1,252 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]


Human Oncoviruses and p53 Tumor Suppressor Pathway Deregulation at the Origin of Human Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 22;10(7). Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Molecular Biology and Viral Oncology Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS "Fondazione G. Pascale", via Mariano Semmola, 80131 Napoli, Italy.

Viral oncogenesis is a multistep process largely depending on the complex interplay between viruses and host factors. The oncoviruses are capable of subverting the cell signaling machinery and metabolic pathways and exploit them for infection, replication, and persistence. Several viral oncoproteins are able to functionally inactivate the tumor suppressor p53, causing deregulated expression of many genes orchestrated by p53, such as those involved in apoptosis, DNA stability, and cell proliferation. Read More

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Understanding Intratumor Heterogeneity and Evolution in NSCLC and Potential New Therapeutic Approach.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 22;10(7). Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Genome Analysis Center, Yamanashi Central Hospital, Kofu 400-8506, Japan.

Advances in innovative technology, including next-generation sequencing, have allowed comprehensive genomic analysis and the elucidation of the genomic aspect of intratumor heterogeneity (ITH). Moreover, models of the evolution of the cancer genome have been proposed by integrating these analyses. Cancer has been considered to accumulate genetic abnormalities for clonal evolution in time and space, and these evolutionary patterns vary depending on the organs of primary sites. Read More

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Immunosenescence and Immunotherapy in Elderly Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients: Time for a Biology-Driven Approach.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 22;10(7). Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, Institute of Hematology "L. and A. Seràgnoli", University of Bologna, Via Massarenti, 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease, which mainly affects the elderly population. Unfortunately, the prognosis of patients aged >65 years is dismal, with 1-year overall survival approaching 10% with conventional therapies. The hypothesis of harnessing the immune system against cancer, including leukemia, has been postulated for a long time, and several clinical attempts have been made in this field. Read More

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Crosstalk between ERα and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signalling and Implications for the Development of Anti-Endocrine Resistance.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 20;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.

Although anti-endocrine therapies have significantly advanced the treatment of breast cancer, they pose the problem of acquired drug resistance. The oestrogen receptor (ER)-expressing breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D alongside their in vitro derived resistant counterparts MCF-7-TR (tamoxifen-resistant) and T47D-FR (fulvestrant-resistant) showed dual resistance to fulvestrant and tamoxifen in the presence of upregulated HER1 and HER2 growth factor receptors. Our study demonstrated that tamoxifen resistance and fulvestrant resistance are associated with collateral sensitivity to the tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) lapatinib ( < 0. Read More

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June 2018
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Innovative Technologies Changing Cancer Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 19;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Cancer Biotherapeutics, National Institute for Cellular Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland.

Conventional therapies for cancer such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy remain a mainstay in treatment, but in many cases a targeted approach is lacking, and patients can be vulnerable to drug resistance. In recent years, novel concepts have been emerging to improve the traditional therapeutic options in cancers with poor survival outcomes. New therapeutic strategies involving areas like energy metabolism and extracellular vesicles along with advances in immunotherapy and nanotechnology are driving the next generation of cancer treatments. Read More

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Constitutive Activation of STAT3 in Myeloma Cells Cultured in a Three-Dimensional, Reconstructed Bone Marrow Model.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 16;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada.

Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. Read More

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Oncolytic Reovirus and Immune Checkpoint Inhibition as a Novel Immunotherapeutic Strategy for Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, 1331 29 Street NW, Calgary, AB T2N 4N2, Canada.

As the current efficacy of oncolytic viruses (OVs) as monotherapy is limited, exploration of OVs as part of a broader immunotherapeutic treatment strategy for cancer is necessary. Here, we investigated the ability for immune checkpoint blockade to enhance the efficacy of oncolytic reovirus (RV) for the treatment of breast cancer (BrCa). In vitro, oncolysis and cytokine production were assessed in human and murine BrCa cell lines following RV exposure. Read More

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June 2018
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The Role of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Medicine, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3T 1E2, Canada.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) is a unique disease entity both in its pathology and the young patient population that it primarily affects. Although cure rates are high, survivorship can be linked with significant recent long-term morbidity associated with both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most significant advances have been with the use of the anti-CD30-drug conjugated antibody brentuximab vedotin (BV) and inhibitors of program death 1 (PD-1). Read More

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Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis and Prognosis of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma: The Quest Goes on.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Catania, Catania 95123, Italy.

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MM) is a highly aggressive tumor characterized by a poor prognosis. Although its carcinogenesis mechanism has not been strictly understood, about 80% of MM can be attributed to occupational and/or environmental exposure to asbestos fibers. The identification of non-invasive molecular markers for an early diagnosis of MM has been the subject of several studies aimed at diagnosing the disease at an early stage. Read More

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Loss of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Alters Oncolytic Adenovirus Replication and Promotes More Efficient Virus Production.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 15;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

We elucidate the role of p21/Waf-1, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the oncolytic infection and replication cycle of adenovirus by studying both mRNA and adenoviral proteins expression. We found that infection in the absence of p21 causes a significant increase in adenoviral genomes and late gene expression. Similarly, the oncolytic adenoviral infected p21 cells have earlier formation of replication foci and robust replication kinetics that were not observed in the wild type p21/Waf-1 intact cells. Read More

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Hypersialylation in Cancer: Modulation of Inflammation and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G2, Canada.

Cell surface glycosylation is dynamic and often changes in response to cellular differentiation under physiological or pathophysiological conditions. Altered glycosylation on cancers cells is gaining attention due its wide-spread occurrence across a variety of cancer types and recent studies that have documented functional roles for aberrant glycosylation in driving cancer progression at various stages. One change in glycosylation that can correlate with cancer stage and disease prognosis is hypersialylation. Read More

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Designer Oncolytic Adenovirus: Coming of Age.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.

The licensing of talimogene laherparepvec (T-Vec) represented a landmark moment for oncolytic virotherapy, since it provided unequivocal evidence for the long-touted potential of genetically modified replicating viruses as anti-cancer agents. Whilst T-Vec is promising as a locally delivered virotherapy, especially in combination with immune-checkpoint inhibitors, the quest continues for a virus capable of specific tumour cell killing via systemic administration. One candidate is oncolytic adenovirus (Ad); it’s double stranded DNA genome is easily manipulated and a wide range of strategies and technologies have been employed to empower the vector with improved pharmacokinetics and tumour targeting ability. Read More

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Overcoming Resistance of Human Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma to CD19-CAR CTL Therapy by Celecoxib and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (B-NHL) who fail to respond to first-line treatment regimens or develop resistance, exhibit poor prognosis. This signifies the need to develop alternative treatment strategies. CD19-chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell-redirected immunotherapy is an attractive and novel option, which has shown encouraging outcomes in phase I clinical trials of relapsed/refractory NHL. Read More

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June 2018
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TGF-β Sustains Tumor Progression through Biochemical and Mechanical Signal Transduction.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Departments of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, Medicine, Pediatrics, UCLA AIDS Institute and the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, 615 Charles E. Young Drive South, BSRB2, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling transduces immunosuppressive biochemical and mechanical signals in the tumor microenvironment. In addition to canonical SMAD transcription factor signaling, TGF-β can promote tumor growth and survival by inhibiting proinflammatory signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. In this article, we review how TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) activation lies at the intersection of proinflammatory signaling by immune receptors and anti-inflammatory signaling by TGF-β receptors. Read More

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Oncolytic Viruses for Multiple Myeloma Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 14;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Division of Translational and Regenerative Medicine, Department of Medicine and The University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

Although recent treatment advances have improved outcomes for patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the disease frequently becomes refractory to current therapies. MM thus remains incurable for most patients and new therapies are urgently needed. Oncolytic viruses are a promising new class of therapeutics that provide tumor-targeted therapy by specifically infecting and replicating within cancerous cells. Read More

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Antiviral Drugs for EBV.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 13;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Leuven, BE-3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Epstein⁻Barr virus (EBV) infects up to 95% of the adult human population, with primary infection typically occurring during childhood and usually asymptomatic. However, EBV can cause infectious mononucleosis in approximately 35⁻50% cases when infection occurs during adolescence and early adulthood. Epstein⁻Barr virus is also associated with several B-cell malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Read More

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Endogenous Control Mechanisms of FAK and PYK2 and Their Relevance to Cancer Development.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Computational Bioscience Research Center (CBRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering (BESE), Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and its close paralogue, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2), are key regulators of aggressive spreading and metastasis of cancer cells. While targeted small-molecule inhibitors of FAK and PYK2 have been found to have promising antitumor activity, their clinical long-term efficacy may be undermined by the strong capacity of cancer cells to evade anti-kinase drugs. In healthy cells, the expression and/or function of FAK and PYK2 is tightly controlled via modulation of gene expression, competing alternatively spliced forms, non-coding RNAs, and proteins that directly or indirectly affect kinase activation or protein stability. Read More

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Ensuring the Safety and Security of Frozen Lung Cancer Tissue Collections through the Encapsulation of Dried DNA.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Hospital-Integrated Biobank (BB-0033-00025), Université Côte d'Azur, CHU de Nice, 06001 Nice CEDEX 1, France.

Collected specimens for research purposes may or may not be made available depending on their scarcity and/or on the project needs. Their protection against degradation or in the event of an incident is pivotal. Duplication and storage on a different site is the best way to assure their sustainability. Read More

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June 2018
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TGF-β in T Cell Biology: Implications for Cancer Immunotherapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Centre de Recherche de L'hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont, 5415 Boul. de L'Assomption, Montréal, QC H1T 2M4, Canada.

Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced in large amounts within cancer microenvironments that will ultimately promote neoplastic progression, notably by suppressing the host’s T-cell immunosurveillance. This effect is mostly due to the well-known inhibitory effect of TGF-β on T cell proliferation, activation, and effector functions. Moreover, TGF-β subverts T cell immunity by favoring regulatory T-cell differentiation, further reinforcing immunosuppression within tumor microenvironments. Read More

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Emerging Therapies and Future Directions in Targeting the Tumor Stroma and Immune System in the Treatment of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Hematology/Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, 5777 E. Mayo Blvd, Phoenix, AZ 85054, USA.

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is typically refractory to conventional treatments and associated with poor prognosis. While therapeutic advances over the past several years have improved patient outcomes, the observed benefits have been modest at best, highlighting the need for continued development of alternate treatment strategies. The tumor microenvironment has been identified as being integral to oncogenesis through its direct effect on cellular pathway communication, immune inhibition, and promoting chemo-resistance. Read More

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Recombinant TSR1 of ADAMTS5 Suppresses Melanoma Growth in Mice via an Anti-angiogenic Mechanism.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 11;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Inhibiting tumor angiogenesis is a well-established approach for anticancer therapeutic development. A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin Motifs 5 (ADAMTS5) is a secreted matrix metalloproteinase in the ADAMTS family that also functions as an anti-angiogenic/anti-tumorigenic molecule. Its anti-angiogenic/anti-tumorigenic function is independent from its proteinase activity, but requires its first thrombospondin type 1 repeat (TSR1). Read More

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WIP-YAP/TAZ as A New Pro-Oncogenic Pathway in Glioma.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 9;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (CSIC-UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 1, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Wild-type p53 (wtp53) is described as a tumour suppressor gene, and mutations in p53 occur in many human cancers. Indeed, in high-grade malignant glioma, numerous molecular genetics studies have established central roles of RTK-PI3K-PTEN and ARF-MDM2-p53 INK4a-RB pathways in promoting oncogenic capacity. Deregulation of these signalling pathways, among others, drives changes in the glial/stem cell state and environment that permit autonomous growth. Read More

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Dysregulated HAI-2 Plays an Important Role in Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Metastasis through Ligand-Dependent MET Phosphorylation.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-1692, Japan.

MET, a proto-oncogene product and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, is known to play an important role in cancer progression, including bone metastasis. In a previous study, we reported increased expression of MET and matriptase, a novel activator of HGF, in bone metastasis. In this study, we employed a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) bone metastasis to clarify the significance of the HGF/MET signaling axis and the regulator of HGF activator inhibitor type-2 (HAI-2). Read More

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The Roles of p53 in Mitochondrial Dynamics and Cancer Metabolism: The Pendulum between Survival and Death in Breast Cancer?

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Central Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Cancer research has been heavily geared towards genomic events in the development and progression of cancer. In contrast, metabolic regulation, such as aberrant metabolism in cancer, is poorly understood. Alteration in cellular metabolism was once regarded simply as a consequence of cancer rather than as playing a primary role in cancer promotion and maintenance. Read More

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40 Years of Research Put p53 in Translation.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 21;10(5). Epub 2018 May 21.

Univ Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, INSERM 1052, CNRS 5286, Centre Léon Bérard, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon, 69008 Lyon, France.

Since its discovery in 1979, p53 has shown multiple facets. Initially the tumor suppressor p53 protein was considered as a stress sensor able to maintain the genome integrity by regulating transcription of genes involved in cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and DNA repair. However, it rapidly came into light that p53 regulates gene expression to control a wider range of biological processes allowing rapid cell adaptation to environmental context. Read More

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Organoids Provide an Important Window on Inflammation in Cancer.

Authors:
Kristi Baker

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 21;10(5). Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2, Canada.

Inflammation is a primary driver of cancer initiation and progression. However, the complex and dynamic nature of an inflammatory response make this a very difficult process to study. Organoids are a new model system where complex multicellular structures of primary cells can be grown in a 3D matrix to recapitulate the biology of the parent tissue. Read More

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Evolving Treatment Strategies for Elderly Leukemia Patients with IDH Mutations.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a debilitating and life-threatening condition, especially for elderly patients who account for over 50% of diagnoses. For over four decades, standard induction therapy with intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for AML had remained unchanged. However, for most patients, standard therapy continues to have its shortcomings, especially for elderly patients who may not be able to tolerate the complications from intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy. Read More

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Regulation of Constitutive Interferon-Stimulated Genes (Isgs) in Tumor Cells Contributes to Enhanced Antitumor Response of Newcastle Disease Virus-Infected Tumor Vaccines.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 6;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 6.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 069-8501, Japan.

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus. As immunogenicity of tumor cells is enhanced by NDV infection, recombinant NDV-infected tumor vaccines (rNDV-TV) are effective methods for inducing specific immunity. However, several tumor cells resist NDV infection, and tumor specific immunity is not sufficiently induced by rNDV-TV. Read More

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Gain-of-Function (GOF) Mutant p53 as Actionable Therapeutic Target.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Institute of Molecular Oncology, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

p53 missense mutant alleles are present in nearly 40% of all human tumors. Such mutated alleles generate aberrant proteins that not only lose their tumor-suppressive functions but also frequently act as driver oncogenes, which promote malignant progression, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance, leading to reduced survival in patients and mice. Notably, these oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) missense mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) are constitutively and tumor-specific stabilised. Read More

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Cutting to the Chase: How Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activity Controls Breast-Cancer-to-Bone Metastasis.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Tumor Biology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Research Center and Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr., Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Bone metastatic breast cancer is currently incurable and will be evident in more than 70% of patients that succumb to the disease. Understanding the factors that contribute to the progression and metastasis of breast cancer can reveal therapeutic opportunities. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes whose role in cancer has been widely documented. Read More

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RIPK2: New Elements in Modulating Inflammatory Breast Cancer Pathogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, 113 Street 87 Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer that is associated with significantly high mortality. In spite of advances in IBC diagnoses, the prognosis is still poor compared to non-IBC. Due to the aggressive nature of the disease, we hypothesize that elevated levels of inflammatory mediators may drive tumorigenesis and metastasis in IBC patients. Read More

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Clinico-Pathological Importance of TGF-β/Phospho-Smad Signaling during Human Hepatic Fibrocarcinogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 5;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kansai Medical University 2-5-1, Shin-Machi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1010, Japan.

Chronic viral hepatitis is a global public health problem, with approximately 570 million persons chronically infected. Hepatitis B and C viruses increase the risk of morbidity and mortality from liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and extrahepatic complications that develop. Hepatitis virus infection induces transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, which influences microenvironments within the infected liver. Read More

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Cancer Metastases to Bone: Concepts, Mechanisms, and Interactions with Bone Osteoblasts.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Cancer Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

The skeleton is a unique structure capable of providing support for the body. Bone resorption and deposition are controlled in a tightly regulated balance between osteoblasts and osteoclasts with no net bone gain or loss. However, under conditions of disease, the balance between bone resorption and deposition is upset. Read More

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The Glucose-Regulated Influences Key Signaling Pathways in Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Ageing Research Center and Translational Medicine-CeSI-MeT, 66100 Chieti, Italy.

The gene, located within the locus, transcribes for two mature microRNAs, and . This gene, whose regulation is mediated by the the CTNNB1/USF1 complex, shows an independent expression from its host gene . The affects the Wnt/β-catenin, the TGF-β, and the TP53 signaling pathways by targeting several genes as , , , and . Read More

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KIAA0100 Modulates Cancer Cell Aggression Behavior of MDA-MB-231 through Microtubule and Heat Shock Proteins.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Caris Life Sciences, 4610 S. 44th Pl, Phoenix, AZ 85248, USA.

The gene was identified in the human immature myeloid cell line cDNA library. Recent studies have shown that its expression is elevated in breast cancer and associated with more aggressive cancer types as well as poor outcomes. However, its cellular and molecular function is yet to be understood. Read More

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June 2018
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Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

James P. Wilmot Cancer Institute, University of Rochester Medical Center, 601 Elmwood Avenue, P.O. Box 704, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease that affects adults aged 65 years and above, and survival in this population is poor. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for these patients but is underutilized due to frequent comorbidities and perceived higher risk of treatment-related mortality and non-relapse mortality. Increasing data supports the utility of allo-HCT in fit older patients after intensive chemotherapy resulting in improvement of outcomes. Read More

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p53 and the Viral Connection: Back into the Future .

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 4;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.

The discovery of the tumor suppressor p53, through its interactions with proteins of tumor-promoting viruses, paved the way to the understanding of p53 roles in tumor virology. Over the years, accumulating data suggest that WTp53 is involved in the viral life cycle of non-tumor-promoting viruses as well. These include the influenza virus, smallpox and vaccinia viruses, the Zika virus, West Nile virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1, Human herpes simplex virus-1, and more. Read More

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Frequency of EBV LMP-1 Promoter and Coding Variations in Burkitt Lymphoma Samples in Africa and South America and Peripheral Blood in Uganda.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 2;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 2.

Infections and Immunoepidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is linked to several cancers, including endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL), but causal variants are unknown. We recently reported novel sequence variants in the LMP-1 gene and promoter in EBV genomes sequenced from 13 of 14 BL biopsies. Alignments of the novel sequence variants for 114 published EBV genomes, including 27 from BL cases, revealed four LMP-1 variant patterns, designated A to D. Read More

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Emerging and Established Models of Bone Metastasis.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston Salem, NC 27157, USA.

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-related death and drives patient morbidity as well as healthcare costs. Bone is the primary site of metastasis for several cancers-breast and prostate cancers in particular. Efforts to treat bone metastases have been stymied by a lack of models to study the progression, cellular players, and signaling pathways driving bone metastasis. Read More

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Signal-Targeted Therapies and Resistance Mechanisms in Pancreatic Cancer: Future Developments Reside in Proteomics.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jun 1;10(6). Epub 2018 Jun 1.

INSERM U1037, CRCT, Université Paul Sabatier, 31037 Toulouse, France.

For patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer that are not eligible for surgery, signal-targeted therapies have so far failed to significantly improve survival. These therapeutic options have been tested in phase II/III clinical trials mostly in combination with the reference treatment gemcitabine. Innovative therapies aim to annihilate oncogenic dependency, or to normalize the tumoural stroma to allow immune cells to function and/or re-vascularisation to occur. Read More

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The Cellular p53 Inhibitor MDM2 and the Growth Factor Receptor FLT3 as Biomarkers for Treatment Responses to the MDM2-Inhibitor Idasanutlin and the MEK1 Inhibitor Cobimetinib in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 31;10(6). Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Hospital Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

The tumor suppressor protein p53 is inactivated in a large variety of cancer cells. Cellular p53 inhibitors like the mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) commonly suppress the p53 function in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Moreover, fms like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) growth factor signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) cascade (RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK) are highly active in AML cells. Read More

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May 2018
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The Role of JMY in p53 Regulation.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 31;10(6). Epub 2018 May 31.

Nuffield Division of Clinical Laboratory Science-Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford OX3 DU, UK.

Following the event of DNA damage, the level of tumour suppressor protein p53 increases inducing either cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Junctional Mediating and Regulating Y protein (JMY) is a transcription co-factor involved in p53 regulation. In event of DNA damage, JMY levels also upregulate in the nucleus where JMY forms a co-activator complex with p300/CREB-binding protein (p300/CBP), Apoptosis-stimulating protein of p53 (ASPP) and Stress responsive activator of p53 (Strap). Read More

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Good Guy or Bad Guy? The Duality of Wild-Type p53 in Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer Origin, Treatment, and Recurrence.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 31;10(6). Epub 2018 May 31.

School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney 2007, Australia.

"", , Most breast cancers arise from the milk-producing cells that are characterized by aberrant cellular, molecular, and epigenetic translation. By understanding the underlying molecular disruptions leading to the origin of cancer, we might be able to design novel strategies for more efficacious treatments or, ambitiously, divert the cancerous process. It is an established reality that full-term pregnancy in a young woman provides a lifetime reduction in breast cancer risk, whereas delay in full-term pregnancy increases short-term breast cancer risk and the probability of latent breast cancer development. Read More

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Tune Up In Situ Autovaccination against Solid Tumors with Oncolytic Viruses.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 31;10(6). Epub 2018 May 31.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 6767 Bertner St., Houston, TX 77030, USA.

With the progress of immunotherapy in cancer, oncolytic viruses (OVs) have attracted more and more attention during the past decade. Due to their cancer-selective and immunogenic properties, OVs are considered ideal candidates to be combined with immunotherapy to increase both specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. OVs preferentially replicate in and lyse cancer cells, resulting in in situ autovaccination leading to adaptive anti-virus and anti-tumor immunity. Read More

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The Transition between Telomerase and ALT Mechanisms in Hodgkin Lymphoma and Its Predictive Value in Clinical Outcomes.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 30;10(6). Epub 2018 May 30.

Department of Medicine, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, 94808 Villejuif, France.

: We analyzed telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) in lymph node samples from HL patients treated with standard therapy. The TMMs correlated with clinical outcomes of patients. : Lymph node biopsies obtained from 38 HL patients and 24 patients with lymphadenitis were included in this study. Read More

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Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in the Cancer Setting.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 30;10(6). Epub 2018 May 30.

Division of Cancer and Genetics, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK.

This special issue on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) explores the importance of mTOR in cell growth control and cancer. Cancer cells often exploit mTOR as a mechanism to enhance their capacity to grow. While protein synthesis is by far the best-characterized mTOR-driven process, this special issue also describes a wider array of mTOR-driven biological processes that cancer cells benefit from, including autophagy, cell cycle control, metabolic transformation, angiogenic signaling, and anabolic processes such as nucleotide biosynthesis and ribosomal biogenesis. Read More

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Clinical Importance of Epstein⁻Barr Virus-Associated Gastric Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 29;10(6). Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505, Japan.

Epstein⁻Barr virus-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) is the most common malignancy caused by EBV infection. EBVaGC has definite histological characteristics similar to gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma. Clinically, EBVaGC has a significantly low frequency of lymph node metastasis compared with EBV-negative gastric cancer, resulting in a better prognosis. Read More

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Zinc Metallochaperones as Mutant p53 Reactivators: A New Paradigm in Cancer Therapeutics.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 29;10(6). Epub 2018 May 29.

Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.

Restoration of wild-type structure and function to mutant p53 with a small molecule (hereafter referred to as "reactivating" mutant p53) is one of the holy grails in cancer therapeutics. The majority of mutations are missense which generate a defective protein that is targetable. We are currently developing a new class of mutant p53 reactivators called zinc metallochaperones (ZMCs) and, here, we review our current understanding of them. Read More

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CRISPR-Mediated Reactivation of DKK3 Expression Attenuates TGF-β Signaling in Prostate Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2018 May 28;10(6). Epub 2018 May 28.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, UK.

The gene encodes a secreted protein, Dkk-3, that inhibits prostate tumor growth and metastasis. is downregulated by promoter methylation in many types of cancer, including prostate cancer. Gene silencing studies have shown that Dkk-3 maintains normal prostate epithelial cell homeostasis by limiting TGF-β/Smad signaling. Read More

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