2,100 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]


Frequent Occurrence of and Mutations in Human Acral Naevi.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 16;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, University Hospital Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany.

Acral naevi are benign melanocytic tumors occurring at acral sites. Occasionally they can progress to become malignant tumors (melanomas). The genetics of acral naevi have not been assessed in larger studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040546DOI Listing

Identification of KIF11 As a Novel Target in Meningioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Division of Experimental Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Heidelberg, INF 400, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Kinesins play an important role in many physiological functions including intracellular vesicle transport and mitosis. The emerging role of kinesins in different cancers led us to investigate the expression and functional role of kinesins in meningioma. Therefore, we re-analyzed our previous microarray dataset of benign, atypical, and anaplastic meningiomas ( = 62) and got evidence for differential expression of five kinesins (KIFC1, KIF4A, KIF11, KIF14 and KIF20A). Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/545
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040545DOI Listing
April 2019
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, , and Status Predicts Prognosis in Glioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

EA3842 CAPTuR, Faculty of Medicine, University of Limoges, 2 Rue du Docteur Marcland, 87025 Limoges, France.

The aim of this study was to identify relevant biomarkers for the prognosis of glioma considering current molecular changes such as mutation and 1p19q deletion. Gene expression profiling was performed using the TaqMan Low Density Array and hierarchical clustering using 96 selected genes in 64 patients with newly diagnosed glioma. The expression dataset was validated on a large independent cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040544DOI Listing

F-FDG-PET Can Predict Microvessel Density in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital of Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 18, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

: Positron emission tomography (PET) with F-fluordeoxyglucose (F-FDG) plays an essential role in the staging and tumor monitoring of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Microvessel density (MVD) is one of the clinically important histopathological features in HNSCC. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible associations between F-FDG-PET findings and MVD parameters in HNSCC. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/543
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040543DOI Listing
April 2019
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Low CD8⁺ T Cell Infiltration and High PD-L1 Expression Are Associated with Level of CD44⁺/CD133⁺ Cancer Stem Cells and Predict an Unfavorable Prognosis in Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan.

Cancer immunotherapy targeting immune checkpoints has exhibited promising clinical outcomes in many cancers, but it offers only limited benefits for pancreatic cancer (PC). Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a minor subpopulation of cancer cells, play important roles in tumor initiation, progression, and drug resistance. Accumulating evidence suggests that CSCs employ immunosuppressive effects to evade immune system recognition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040541DOI Listing

Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) Induces Intracellular Ca Release through the Two-Pore Channel TPC1 in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Laboratory of General Physiology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology "L. Spallanzani", University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) gates two-pore channels 1 and 2 (TPC1 and TPC2) to elicit endo-lysosomal (EL) Ca release. NAADP-induced EL Ca signals may be amplified by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through the Ca-induced Ca release mechanism (CICR). Herein, we aimed at assessing for the first time the role of EL Ca signaling in primary cultures of human metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC) by exploiting Ca imaging and molecular biology techniques. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/542
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040542DOI Listing
April 2019
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The Prognostic Roles of Pretreatment Circulating Tumor Cells, Circulating Cancer Stem-Like Cells, and Programmed Cell Death-1 Expression on Peripheral Lymphocytes in Patients with Initially Unresectable, Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer: An Exploratory Study of Three Biomarkers in One-time Blood Drawing.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan.

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and immune status are strongly related to cancer prognosis, although few studies have examined both factors. This prospective observational study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02420600) evaluated whether CTCs, circulating cancer stem-like cells (cCSCs), and peripheral lymphocytes with/without Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression were associated with prognosis among patients receiving palliative chemotherapy for initially unresectable, recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (rmHNSCC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040540DOI Listing

Strategies to Improve Cancer Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Efficacy, Other Than Abscopal Effect: A Systematic Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Scientific Guidance, IRCCS Istituto Tumori "Giovanni Paolo II", Viale Orazio Flacco, 65, 70124 Bari, Italy.

Despite that the impact of immune checkpoint inhibitors on malignancies treatment is unprecedented, a lack of response to these molecules is observed in several cases. Differently from melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer, where the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors results in a high efficacy, the response rate in other tumors, such as gastrointestinal cancers, breast cancer, sarcomas, and part of genitourinary cancers remains low. The first strategy evaluated to improve the response rate to immune checkpoint inhibitors is the use of predictive factors for the response such as PD-L1 expression, tumor mutational burden, and clinical features. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/539
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040539DOI Listing
April 2019
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Next-Generation Hedgehog/GLI Pathway Inhibitors for Cancer Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Biosciences, Paris-Lodron University of Salzburg, Cancer Cluster Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

The Hedgehog/Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (HH/GLI) signaling pathway regulates self-renewal of rare and highly malignant cancer stem cells (CSC), which have been shown to account for the initiation and maintenance of tumor growth as well as for drug resistance, metastatic spread and relapse. Efficacious therapeutic approaches targeting CSC pathways, such as HH/GLI signaling in combination with chemo, radiation or immunotherapy are, therefore, of high medical need. Pharmacological inhibition of HH/GLI pathway activity represents a promising approach to eliminate malignant CSC. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/538
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040538DOI Listing
April 2019
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A Characterization of Dendritic Cells and Their Role in Immunotherapy in Glioblastoma: From Preclinical Studies to Clinical Trials.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and fatal primary central nervous system malignancy in adults with a median survival of less than 15 months. Surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy are the standard of care and provide modest benefits in survival, but tumor recurrence is inevitable. The poor prognosis of GBM has made the development of novel therapies targeting GBM of paramount importance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040537DOI Listing

Rising Serum Uric Acid Level Is Negatively Associated with Survival in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Urology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 92093, USA.

To investigate the association of serum uric acid (SUA) levels along with statin use in Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), as statins may be associated with improved outcomes in RCC and SUA elevation is associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Retrospective study of patients undergoing surgery for RCC with preoperative/postoperative SUA levels between 8/2005-8/2018. Analysis was carried out between patients with increased postoperative SUA vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040536DOI Listing

The Association between Salt and Potential Mediators of the Gastric Precancerous Process.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

Background: The process by which salt affects the gastric precancerous process has not been adequately studied in humans.

Methods: We investigated the effects of salt on gastric inflammation, epithelial damage, the density of infection, and gastric epithelial cell proliferation, all of which may be mediators between salt and gastric precancerous/cancerous lesions. These potential mediators were measured using gastric biopsies as: (a) the density of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells (gastric inflammation), (b) mucus depletion (gastric epithelial damage), and (c) the severity of infection. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/535
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040535DOI Listing
April 2019
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Gastric Cancer in Northern Canadian Populations: A Focus on Cardia and Non-Cardia Subsites.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 15.

The CANHelp Working Group, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

In northern Canada where there is a high prevalence of infection, there is a paucity of information on gastric cancer by the topographical subsites cardia (CGC) and non-cardia (NCGC). Here we describe the incidence of CGC and NCGC, separately, among northern Canadian populations. We used data from the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Volumes X (CI5X) and XI (CI5XI) to obtain CGC and NCGC incidence for Canada and for Yukon (YT), a northern Canadian territory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040534DOI Listing

Long-Term Outcomes of Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy for Malignant Gynecological Melanoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

QST Hospital, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

Surgical resection is considered a standard therapy for malignant melanoma (MM). However, it has not yet been established as an optimal treatment strategy for gynecological MMs, particularly owing to their very low incidence rates. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) for gynecological MMs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040482DOI Listing

Combined Targeting of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and XPO1 Prevent Akt Activation, Remodel Metabolic Pathways and Induce Autophagy to Overcome Tamoxifen Resistance.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

A majority of breast cancer specific deaths in women with ERα (+) tumors occur due to metastases that are resistant to endocrine therapy. There is a critical need for novel therapeutic approaches to resensitize recurrent ERα (+) tumors to endocrine therapies. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of improved effectiveness of combined targeting of ERα and the nuclear transport protein XPO1 in overcoming endocrine resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040479DOI Listing

Regulation of Cell Signaling Pathways by Berberine in Different Cancers: Searching for Missing Pieces of an Incomplete Jig-Saw Puzzle for an Effective Cancer Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Food Science and Technology Program, Division of Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University-Hong Kong Baptist University United International College, Zhuhai 519087, China.

There has been a renewed interest in the identification of natural products having premium pharmacological properties and minimum off-target effects. In accordance with this approach, natural product research has experienced an exponential growth in the past two decades and has yielded a stream of preclinical and clinical insights which have deeply improved our knowledge related to the multifaceted nature of cancer and strategies to therapeutically target deregulated signaling pathways in different cancers. In this review, we have set the spotlight on the scientifically proven ability of berberine to effectively target a myriad of deregulated pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040478DOI Listing

Contingencies of UTX/KDM6A Action in Urothelial Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

The histone demethylase Ubiquitously Transcribed Tetratricopeptide Repeat Protein X-Linked (UTX/KDM6A) demethylates H3K27me2/3 at genes and enhancers and is often inactivated by mutations in urothelial carcinoma (UC). The consequences of its inactivation are however poorly understood. We have investigated the consequences of moderate UTX overexpression across a range of UC cell lines with or without mutations in or its interaction partners and in a normal control cell line. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/481
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040481DOI Listing
April 2019
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Membrane Lipidome Reorganization and Accumulation of Tissue DNA Lesions in Tumor-Bearing Mice: An Exploratory Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", 15310 Agia Paraskevi-Athens, Greece.

Increased rates of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are involved in almost all cancer types, associated with tumor development and progression, causing damage to biomolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids and membrane lipids, in different biological compartments. We used a human tumor xenograft mouse model to evaluate for the first time in parallel the remodeling of fatty acid moieties in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids and the level of ROS-induced DNA lesions in liver and kidney tissues. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry the 5' and 5' diastereoisomers of 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine and 5',8-cyclo-2'-deoxyguanosine, together with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, were determined in mice at young (4- and 5-weeks) and old (17-weeks) ages and compared with control SCID mice without tumor implantation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040480DOI Listing

Exosomal miRNAs as Novel Pharmacodynamic Biomarkers for Cancer Chemopreventive Agent Early Stage Treatments in Chemically Induced Mouse Model of Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Center for Disease Prevention and Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Background: Chemopreventive agent (CPA) treatment is one of the main preventive options for lung cancer. However, few studies have been done on pharmacodynamic biomarkers of known CPAs for lung cancer.

Materials And Methods: In this study, we treated mouse models of lung squamous cell carcinoma with three different CPAs (MEK inhibitor: AZD6244, PI-3K inhibitor: XL-147 and glucocorticoid: Budesonide) and examined circulating exosomal miRNAs in the plasma of each mouse before and after treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040477DOI Listing

Connecting Exosomes and Connexins.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Intercellular communication is accomplished by passage of ions and small molecules through gap junction channels in directly contacting cells or by secretion and response to transmitters, hormones and extracellular vesicles in cells that are distant from each other. Recent studies have suggested that there may be overlap of these processes; specifically, small extracellular vesicles may contain subunit gap junction proteins, connexins. We isolated and analyzed extracellular vesicles secreted by cultured microvascular endothelial cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040476DOI Listing

HDAC Inhibitors Exert Anti-Myeloma Effects through Multiple Modes of Action.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Research Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.

HDACs are critical regulators of gene expression that function through histone modification. Non-histone proteins and histones are targeted by these proteins and the inhibition of HDACs results in various biological effects. Moreover, the aberrant expression and function of these proteins is thought to be related to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) and several inhibitors have been introduced or clinically tested. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040475DOI Listing

Potent In Vitro and In Vivo Anticancer Activity of New Bipyridine and Bipyrimidine Gold (III) Dithiocarbamate Derivatives.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 4;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

We synthesized eight new bipyridine and bipyrimidine gold (III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes (- and tested them in a panel of human cancer cell lines. We used osteosarcoma (MG-63), lung (A549), prostate (PC3 and DU145), breast (MCF-7), ovarian (A2780 and A2780cis, cisplatin- and doxorubicin-resistant), and cervical (ME-180 and R-ME-180, cisplatin resistant) cancer cell lines. We found that , , , and were more cytotoxic than cisplatin in all cell lines tested and overcame cisplatin and doxorubicin resistance in A2780cis and R-ME-180 cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040474DOI Listing

Unlocking the Potential of Saliva-Based Test to Detect HPV-16-Driven Oropharyngeal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

The School of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology and the Translational Research Institute, Queensland 4059, Australia.

The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is rising in high-income countries, including Australia. Increasing evidence suggests that accurate HPV testing is pivotal for clinical decision making and treatment planning in these patients. Recently, the eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system for OPC (based on the p16INK4a (p16) status) was proposed and has been implemented. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/473
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040473DOI Listing
April 2019
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Targeted Therapies and Immune-Checkpoint Inhibition in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Where Do We Stand Today and Where to Go?

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Rämistrasse 100, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

With an increased understanding of the tumor biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), targeted therapies have found their way into the clinical treatment routines against this entity. Nevertheless, to date platinum-based cytostatic agents remain the first line choice and targeting the epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGFR) with combined cetuximab and radiation therapy remains the only targeted therapy approved in the curative setting. Investigation of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), such as antibodies targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1, resulted in a change of paradigms in oncology and in the first approval of new drugs for treating SCCHN. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040472DOI Listing

Upregulation of Complement Factor H by SOCS-1/3⁻STAT4 in Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Veterinary Biochemistry, The Research Institute for Veterinary Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Complement factor H (CFH) is a fluid phase regulator of complement proteins and functions to prevent complement attack and immune surveillance. CFH is known to inactivate therapeutic antibody-dependent complement-mediated cellular cytotoxicity. We found that CFH was highly expressed in human lung cancer cells and tissues. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/471
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040471DOI Listing
April 2019
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Immunology of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells in Solid Tumors: A Brief Review.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Sotio, 17000 Prague, Czech Republic.

The immune response, both innate and adaptive, is a key player in cancer development and progression. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a subset of dendritic cells that play one of the central roles in the immune system. They are known mostly as the major IFN type I-producing cells upon stimulation of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/470
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040470DOI Listing
April 2019
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Pathological and Molecular Features of Glioblastoma and Its Peritumoral Tissue.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Istituto di Istologia ed Embriologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli", IRCCS, 00168 Roma, Italy.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive and lethal human brain tumors. At present, GBMs are divided in primary and secondary on the basis of the mutational status of the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) genes. In addition, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are considered crucial to better define the prognosis. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/469
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040469DOI Listing
April 2019
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ROS Production and Distribution: A New Paradigm to Explain the Differential Effects of X-ray and Carbon Ion Irradiation on Cancer Stem Cell Migration and Invasion.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Laboratoire de Radiobiologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Faculté de Médecine Lyon-Sud, Univ Lyon, Université Lyon 1, UMR CNRS5822/IN2P3, IPNL, PRISME, 69921 Oullins Cedex, France.

Although conventional radiotherapy promotes the migration/invasion of cancer stem cells (CSCs) under normoxia, carbon ion (C-ion) irradiation actually decreases these processes. Unraveling the mechanisms of this discrepancy, particularly under the hypoxic conditions that pertain in niches where CSCs are preferentially localized, would provide a better understanding of the origins of metastases. Invasion/migration, proteins involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expression of MMP-2 and HIF-1α were quantified in the CSC subpopulations of two head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines irradiated with X-rays or C-ions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040468DOI Listing

Association between Dietary Salt Intake and Progression in the Gastric Precancerous Process.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA.

Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Studies investigating the effect of salt on gastric cancer have mainly used self-reported measures, which are not as accurate as sodium/creatinine ratios because individuals may not know the amount of salt in their food. Using data from a prospective cohort study, we investigated the effect of salt intake on progression to gastric precancerous lesions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040467DOI Listing

Proteomic Analysis Implicates Vimentin in Glioblastoma Cell Migration.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Harvey W. Cushing Neurooncology Laboratories, Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

We previously showed lithium chloride (LiCl) and other inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) including 6-bromo-indirubin-3-oxime (BIO), can block glioblastoma (GBM) cell migration. To investigate the mechanisms involved we used two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry to identify proteins altered after treatment of U251 GBM cells with 20 mM LiCl. Downregulation of the intermediate filament protein vimentin was the most significant change identified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040466DOI Listing

Modelling of Protein Kinase Signaling Pathways in Melanoma and Other Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 3;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Systems Tumor Immunology, Department of Dermatology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen and Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Hartmannstr. 14, 91052 Erlangen, Germany.

Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor with a strong dependence on intracellular signaling pathways. Almost half of all melanomas are driven by mutations in the v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B () with V600E being the most prevalent mutation. Recently developed targeted treatment directed against mutant BRAF and downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MAP2K1 (also termed MEK1) have improved overall survival of melanoma patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040465DOI Listing

Exploratory Study of the Effect of IMA950/Poly-ICLC Vaccination on Response to Bevacizumab in Relapsing High-Grade Glioma Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Tumour Immunology and Department of Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Immunotherapy, including therapeutic vaccines, is increasingly being developed for patients with high-grade glioma, and combinations of immunotherapies and synergy with standard of care are being investigated. In this regard, bevacizumab (BEV) has been shown to synergize with immunotherapy in preclinical studies of glioma and in other tumour entities. Here, we conducted a post-hoc exploratory study to evaluate the effect of the IMA950/poly-ICLC peptide vaccine on subsequent BEV administration in high-grade glioma patients. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/464
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040464DOI Listing
April 2019
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Increase Paclitaxel Sensitivity to Better Suppress Serous Epithelial Ovarian Cancer via Ablating Androgen Receptor/Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-ABCG2 Axis.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Graduate Institution of Clinical Medical Science, and Graduate Institute of BioMedical Sciences, School of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung 40403, Taiwan.

Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is one of the most lethal gynecological malignancies and presents chemoresistance after chemotherapy treatment. Androgen receptor (AR) has been known to participate in proliferation. Yet the mechanisms of the resistance of this drug and its linkage to the AR remains unclear. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/463
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040463DOI Listing
April 2019
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Ntrk1 Promotes Resistance to PD-1 Checkpoint Blockade in Mesenchymal Kras/p53 Mutant Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 2;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Thoracic/Head & Neck Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The implementation of cancer immunotherapeutics for solid tumors including lung cancers has improved clinical outcomes in a small percentage of patients. However, the majority of patients show little to no response or acquire resistance during treatment with checkpoint inhibitors delivered as a monotherapy. Therefore, identifying resistance mechanisms and novel combination therapy approaches is imperative to improve responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/462
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040462DOI Listing
April 2019
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Dendritic Cells and Cancer: From Biology to Therapeutic Intervention.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Telethon Kids Institute, University of Western Australia, Northern Entrance, Perth Children's Hospital, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia.

Inducing effective anti-tumor immunity has become a major therapeutic strategy against cancer. Dendritic cells (DC) are a heterogenous population of antigen presenting cells that infiltrate tumors. While DC play a critical role in the priming and maintenance of local immunity, their functions are often diminished, or suppressed, by factors encountered in the tumor microenvironment. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/521
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040521DOI Listing
April 2019
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Challenges and Inconsistencies in Using Lysophosphatidic Acid as a Biomarker for Ovarian Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Center for Immunology and Inflammation, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, 350 Community Dr., Manhasset, NY 11030, USA.

Increased detection of plasma lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) has been proposed as a potential diagnostic biomarker in ovarian cancer, but inconsistency exists in these reports. It has been shown that LPA can undergo an artificial increase during sample processing and analysis, which has not been accounted for in ovarian cancer research. The aim of this study is to provide a potential explanation about how the artificial increase in LPA may have interfered with previous LPA analysis in ovarian cancer research. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040520DOI Listing

Identification of Cancer Stem Cell Molecular Markers and Effects of hsa-miR-21-3p on Stemness in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210000, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are closely related to tumor resistance and tumor recurrence in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The lack of specific biomarkers to identify and isolate CSCs has led to the slow progression of research on CSCs in ESCC. Here, we established a method to identify and isolate CSCs in ESCC using fluorescence-activated cell sorting with combined surface biomarkers including CD71, CD271, and CD338. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040518DOI Listing

Establishment and Characterization of a New Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line Resistant to Gemcitabine.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Division of Medical Oncology, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO-IRCCS, 10060 Candiolo, Torino, Italy.

Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is one of the most lethal liver cancers. Late diagnosis and chemotherapy resistance contribute to the scarce outfit and poor survival. Resistance mechanisms are still poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040519DOI Listing

Cancer Vaccines Co-Targeting HER2/Neu and IGF1R.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Laboratory of Immunology and Biology of Metastasis, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Viale Filopanti 22, I-40126 Bologna, Italy.

(1) Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)/neu-driven carcinogenesis is delayed by preventive vaccines able to elicit autochthonous antibodies against HER2/neu. Since cooperation between different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can occur in human as well as in experimental tumors, we investigated the set-up of DNA and cell vaccines to elicit an antibody response co-targeting two RTKs: HER2/neu and the Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor-1 (IGF1R). (2) Methods: Plasmid vectors carrying the murine optimized IGF1R sequence or the human IGF1R isoform were used as electroporated DNA vaccines. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/517
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040517DOI Listing
April 2019
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Statins Do Not Directly Inhibit the Activity of Major Epigenetic Modifying Enzymes.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, and Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.

The potential anticancer effects of statins-a widely used class of cholesterol lowering drugs-has generated significant interest, as has the use of epigenetic modifying drugs such as HDAC and DNMT inhibitors. We set out to investigate the effect of statin drugs on epigenetic modifications in multiple cell lines, including hepatocellular carcinoma, breast carcinoma, leukemic macrophages, cervical adenocarcinoma, and insulin-secreting cells, as well as liver extracts from statin-treated C57B1/6J mice. Cells or cell extracts were treated with statins and with established epigenetic modulators, and HDAC, HAT, and DNMT activities were quantified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040516DOI Listing

Plant Virus-Like Particle In Situ Vaccine for Intracranial Glioma Immunotherapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of NanoEngineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Despite aggressive multi-modality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapies, malignant glioma inevitably recurs and has dismal survival rates. Recent progress in immunotherapy has led to a resurgence of interest, and immunotherapies are being investigated for treatment of glioma. However, the unique brain anatomy and a highly immunosuppressive glioma microenvironment pose significant challenges to achieving efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040515DOI Listing
April 2019
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Prognostic Nutritional Index After Chemoradiotherapy Was the Strongest Prognostic Predictor Among Biological and Conditional Factors in Localized Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Hepatobiliary Pancreatic and Transplant Surgery, Mie University School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

: In many malignancies, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), host-related inflammatory/immunonutritional markers, such as the prognostic nutritional index (PNI), modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS), and C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio are reported to be prognostic factors. However, the prognostic influence of these factors before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has not been studied in PDAC patients. Of 261 consecutive PDAC patients who were scheduled for CRT with gemcitabine or S1 plus gemcitabine between February 2005 and December 2015, participants in this study were 176 who completed CRT and had full data available on inflammatory/immunonutritional markers as well as on anatomical and biological factors for the investigation of prognostic/predictive factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040514DOI Listing
April 2019
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Divergent Dynamics and Functions of ERK MAP Kinase Signaling in Development, Homeostasis and Cancer: Lessons from Fluorescent Bioimaging.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Bioimaging and Cell Signaling, Graduate School of Biostudies, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan.

The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway regulates a variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Since ERK activation promotes proliferation of many types of cells, its deregulated/constitutive activation is among general mechanisms for cancer. Recent advances in bioimaging techniques have enabled to visualize ERK activity in real-time at the single-cell level. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040513DOI Listing

A Case of Identity: Genes in Normal and Cancer Stem Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

SVMS, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UK.

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the unique ability to self-renew and differentiate into many different cell types. Their function is controlled by core gene networks whose misregulation can result in aberrant stem cell function and defects of regeneration or neoplasia. genes are master regulators of cell identity and cell fate during embryonic development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040512DOI Listing

LC/MS-Based Polar Metabolite Profiling Identified Unique Biomarker Signatures for Cervical Cancer and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Using Global and Targeted Metabolomics.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, National Cancer Center, Madu-dong, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10408, Korea.

Cervical cancer remains one of the most prevalent cancers among females worldwide. Therefore, it is important to discover new biomarkers for early diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer, preferably non-invasive ones. In the present study, we aimed to identify unique metabolic signatures for CINs and cervical cancers using global and targeted metabolomic profiling. Read More

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https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/4/511
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040511DOI Listing
April 2019
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Cancer Pain Assessment and Classification.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Palliative Care, Pain Therapy and Rehabilitation Department, Fondazione IRCCS-Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), 20133 Milan, Italy.

More than half of patients affected by cancer experience pain of moderate-to-severe intensity, often in multiple sites, and of different etiologies and underlying mechanisms. The heterogeneity of pain mechanisms is expressed with the fluctuating nature of cancer pain intensity and clinical characteristics. Traditional ways of classifying pain in the cancer population include distinguishing pain etiology, clinical characteristics related to pain and the patient, pathophysiology, and the use of already validated classification systems. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040510DOI Listing
April 2019
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Development of a New Nomogram Including Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio to Predict Survival in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Undergoing Transarterial Chemoembolization.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Internal Medicine, Institute of Gastroenterology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea.

The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has recently been reported to predict the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We explored whether NLR predicted the survival of patients with HCC undergoing transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and developed a predictive model. In total, 1697 patients with HCC undergoing TACE as first-line therapy at two university hospitals were enrolled (derivation set n = 921, internal validation set n = 395, external validation set n = 381). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040509DOI Listing

Kinase Regulation of HOX Transcription Factors.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.

The genes are a group of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that play important regulatory roles in early development, including the establishment of cell and tissue identity. expression is generally reduced in adult cells but is frequently re-established as an early event in tumour formation and supports an oncogenic phenotype. HOX transcription factors are also involved in cell cycle regulation and DNA repair, along with normal adult physiological process including stem cell renewal. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040508DOI Listing

Integrative Analysis Reveals Subtype-Specific Regulatory Determinants in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

College of Pharmacy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0T5, Canada.

Different breast cancer (BC) subtypes have unique gene expression patterns, but their regulatory mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. We hypothesized that the top upregulated (Yin) and downregulated (Yang) genes determine the fate of cancer cells. To reveal the regulatory determinants of these Yin and Yang genes in different BC subtypes, we developed a lasso regression model integrating DNA methylation (DM), copy number variation (CNV) and microRNA (miRNA) expression of 391 BC patients, coupled with miRNA-target interactions and transcription factor (TF) binding sites. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040507DOI Listing
April 2019
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Treatment of a Malignant Soft Tissue Tumor Arising in the Vicinity of the Sciatic Nerve with an In-Situ Preparation Technique and Intensive Multidisciplinary Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 10;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya 467-8601, Japan.

Preservation of the sciatic nerve is difficult in cases of highly malignant soft tissuetumors closely surrounding the nerve. Herein, we present the first case of preservation of thisnerve by combining an in-situ preparation technique (ISP; a technique enabling the preparation ofneurovascular bundles without contamination by tumor cells) with intensive concurrent neoadjuvantchemo-radiotherapy with hyperthermia (RHC; radio-hyperthermo-chemotherapy). A 62-year-oldman presented with a soft tissue mass in the right thigh and was diagnosed with undifferentiatedpleomorphic sarcoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040506DOI Listing