China.
    The incidence of candidiasis due to non-albicans Candida species (especially Candida glabrata) has significantly increased in recent decades. Candida glabrata often invades immunocompromised hosts and causes systemic or mucosal infections, whereas cutaneous infections are rarely reported. We present a rare case of cutaneous infection caused by C. Read More

    Discriminating between Interstitial and Circulating Leukocytes in Tissues of the Murine Oral Mucosa Avoiding Nasal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Contamination.
    Front Immunol 2017 30;8:1398. Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Developmental and Surgical Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States.
    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory response to a microbial biofilm that destroys bone and soft tissues supporting the teeth. Murine models of periodontitis based on Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) colonization have shown that extravasation of leukocytes into oral tissue is critical to driving alveolar bone destruction. Identifying interstitial leukocytes is key to understanding the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis. Read More

    Oral hygiene and oral health in older people with dementia: a comprehensive review with focus on oral soft tissues.
    Clin Oral Investig 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Oral Kinesiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Faculty of Dentistry, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Gustav Mahler Laan 3004, 1081, LA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Background: The number of older people with dementia and a natural dentition is growing. Recently, a systematic review concerning the oral health of older people with dementia with the focus on diseases of oral hard tissues was published.

    Objective: To provide a comprehensive literature overview following a systematic approach of the level of oral hygiene and oral health status in older people with dementia with focus on oral soft tissues. Read More

    EphA2 is an epithelial cell pattern recognition receptor for fungal β-glucans.
    Nat Microbiol 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Division of Infectious Diseases, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, USA.
    Oral epithelial cells discriminate between pathogenic and non-pathogenic stimuli, and only induce an inflammatory response when they are exposed to high levels of a potentially harmful microorganism. The pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in epithelial cells that mediate this differential response are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the ephrin type-A receptor 2 (EphA2) is an oral epithelial cell PRR that binds to exposed β-glucans on the surface of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Read More

    Is MBL serum concentration a reliable predictor for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis?
    Mycoses 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Department of Medical Mycology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) is acommon opportunistic, mucosal fungal infection, predominantly caused by the fungus Candida albicans.Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is an acute-phase protein that plays a key role in the innate immunity defense against infectious disease.

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the MBL serum level and the relative expression of MBL mRNA in RVVC using real-time PCR for the first time. Read More

    Candidalysin drives epithelial signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immunopathology at the vaginal mucosa.
    Infect Immun 2017 Nov 6. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Memphis, TN, USA
    Unlike other forms of candidiasis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, is a disease of immunocompetent and otherwise healthy women. Despite its prevalence, the fungal factors responsible for initiating symptomatic infection remain poorly understood. One of the hallmarks of vaginal candidiasis is the robust recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection, which seemingly do not clear the fungus, but rather exacerbate disease symptomatology. Read More

    Common oral complications of head and neck cancer radiation therapy: mucositis, infections, saliva change, fibrosis, sensory dysfunctions, dental caries, periodontal disease, and osteoradionecrosis.
    Cancer Med 2017 Oct 25. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, 90048.
    Patients undergoing radiation therapy for the head and neck are susceptible to a significant and often abrupt deterioration in their oral health. The oral morbidities of radiation therapy include but are not limited to an increased susceptibility to dental caries and periodontal disease. They also include profound and often permanent functional and sensory changes involving the oral soft tissue. Read More

    The yeast form of the fungus Candida albicans promotes persistence in the gut of gnotobiotic mice.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 Oct 25;13(10):e1006699. Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Many microorganisms that cause systemic, life-threatening infections in humans reside as harmless commensals in our digestive tract. Yet little is known about the biology of these microbes in the gut. Here, we visualize the interface between the human commensal and pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and the intestine of mice, a surrogate host. Read More

    The antifungal activity of oleylphosphocholine (OlPC) on in vitro and in vivo Candida albicans biofilms.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 Oct 23. Epub 2017 Oct 23.
    KU Leuven, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology VIB-KU Leuven, Center for Microbiology, Institute of Botany and Microbiology, KU Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31, B-3001 Heverlee - Leuven, Belgium.
    In this study, we investigated the potential antifungal activity of the alkylphospholipid - oleylphosphocholine (OlPC), a structural analogue of miltefosine, on in vitro and in vivo Candida albicans biofilm formation. The effect of OlPC on in vitro and in vivo C. albicans biofilms was studied inside triple-lumen polyurethane catheters. Read More

    SALIVARY FLOW RATE, ORAL YEAST COLONIZATION AND DENTAL STATUS IN INSTITUTIONALIZED AND NON-INSTITUTIONALIZED ELDERLY.
    Acta Clin Croat 2016 09;55(3):390-5
    Elderly people, especially those institutionalized in long-term care facilities, are at risk of various oral diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of hyposalivation and colonization/oral fungal infection of oral cavity with yeasts, as well as dental status in institutionalized and non-institutionalized elderly. The study included 280 institutionalized and 61 non-institutionalized elderly people. Read More

    VT-1161 protects mice against oropharyngeal candidiasis caused by fluconazole-susceptible and -resistant Candida albicans.
    J Antimicrob Chemother 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Immunology & Microbiology, NIAID, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    Background: Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, causes chronic mucosal infections in patients with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity that rely heavily on chronic, often lifelong, azole antifungal agents for treatment. However, a rise in azole resistance has predicated a need for developing new antifungal drugs.

    Objectives: To test the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of VT-1161 and VT-1129 in the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis with azole-susceptible or -resistant C. Read More

    Antifungal defense of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is mediated by blocking adhesion and nutrient depletion.
    PLoS One 2017 12;12(10):e0184438. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Tübingen, Germany.
    Candida albicans is an inhabitant of mucosal surfaces in healthy individuals but also the most common cause of fungal nosocomial blood stream infections, associated with high morbidity and mortality. As such life-threatening infections often disseminate from superficial mucosal infections we aimed to study the use of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) in prevention of mucosal C. albicans infections. Read More

    Overexpression of MDR-1 and CDR-2 genes in fluconazole resistance of Candida albicans isolated from patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis.
    Curr Med Mycol 2016 Dec;2(4):24-29
    Departement of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Background And Purpose: Candida albicans (C. albicans) is an opportunistic fungus that can colonize women's mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, causing vulvovaginitis in specific circumstances. The major genes contributing to drug resistance in C. Read More

    Isolation of Candida Species from Gastroesophageal Lesions among Pediatrics in Isfahan, Iran: Identification and Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Isolates by E-test.
    Adv Biomed Res 2017 28;6:103. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
    Background: Candida species can become opportunistic pathogens causing local or systemic invasive infections. Gastroesophageal candidiasis may depend on the Candida colonization and local damage of the mucosal barrier. Risk factors are gastric acid suppression, diabetes mellitus, chronic debilitating states such as carcinomas, and the use of systemic antibiotics and corticosteroids. Read More

    A clinicopathologic and epidemiologic study of chronic white lesions in the oral mucosa.
    Ear Nose Throat J 2017 Aug;96(8):E13-E17
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Star Hospitals, 8-2-594/B Rd., No. 10, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad-500 034, India.
    Invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma is often preceded by the presence of clinically identifiable premalignant changes of the oral mucosa, including white lesions. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study to assess the clinicopathologic and epidemiologic aspects of chronic oral mucosal white lesions to determine the necessity of early biopsy in these cases. Our study population was made up of 77 patients-50 males and 27 females, aged 15 to 70 years (mean: 42. Read More

    Ecological Therapeutic Opportunities for Oral Diseases.
    Microbiol Spectr 2017 Aug;5(4)
    Division of Periodontology, Department of Oral Health and Diagnostic Sciences, UConn Health, Farmington, CT 06030.
    The three main oral diseases of humans, that is, caries, periodontal diseases, and oral candidiasis, are associated with microbiome shifts initiated by changes in the oral environment and/or decreased effectiveness of mucosal immune surveillance. In this review, we discuss the role that microbial-based therapies may have in the control of these conditions. Most investigations on the use of microorganisms for management of oral disease have been conducted with probiotic strains with some positive but very discrete clinical outcomes. Read More

    Comparative study: Oral mucosal lesions, signs and symptoms in diabetes mellitus patients with end stage renal disease with analogous findings in diabetes mellitus patients with non-end stage renal disease.
    Indian J Dent Res 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):406-412
    Department of Diabetology, Voluntary Health Services, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions type and prevalence, in end stage renal disease (ESRD) with non-end stage renal disease (NESRD) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients.

    Methodology: Two groups of DM patients were studied, Group 1 includes 100 patients with ESRD, who were under hemodialysis therapy, and Group 2 includes100 patients with NESRD whose serum creatinine level is <2.0 mg/dl. Read More

    Tobacco Abuse and Associated Oral Lesions among Interstate Migrant Construction Workers.
    J Contemp Dent Pract 2017 Aug 1;18(8):695-699. Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Kannur Dental College, Kannur, Kerala, India.
    Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tobacco use and associated oral mucosal lesions among construction workers of Cochin, Kerala, India.

    Materials And Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried at various construction sites of Cochin and 2,163 workers were selected using multistage sampling method and were interviewed and examined. Information regarding demographic details, form, type, frequency of tobacco use, earlier attempt to quit, and willingness to quit tobacco use was obtained using predesigned questionnaire. Read More

    Candida Infections and Human Defensins.
    Protein Pept Lett 2017 ;24(8):747-756
    Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste. Italy.
    Background: Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. Read More

    Overexpression of Candida albicans Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases 2 or 5 is not sufficient for exacerbation of immunopathology in a murine model of vaginitis.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jul 31. Epub 2017 Jul 31.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, 38163
    The secreted aspartyl protineases of C. albicans have long been implicated in virulence at the mucosal surface, including contribution to colonization and immunopathogenesis during vulvovaginal candidiasis. In an effort to disentangle hypha-associated virulence factor regulation from morphological transition, the purpose of this study was to determine if overexpression of SAP2 or SAP5 in a efg1Δ/Δ/cph1Δ/Δ mutant could restore capacity to cause immunopathology during murine vaginitis to this avirulent hypofilamentous strain. Read More

    An Ocular Commensal Protects against Corneal Infection by Driving an Interleukin-17 Response from Mucosal γδ T Cells.
    Immunity 2017 Jul 11;47(1):148-158.e5. Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:
    Mucosal sites such as the intestine, oral cavity, nasopharynx, and vagina all have associated commensal flora. The surface of the eye is also a mucosal site, but proof of a living, resident ocular microbiome remains elusive. Here, we used a mouse model of ocular surface disease to reveal that commensals were present in the ocular mucosa and had functional immunological consequences. Read More

    Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017 Nov 3;46(11):1497-1504. Epub 2017 Jul 3.
    Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Sergipe, Lagarto, Sergipe, Brazil. Electronic address:
    The aim of this study was to determine whether highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The search was conducted in seven electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS, Embase, Web of Science, and OpenGrey), without restriction on publication period or language. Read More

    Preparation, characterization, and evaluation of amphotericin B-loaded MPEG-PCL-g-PEI micelles for local treatment of oral Candida albicans.
    Int J Nanomedicine 2017 6;12:4269-4283. Epub 2017 Jun 6.
    Department of Pharmacology.
    Fatal Candida albicans infections in the mucosal system can occur in association with immune-compromised diseases and dysbacteriosis. Currently, amphotericin B (AmB) is considered to be the most effective antibiotic in the treatment of C. albicans infections, but its clinical application is limited by side effects and poor bioavailability. Read More

    Control of mucosal candidiasis in the zebrafish swimbladder depends on neutrophils that block filament invasion and drive extracellular trap production.
    Infect Immun 2017 Jun 12. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Molecular & Biomedical Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, USA
    Candida albicans is a ubiquitous mucosal commensal that is normally prevented from causing acute or chronic invasive disease. Neutrophils contribute to protection in oral infection but exacerbate vulvovaginal candidiasis. To dissect the role of neutrophils during mucosal candidiasis we took advantage of a new, transparent zebrafish swimbladder infection model. Read More

    CMCD: Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis Disease.
    Nihon Rinsho Meneki Gakkai Kaishi 2017 ;40(2):109-117
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is an infectious phenotype which is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin, and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida species. Th17 cells produce interleukin-17 (IL-17) and play an important role in host mucosal immunity to Candida. Recent studies revealed that an impairment of IL-17 immunity underlies development of CMC. Read More

    Testing Antifungal Vaccines in an Animal Model of Invasive Candidiasis and in Human Mucosal Candidiasis.
    Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1625:343-353
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B 39040, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978, Israel.
    The following article will concentrate on the NDV-3 anti-Candida and Staphylococcus vaccine. The vaccine is composed of the N-terminal portion of the Candida albicans agglutinin-like sequence 3 protein (Als3p) and aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant. The vaccine conferred protection to mice against experimental vaginal, oral, and intravenous challenge with C. Read More

    Oral mucosal lesions in teenagers: a cross-sectional study.
    Ital J Pediatr 2017 May 31;43(1):50. Epub 2017 May 31.
    Dental School, Pediatric Dentistry Department, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123, Brescia, Italy.
    Background: Adolescence is a period of transition to adulthood. Little is known about oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in teenagers, in which the emergence of new habits, unfamiliar to children, could affect the type of lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of oral mucosal lesions (OMLs) in a wide sample of adolescents. Read More

    Treatment and Prevention of Oral Candidiasis in Elderly Patients.
    Med Mycol J 2017 ;58(2):J43-J49
    Director of Dental Practice, Ryohoku Hospital.
    The incidence of oral candidiasis has increased in the elderly in recent years. Although the increase of the elderly population plays a big role in this rise of oral candidiasis, the broader recognition that elderly people have higher infection rates for oral candidiasis is considered to be also an important factor. Oral candidiasis can be categorized into three types. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Candida albicans isolates from bloodstream and mucosal infections.
    Mycoses 2017 Aug 22;60(8):534-545. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology and Immunology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    The interaction of Candida albicans with the host is of a complex nature involving fungal factors and host's response. In this study, we concentrated on the phenotypic expression of virulence attributes and genotypic characteristics of C. albicans isolates from two distinct clinical entities of candidiasis-blood stream and vaginal infections, and the possible role of these factors. Read More

    Adaptation of Candida albicans to environmental pH induces cell wall remodelling and enhances innate immune recognition.
    PLoS Pathog 2017 May 22;13(5):e1006403. Epub 2017 May 22.
    Institute of Microbiology and Infection, and School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Candida albicans is able to proliferate in environments that vary dramatically in ambient pH, a trait required for colonising niches such as the stomach, vaginal mucosal and the GI tract. Here we show that growth in acidic environments involves cell wall remodelling which results in enhanced chitin and β-glucan exposure at the cell wall periphery. Unmasking of the underlying immuno-stimulatory β-glucan in acidic environments enhanced innate immune recognition of C. Read More

    Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.
    Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2017 Apr 13;59:e14. Epub 2017 Apr 13.
    Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Odontologia, Departamento de Estomatologia, São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Read More

    Autoreactive T Cells and Chronic Fungal Infection Drive Esophageal Carcinogenesis.
    Cell Host Microbe 2017 Apr;21(4):478-493.e7
    Cancer and Inflammation Program, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Frederick, MD 21702, USA. Electronic address:
    Humans with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED), a T cell-driven autoimmune disease caused by impaired central tolerance, are susceptible to chronic fungal infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the relationship between autoreactive T cells and chronic fungal infection in ESCC development remains unclear. We find that kinase-dead Ikkα knockin mice develop APECED-like phenotypes, including impaired central tolerance, autoreactive T cells, chronic fungal infection, and ESCCs expressing specific human ESCC markers. Read More

    Esophageal mucosa in HIV infection: A"deeper" look at this little spoken organ.
    J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017 Nov;32(11):1832-1838
    Laboratório da Disciplina de Patologia de Moléstias Transmissíveis, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background And Aim: Although the esophagus is a common site of opportunistic infection in AIDS patients, little is known about the impact of HIV as well as opportunistic infection in the esophageal mucosa. Our aim is to analyze the esophageal immune profile in HIV+ patients with different immunological status with and without the opportunistic Candida infection.

    Methods: Immunohistochemistry to CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, γ-interferon, transforming growth factor-β, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-13, and IL-17 was performed in esophageal samples of 40 chronically HIV+ patients under highly active antiretroviral therapy (16 with Candida esophagitis, 12 virologically non-supressed with blood CD4 count < 500, and 12 virologically suppressed with blood CD4 count > 500; the latter two groups without esophageal candidiasis). Read More

    A Novel Heterozygous Mutation in the STAT1 SH2 Domain Causes Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis, Atypically Diverse Infections, Autoimmunity, and Impaired Cytokine Regulation.
    Front Immunol 2017 13;8:274. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical Immunology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by persistent or recurrent skin and mucosal surface infections with Candida species. Different gene mutations leading to CMC have been identified. These include various heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) that are not only associated with infections but also with autoimmune manifestations. Read More

    Oral Mucosal Infections: Insights into Specimen Collection and Medication Management.
    Dent Clin North Am 2017 Apr;61(2):283-304
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Takkellapadu, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh 522601, India.
    Oral mucosal infections appear as localized or generalized lesions. Symptoms range from almost unnoticeable lesions to severe pain. Systemic disease, age, immunocompromised condition, and medication use are common causes. Read More

    Human α-Defensin 6: A Small Peptide That Self-Assembles and Protects the Host by Entangling Microbes.
    Acc Chem Res 2017 Apr 15;50(4):960-967. Epub 2017 Mar 15.
    Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.
    Human α-defensin 6 (HD6) is a 32-residue cysteine-rich peptide that contributes to innate immunity by protecting the host at mucosal sites. This peptide is produced in small intestinal Paneth cells, stored as an 81-residue precursor peptide named proHD6 in granules, and released into the lumen. One unusual feature of HD6 is that it lacks the broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity observed for other human α-defensins, including the Paneth cell peptide human α-defensin 5 (HD5). Read More

    Candida albicans infection and intestinal immunity.
    Microbiol Res 2017 May 13;198:27-35. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Trauma-Emergency & Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Fifth People's Hospital, Fudan University; Shanghai 200240, PR China. Electronic address:
    Fungal infections cause high rates of morbidity and mortality in intensive care and immunocompromised patients, and can represent a life-threatening disease. As a microorganism commonly found in the intestine, Candida albicans (C. albicans) can invade the gut epithelium barrier via microfold cells and enter the bloodstream. Read More

    The relationship of Candida colonization of the oral and vaginal mucosae of mothers and oral mucosae of their newborns at birth.
    Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2017 Apr 24;123(4):459-463. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Jordan.
    Objective: Vaginal Candida colonization is common during pregnancy. Vaginal Candida may transmit vertically to the mouth of newborns during labor. The aim of this study was to assess and compare oral Candida colonization between vaginally born newborns and cesarean-born newborns and to investigate the association of the mother's vaginal and oral Candida colonization and the newborn's oral colonization at the time of delivery. Read More

    Studying the Prevalence, Species Distribution, and Detection of In vitro Production of Phospholipase from Candida Isolated from Cases of Invasive Candidiasis.
    J Glob Infect Dis 2017 Jan-Mar;9(1):8-11
    Department of Hematology, Laboratory Diagnostic Services, St. Stephen's Hospital, New Delhi, India.
    Background And Aim: Candida spp. have emerged as successful pathogens both in invasive and mucosal infections. C. Read More

    Intractable hiccups caused by esophageal diverticular candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult: a case report.
    Int Med Case Rep J 2017 10;10:47-50. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo Prefectural Kaibara Hospital, Tamba.
    Introduction: Various causes of intractable hiccups have been reported; however, to the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of either intractable hiccups due to esophageal candidiasis in an immunocompetent adult or improvement following antifungal therapy.

    Case Presentation: An 87-year-old man presented with intractable hiccups. Although the patient was immunocompetent, he used proton pump inhibitors. Read More

    Encapsulation of Antifungals in Micelles Protects Candida albicans during Gall-Bladder Infection.
    Front Microbiol 2017 1;8:117. Epub 2017 Feb 1.
    Microbial Biochemistry and Physiology, Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology, Hans Knoell InstituteJena, Germany; Fungal Genetics and Biology Group, School of Life Sciences, University of NottinghamNottingham, UK.
    Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Read More

    New developments and directions in the clinical application of the echinocandins.
    Arch Toxicol 2017 Apr 8;91(4):1613-1621. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Marie Bashir Institute for Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    The echinocandins-caspofungin, anidulafungin and micafungin-are semi-synthetic cyclic hexapeptide antimicrobial agents with modified N-linked acyl lipid side chains which anchor the compounds to the phospholipid bilayer of the fungal cell membrane, thereby inhibiting synthesis of fungal cell wall glucan. Over the last 10 years, echinocandins have become the first-line antifungal treatment of candidaemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis (IC). Echinocandins are generally well tolerated, but their use is limited by their requirement for daily intravenous dosing, lack of oral formulation and limited spectrum. Read More

    Supramolecular Chitosan Micro-Platelets Synergistically Enhance Anti-Candida albicans Activity of Amphotericin B Using an Immunocompetent Murine Model.
    Pharm Res 2017 May 6;34(5):1067-1082. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Faculté de Pharmacie, Institut Galien Paris Sud, Junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France, UMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 5, rue J-B. Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France.
    Purpose: The aim of this work is to design new chitosan conjugates able to self-organize in aqueous solution in the form of micrometer-size platelets. When mixed with amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmB-DOC), micro-platelets act as a drug booster allowing further improvement in AmB-DOC anti-Candida albicans activity.

    Methods: Micro-platelets were obtained by mixing oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. Read More

    Congenital Cutaneous Candidiasis: Prompt Systemic Treatment Is Associated With Improved Outcomes in Neonates.
    Clin Infect Dis 2017 May;64(10):1387-1395
    Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: Congenital cutaneous candidiasis (CCC) is a challenging diagnosis due to various rash presentations. Inadequate early treatment is associated with high rates of dissemination and death. The effects of early diagnosis, dermatologic presentation, and antifungal treatment on outcomes are lacking. Read More

    Cyclodextrin-mediated self-associating chitosan micro-platelets act as a drug booster against Candida glabrata mucosal infection in immunocompetent mice.
    Int J Pharm 2017 Mar 24;519(1-2):381-389. Epub 2017 Jan 24.
    Institut Galien Paris Sud, Junior member of the Institut Universitaire de France, UMR CNRS 8612, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Faculté de Pharmacie, 5, rue J-B. Clément, 92296, Châtenay-Malabry, France. Electronic address:
    This study reports design and evaluation of chitosan-based microparticle activity against Candida glabrata in vitro and in vivo in immunocompetent mice model artificially maintained in oestrus state. Because their flattened shape, chitosan microparticles are called here micro-platelets. They were obtained by self-association of oleoyl chitosan and α-cyclodextrin in water. Read More

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease associated with inborn errors of IL-17 immunity.
    Clin Transl Immunology 2016 Dec 2;5(12):e114. Epub 2016 Dec 2.
    Department of Pediatrics, Hiroshima University Graduate School of Biomedical and Health Sciences , Hiroshima, Japan.
    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is characterized by recurrent or persistent infections affecting the nails, skin and oral and genital mucosae caused by Candida spp., mainly Candida albicans. CMC is an infectious phenotype in patients with inherited or acquired T-cell deficiency. Read More

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