5,452 results match your criteria Cancers[Journal]


Non-Coding RNA Editing in Cancer Pathogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Diseases and Critical Care Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.

In the last two decades, RNA post-transcriptional modifications, including RNA editing, have been the subject of increasing interest among the scientific community. The efforts of the Human Genome Project combined with the development of new sequencing technologies and dedicated bioinformatic approaches created to detect and profile RNA transcripts have served to further our understanding of RNA editing. Investigators have determined that non-coding RNA (ncRNA) A-to-I editing is often deregulated in cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071845DOI Listing

TIAM2S Mediates Serotonin Homeostasis and Provokes a Pro-Inflammatory Immune Microenvironment Permissive for Colorectal Tumorigenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan.

The short isoform of human TIAM2 has been shown to promote proliferation and invasion in various cancer cells. However, the roles of TIAM2S in immune cells in relation to tumor development have not been investigated. To characterize the effects of TIAM2S, we generated TIAM2S-overexpressing mouse lines and found that aged TIAM2S-transgenic (TIAM2S-TG) developed significantly higher occurrence of lymphocytic infiltration and tumorigenesis in various organs, including colon. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071844DOI Listing

A Concise Paradigm on Radical Hysterectomy: The Comprehensive Anatomy of Parametrium, Paracolpium and the Pelvic Autonomic Nerve System and Its Surgical Implication.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Surgery, Institut Bergonié, 33076 Bordeaux, France.

The current understanding of radical hysterectomy is more centered on the uterus and little is discussed regarding the resection of the vaginal cuff and the paracolpium as an essential part of this procedure. The anatomic dissections of two fresh and 17 formalin-fixed female pelvis cadavers were utilized to understand and decipher the anatomy of the pelvic autonomic nerve system (PANS) and its connections to the surrounding anatomical structures, especially the paracolpium. The study mandates the recognition of the three-dimensional (3D) anatomic template of the parametrium and paracolpium and provides herewith an enhanced scope during a nerve-sparing radical hysterectomy procedure by precise description of the paracolpium and its close anatomical relationships to the components of the PANS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071839DOI Listing

Identification of the Novel Oncogenic Role of SAAL1 and Its Therapeutic Potential in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Graduate Institute of Integrated Medicine, China Medical University, No.91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, affecting over 700,000 people per year. The treatment effect in advanced HCC is still disappointing and prognosis of advanced HCC remains poor. Hence, to find more effective therapeutic targets to improve the treatment outcome of HCC is of urgent need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071843DOI Listing

Coding of Glioblastoma Progression and Therapy Resistance through Long Noncoding RNAs.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Medical Centre for Molecular Biology, Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Vrazov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive and lethal primary brain malignancy, with an average patient survival from diagnosis of 14 months. Glioblastoma also usually progresses as a more invasive phenotype after initial treatment. A major step forward in our understanding of the nature of glioblastoma was achieved with large-scale expression analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071842DOI Listing

Presenting Features and Early Mortality from SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Cancer Patients during the Initial Stage of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Translational Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Piemonte Orientale and Maggiore della Carita' Hospital, 28100 Novara, Italy.

We describe the outcomes in cancer patients during the initial outbreak of the COVID-19 in Europe from the retrospective, multi-center observational OnCovid study. We identified 204 cancer patients from eight centers in the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain aged > 18 (mean = 69) and diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 26th and April 1st, 2020. A total of 127 (62%) were male, 184 (91%) had a diagnosis of solid malignancy, and 103 (51%) had non-metastatic disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071841DOI Listing

Transitions of Liver and Biliary Enzymes during Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Proton Medical Research Center, University of Tsukuba Hospital, Tsukuba 305-8576, Japan.

Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a curative treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), because it can preserve liver function due to dose targeting via the Bragg peak. However, the degree of direct liver damage by PBT is unclear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed liver/biliary enzymes and total bilirubin (T-Bil) as markers of direct liver damage during and early after PBT in 300 patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071840DOI Listing

Regulation of DNA Damage Response and Homologous Recombination Repair by microRNA in Human Cells Exposed to Ionizing Radiation.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, 90-236 Lodz, Poland.

Ionizing radiation may be of both artificial and natural origin and causes cellular damage in living organisms. Radioactive isotopes have been used significantly in cancer therapy for many years. The formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is the most dangerous effect of ionizing radiation on the cellular level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071838DOI Listing

Mambalgin-2 Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Glioma Cells via Interaction with ASIC1a.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119997 Moscow, Russia.

Gliomas are fast growing and highly invasive brain tumors, characterized by tumor microenvironment acidification that drives glioma cell growth and migration. Channels containing Acid-sensing Ion Channel 1a subunit (ASIC1a) mediate amiloride-sensitive cation influx in late stage glioma cells, but not in normal astrocytes. Thus, selective targeting of ASIC1a can be a perspective strategy for glioma treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071837DOI Listing

Tumor-Targeting Peptides: The Functional Screen of Glioblastoma Homing Peptides to the Target Protein FABP3 (MDGI).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Translational Cancer Medicine Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.

We recently identified the glioblastoma homing peptide CooP (CGLSGLGVA) using in vivo phage display screen. The mammary-derived growth inhibitor (MDGI/FABP3) was identified as its interacting partner. Here, we present an alanine scan of A-CooP to investigate the contribution of each amino acid residue to the binding to FABP3 by microscale thermophoresis (MST) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071836DOI Listing

HLA Evolutionary Divergence as a Prognostic Marker for AML Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Hematology, Oncology, Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, University Hospital Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

The diversity of human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) enables the presentation of immense repertoires of peptides, including tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). As a surrogate for immunopeptidome diversity, the HLA evolutionary divergence (HED) between individual HLA alleles might directly define the ability to present TAAs, a prerequisite for graft-versus-leukemia effects. We therefore analyzed the impact of HED on survival within a cohort of 171 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients after matched donor allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071835DOI Listing

Comorbidity Risk Score in Association with Cancer Incidence: Results from a Cancer Screenee Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, National Cancer Center Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, Goyang 10408, Korea.

The combined effects of comorbidities can cause cancer incidence, while the effects of individual conditions, alone, might not. This study was conducted to investigate the joint impact of comorbidities on cancer incidence. The dietary score for energy-adjusted intake was calculated by applying a Gaussian graphical model and was then categorized into tertiles representing light, normal, and heavy eating behaviors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071834DOI Listing

Mechanisms of Androgen Receptor Agonist- and Antagonist-Mediated Cellular Senescence in Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Institute of Human Genetics, Jena University Hospital, 07740 Jena, Germany.

The androgen receptor (AR) plays a leading role in the control of prostate cancer (PCa) growth. Interestingly, structurally different AR antagonists with distinct mechanisms of antagonism induce cell senescence, a mechanism that inhibits cell cycle progression, and thus seems to be a key cellular response for the treatment of PCa. Surprisingly, while physiological levels of androgens promote growth, supraphysiological androgen levels (SAL) inhibit PCa growth in an AR-dependent manner by inducing cell senescence in cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071833DOI Listing

Molecular Features of Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma: An Infrequent Subtype of Triple Negative Breast Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Pathology Department, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid, Spain.

Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a heterogeneous group of infrequent invasive carcinomas that display differentiation of the neoplastic epithelium towards squamous cells and/or mesenchymal-type elements. Most MBC have a triple negative phenotype and poor prognosis. Thus, MBC have worse survival rates than other invasive breast carcinomas, including other triple negative breast carcinomas (TNBC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071832DOI Listing

Harnessing Omics Approaches on Advanced Preclinical Models to Discovery Novel Therapeutic Targets for the Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

UOSD SAFU, Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostic, and Technological Innovation, IRCSS-Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, 00144 Rome, Italy.

Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remains challenging because of the emergence of resistance mechanisms to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapeutics, so more effective strategies to improve the patients' outcome are needed. During the last decade, the application of a multi-omics approach has contributed to a deeper understanding of the complex molecular landscape of human CRC, identifying a plethora of drug targets for precision medicine. Target validation relies on the use of experimental models that would retain the molecular and clinical features of human colorectal cancer, thus mirroring the clinical characteristics of patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071830DOI Listing

The Role of Liquid Biopsies in Detecting Molecular Tumor Biomarkers in Brain Cancer Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Centre for Circulating Tumour Cell Diagnostics and Research, Ingham Institute for Applied Medical Research, 1 Campbell St, Liverpool, NSW 2170, Australia.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal primary central nervous system cancers with a median overall survival of only 12-15 months. The best documented treatment is surgical tumor debulking followed by chemoradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy with temozolomide, but treatment resistance and therefore tumor recurrence, is the usual outcome. Although advances in molecular subtyping suggests GBM can be classified into four subtypes, one concern about using the original histology for subsequent treatment decisions is that it only provides a static snapshot of heterogeneous tumors that may undergo longitudinal changes over time, especially under selective pressure of ongoing therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071831DOI Listing

The 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay and Prediction of Chemotherapy Benefit: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis of the SEER Database.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 8;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Surgery, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea.

Background: To evaluate the performance of the 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay in predicting chemotherapy benefit in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population, we aimed to assess breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) by chemotherapy use within each of the RS categories.

Methods: Data on breast cancer (BC) cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2015 with available RS results were released. Our analysis included patients with hormone receptor-positive, node-negative early-stage BC ( = 89,402), and three RS groups were defined; RS < 11, low; RS 11-25, intermediate; RS > 25, high. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071829DOI Listing

Improved Prognostic Prediction in Never-Smoker Lung Cancer Patients by Integration of a Systemic Inflammation Marker with Tumor Immune Contexture Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Thoracic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Almost 25% of lung cancers (LCs) occur in never-smokers. LC inflammatory profile, based on plasma C-reactive protein levels (CRP), predicts mortality, independently by smoking-status. We hypothesized that: CRP could be associated with tumor immune contexture (TIC) in never-smokers and both these two parameters may improve their prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071828DOI Listing

Exosomal MicroRNAs and Organotropism in Breast Cancer Metastasis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Cancer Biology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA.

Breast cancer is the most frequent malignancy for women in which one in eight women will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetime. Despite advances made in treating primary breast cancer, there is still no effective treatment for metastatic breast cancer. Consequently, metastatic breast cancer is responsible for 90% of breast cancer-related deaths while only accounting for approximately one third of all breast cancer cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071827DOI Listing

DrugSniper, a Tool to Exploit Loss-Of-Function Screens, Identifies as a Predictive Biomarker of VOLASERTIB in Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (SCLC).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, School of Engineering, University of Navarra, 20018 San Sebastián, Spain.

The development of predictive biomarkers of response to targeted therapies is an unmet clinical need for many antitumoral agents. Recent genome-wide loss-of-function screens, such as RNA interference (RNAi) and CRISPR-Cas9 libraries, are an unprecedented resource to identify novel drug targets, reposition drugs and associate predictive biomarkers in the context of precision oncology. In this work, we have developed and validated a large-scale bioinformatics tool named DrugSniper, which exploits loss-of-function experiments to model the sensitivity of 6237 inhibitors and predict their corresponding biomarkers of sensitivity in 30 tumor types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071824DOI Listing

Unique Spatial Immune Profiling in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma with Enrichment of Exhausted and Senescent T Cells and Diffused CD47-SIRPα Expression.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Molecular Carcinogenesis Group, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Background: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is resistant to single-agent immunotherapies. To understand the mechanisms leading to the poor response to this treatment, a better understanding of the PDAC immune landscape is required. The present work aims to study the immune profile in PDAC in relationship to spatial heterogeneity of the tissue microenvironment (TME) in intact tissues. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071825DOI Listing

Advances in Anti-Cancer Immunotherapy: Car-T Cell, Checkpoint Inhibitors, Dendritic Cell Vaccines, and Oncolytic Viruses, and Emerging Cellular and Molecular Targets.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.

Unlike traditional cancer therapies, such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy that are typically non-specific, cancer immunotherapy harnesses the high specificity of a patient's own immune system to selectively kill cancer cells. The immune system is the body's main cancer surveillance system, but cancers may evade destruction thanks to various immune-suppressing mechanisms. We therefore need to deploy various immunotherapy-based strategies to help bolster the anti-tumour immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071826DOI Listing

BRAF Inhibitors: Molecular Targeting and Immunomodulatory Actions.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Medical-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Dermatology Unit "Daniele Innocenzi", Sapienza University of Rome, Polo Pontino, 04100 Latina, Italy.

The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib, dabrafenib and encorafenib are used in the treatment of patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. They selectively target BRAF kinase and thus interfere with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway that regulates the proliferation and survival of melanoma cells. In addition to their molecularly targeted activity, BRAF inhibitors have immunomodulatory effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071823DOI Listing

Insights into the New Cancer Therapy through Redox Homeostasis and Metabolic Shifts.

Authors:
Dong-Hoon Hyun

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Life Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

Modest levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are necessary for intracellular signaling, cell division, and enzyme activation. These ROS are later eliminated by the body's antioxidant defense system. High amounts of ROS cause carcinogenesis by altering the signaling pathways associated with metabolism, proliferation, metastasis, and cell survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071822DOI Listing

XRN2 Links RNA:DNA Hybrid Resolution to Double Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stephenson Cancer Center, University of Oklahoma Health Science Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.

It was recently shown that the 5' to 3' exoribonuclease XRN2 is involved in the DNA damage response. Importantly, loss of XRN2 abrogates DNA double stranded break repair via the non-homologous end-joining pathway. However, the mechanistic details of how XRN2 functions in the non-homologous end-joining repair process are unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071821DOI Listing

Prospective Assessment of Systemic MicroRNAs as Markers of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, Lambe Institute for Translational Research, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 YR71, Ireland.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is used in locally advanced breast cancer to reduce tumour burden prior to surgical resection. However, only a subset of NACT treated patients will respond to treatment or achieve a pathologic complete response (pCR). This multicenter, prospective study (CTRIAL-IE (ICORG) 10-11 study) evaluated circulating microRNA as novel non-invasive prognostic biomarkers of NACT response in breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071820DOI Listing

Sex and Gender Disparities in Melanoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Center for Gender-specific Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Worldwide, the total incidence of cutaneous melanoma is higher in men than in women, with some differences related to ethnicity and age and, above all, sex and gender. Differences exist in respect to the anatomic localization of melanoma, in that it is more frequent on the trunk in men and on the lower limbs in women. A debated issue is if-and to what extent-melanoma development can be attributed to gender-specific behaviors or to biologically intrinsic differences. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071819DOI Listing

Increase of Antitumoral Effects of Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells by Antibody-Mediated Inhibition of MICA Shedding.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 7;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Integrated Oncology, CIO Bonn, University Hospital Bonn, D-53105 Bonn, Germany.

Natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays a pivotal role in cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity against malignancies, and the expression of NKG2D ligands might allow targets to be more susceptible to the CIK cell-mediated destruction. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effects of CIK cells antitumor activity and antibody-mediated inhibition of MICA/B shedding. This monoclonal antibody (7C6) has been previously shown to be able to specifically target MICA/B a3 domain on tumor cells, resulting in the increase in cell surface MICA/B expression by inhibition of their shedding. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071818DOI Listing

Beyond IDH-Mutation: Emerging Molecular Diagnostic and Prognostic Features in Adult Diffuse Gliomas.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA.

Diffuse gliomas are among the most common adult central nervous system tumors with an annual incidence of more than 16,000 cases in the United States. Until very recently, the diagnosis of these tumors was based solely on morphologic features, however, with the publication of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, revised 4th edition in 2016, certain molecular features are now included in the official diagnostic and grading system. One of the most significant of these changes has been the division of adult astrocytomas into IDH-wildtype and IDH-mutant categories in addition to histologic grade as part of the main-line diagnosis, although a great deal of heterogeneity in the clinical outcome still remains to be explained within these categories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071817DOI Listing

Characterization of Class-3 Semaphorin Receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins, as Therapeutic Targets in a Pan-Cancer Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 320B Lincoln Tower, 1800 Cannon Dr., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Class-3 semaphorins (SEMA3s), initially characterized as axon guidance cues, have been recognized as key regulators for immune responses, angiogenesis, tumorigenesis and drug responses. The functions of SEMA3s are attributed to the activation of downstream signaling cascades mainly mediated by cell surface receptors neuropilins (NRPs) and plexins (PLXNs), yet their roles in human cancers are not completely understood. Here, we provided a detailed pan-cancer analysis of NRPs and PLXNs in their expression, and association with key signal transducers, patient survival, tumor microenvironment (TME), and drug responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071816DOI Listing

The Premature Senescence in Breast Cancer Treatment Strategy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Drug Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, National Medicines Institute, 30/34 Chełmska St, 00-725 Warszawa, Poland.

Cellular senescence is a permanent blockade of cell proliferation. In response to therapy-induced stress, cancer cells undergo apoptosis or premature senescence. In apoptosis-resistant cancer cells or at lower doses of anticancer drugs, therapy-induced stress leads to premature senescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071815DOI Listing

Human Prostate Cancer is Characterized by an Increase in Urea Cycle Metabolites.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Nephrology, University Hospital Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

Despite it being the most common incident of cancer among men, the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to prostate cancer (PCa) are still poorly understood. Altered mitochondrial metabolism is postulated to play a role in the development of PCa. To determine the key metabolites (which included mitochondrial oncometabolites), benign prostatic and cancer tissues of patients with PCa were analyzed using capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071814DOI Listing

The Nucleolus and PARP1 in Cancer Biology.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Molecular Toxicology Group, Department of Biology, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

The nucleolus has been known for a long time to fulfill crucial functions in ribosome biogenesis, of which cancer cells can become addicted to in order to produce sufficient amounts of proteins for cell proliferation. Recently, the nucleolus has emerged as a central regulatory hub in many other cancer-relevant processes, including stress sensing, DNA damage response, cell cycle control, and proteostasis. This fostered the idea that nucleolar processes can be exploited in cancer therapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071813DOI Listing

Bone, a Secondary Growth Site of Breast and Prostate Carcinomas: Role of Osteocytes.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute; Università degli Studi di Milano, Via L. Mangiagalli 31, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Bone is the primarily preferred site for breast and prostate cancer to metastasize. Bone metastases are responsible for most deaths related to breast and prostate cancer. The bone's particular microenvironment makes it conducive for the growth of cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071812DOI Listing

Aetiology of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre for Health Data Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have estimated annual incidence rates for polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis of 0.84, 1.03, and 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071810DOI Listing

Proliferative Classification of Intracranially Injected HER2-positive Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Life Science and Medical Bioscience, School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns 2-2 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8480, Japan.

HER2 is overexpressed in 25-30% of breast cancers, and approximately 30% of HER2-positive breast cancers metastasize to the brain. Although the incidence of brain metastasis in HER2-positive breast cancer is high, previous studies have been mainly based on cell lines of the triple-negative subtype, and the molecular mechanisms of brain metastasis in HER2-positive breast cancer are unclear. In the present study, we performed intracranial injection using nine HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines to evaluate their proliferative activity in brain tissue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071811DOI Listing

Identification of GSN and LAMC2 as Key Prognostic Genes of Bladder Cancer by Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan.

Bladder cancer is a common malignancy with mechanisms of pathogenesis and progression. This study aimed to identify the prognostic hub genes, which are the central modulators to regulate the progression and proliferation in the specific subtype of bladder cancer. The identification of the candidate hub gene was performed by weighted gene co-expression network analysis to construct a free-scale gene co-expression network. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071809DOI Listing

Improved Diagnostic Imaging of Brain Tumors by Multimodal Microscopy and Deep Learning.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Neuropathology and Neurochemistry, Department of Neurology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Fluorescence-guided surgery is a state-of-the-art approach for intraoperative imaging during neurosurgical removal of tumor tissue. While the visualization of high-grade gliomas is reliable, lower grade glioma often lack visible fluorescence signals. Here, we present a hybrid prototype combining visible light optical coherence microscopy (OCM) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging for assessment of brain tumor samples acquired by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071806DOI Listing

Harnessing NK Cell Checkpoint-Modulating Immunotherapies.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Institute of cellular therapeutics, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

During the host immune response, the precise balance of the immune system, regulated by immune checkpoint, is required to avoid infection and cancer. These immune checkpoints are the mainstream regulator of the immune response and are crucial for self-tolerance. During the last decade, various new immune checkpoint molecules have been studied, providing an attractive path to evaluate their potential role as targets for effective therapeutic interventions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071807DOI Listing

Genomic and Transcriptomic Characterisation of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Genomic Oncology Research Group, Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.

Standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT), followed by surgical resection. However, >70% of patients do not achieve a complete pathological response and have higher rates of relapse and death. There are no validated pre- or on-treatment factors that predict response to NACRT besides tumour stage and size. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071808DOI Listing

Risk of Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Fontan Operation: A Need for Surveillance.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are serious late complications that can occur after the Fontan procedure. This study aimed to investigate the cumulative incidence of cirrhosis and HCC and to identify specific features distinguishing HCC from benign arterial-phase hyperenhancing (APHE) nodules that developed after the Fontan operation. We retrospectively enrolled 313 post-Fontan patients who had been followed for more than 5 years and had undergone ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) of the liver between January 2000 and August 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071805DOI Listing

ALK-Brain Prognostic Index-Preliminary Study of a Prognostic Tool for Patients with ALK-Rearranged, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Theme Cancer, Medical Unit Head & Neck, Lung and Skin Cancer, Karolinska University Hospital, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Disease-specific Graded Prognostic Assessment (DS-GPA) is the most validated prognostic tool for patients with brain metastasized lung cancer. The Lung-molGPA scoring system was recently introduced for oncogenic-driven brain metastasized lung cancer, but has not yet been validated in cohorts including only ALK-translocated tumors.

Methods: We designed a retrospective cohort study consisting of 44 patients with brain metastasized ALK-positive, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were treated between January 2009 and November 2019 at Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071804DOI Listing

Epitope Mapping and Computational Analysis of Anti-HPV16 E6 and E7 Antibodies in Single-Chain Format for Clinical Development as Antitumor Drugs.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Human Papillomavirus 16-associated cancer, affecting primarily the uterine cervix but, increasingly, other body districts, including the head-neck area, will long be a public health problem, despite there being a vaccine. Since the virus oncogenic activity is fully ascribed to the viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins, one of the therapeutic approaches for HPV16 cancer is based on specific antibodies in single-chain format targeting the E6/E7 activity. We analyzed the Complementarity Determining Regions, repositories of antigen-binding activity, of four anti-HPV16 E6 and -HPV16 E7 scFvs, to highlight possible conformity to biophysical properties, recognized to be advantageous for therapeutic use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071803DOI Listing

Mycobacteria-Based Vaccines as Immunotherapy for Non-urological Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Mycobacteria Research Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Microbiology, Faculty of Biosciences, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona, Spain.

The arsenal against different types of cancers has increased impressively in the last decade. The detailed knowledge of the tumor microenvironment enables it to be manipulated in order to help the immune system fight against tumor cells by using specific checkpoint inhibitors, cell-based treatments, targeted antibodies, and immune stimulants. In fact, it is widely known that the first immunotherapeutic tools as immune stimulants for cancer treatment were bacteria and still are; specifically, the use of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) continues to be the treatment of choice for preventing cancer recurrence and progression in non-invasive bladder cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071802DOI Listing

Comprehensive Constitutional Genetic and Epigenetic Characterization of Lynch-Like Individuals.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Insititut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), ONCOBELL Program. Avinguda de la Gran Via de l'Hospitalet 199-203, 08908 L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

The causal mechanism for cancer predisposition in Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) remains unknown. Our aim was to elucidate the constitutional basis of mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency in LLS patients throughout a comprehensive (epi)genetic analysis. One hundred and fifteen LLS patients harboring MMR-deficient tumors and no germline MMR mutations were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071799DOI Listing

Role of Curcumin and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3--Gallate in Bladder Cancer Treatment: A Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznań, Poland.

The incidence of bladder cancer (BC) is increasing, and although current therapeutic approaches are effective in many cases, recurrence of BC is common. Therefore, it seems necessary to search not only for novel therapeutic approaches, but also for new therapeutic agents. Natural polyphenols, such as curcumin (CUR) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), possess remarkable antitumor activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071801DOI Listing

Digital Pathology and PD-L1 Testing in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Workshop Record.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

A meeting among expert pathologists was held in 2019 in Rome to verify the results of the previous harmonization efforts on the PD-L1 immunohistochemical testing by scoring a representative series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) digital slides. The current paper shows the results of this digital experimental meeting and the expertise achieved by the community of Italian pathologists. PD-L1 protein expression was determined using tumor proportion score (TPS), i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071800DOI Listing

The Lipase/Amylase Ratio (LAR) in Peripheral Blood Might Represent a Novel Prognostic Marker in Patients with Surgically Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 5;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Division of Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Comprehensive Cancer Center Graz, Medical University of Graz, 8036 Graz, Austria.

Pancreatic enzymes might play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology and prognosis of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the lipase/amylase ratio (LAR), representing a marker previously used in the differentiation of pancreatitis, as a potential prognostic marker in pancreatic cancer. Data from 157 surgically treated patients with ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 351 patients with metastatic disease were evaluated retrospectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071798DOI Listing

Loss of HMGCS2 Enhances Lipogenesis and Attenuates the Protective Effect of the Ketogenic Diet in Liver Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 4;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor with limited treatment. The ketogenic diet (KD) emerged as a metabolic therapy for cancer; however, the antitumor effect on HCC remains controversial. We previously reported that the ketogenesis rate-limiting enzyme, 3-hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2), was downregulated in most patients with HCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071797DOI Listing

Immunophenotypes Based on the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Allow for Unsupervised Penile Cancer Patient Stratification.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 4;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, China.

The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) plays an important role in penile squamous cell carcinoma (peSCC) pathogenesis. Here, the immunophenotype of the TIME in peSCC was determined by integrating the expression patterns of immune checkpoints (programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and Siglec-15) and the components of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including CD8 or Granzyme B T cells, FOXP3 regulatory T cells, and CD68 or CD206 macrophages, in 178 patients. A high density of Granzyme B, FOXP3, CD68, CD206, PD-1, and CTLA-4 was associated with better disease-specific survival (DSS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071796DOI Listing