5,332 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]


The Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Real-Time Monitoring and Moving Targets for Cancer Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

School of Chinese Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is ranked as the sixth most common cancer around the world. With the emergence of the state-of-the-art modalities lately, such as liver transplantation, image-guided ablation, and chemoembolization, the death rate is still high due to high metastasis rate after therapy. Observation by biannual ultrasonography allows effective diagnosis at an early stage for candidates with no extrahepatic metastasis, but its effectiveness still remains unsatisfactory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071734DOI Listing

RORα Regulates Cholesterol Metabolism of CD8 T Cells for Anticancer Immunity.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Molecular Bioscience, College of Biomedical Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Retinoic acid-related orphan receptor α (RORα) functions as a transcription factor for various biological processes, including circadian rhythm, inflammation, cancer, and lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that RORα is crucial for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in CD8 T cells by attenuating NF-kB transcriptional activity. Cholesterol sulfate, the established natural agonist of RORα, exhibits cellular cytotoxicity on, and increased effector responses in, CD8 T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071733DOI Listing

A Multiplex Assay for the Stratification of Patients with Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Using Targeted Mass Spectrometry.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Institute of Molecular Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.

Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) account for approximately 2% to 3% of all primary brain tumors. Until now, neuropathological tumor tissue analysis, most frequently gained by stereotactic biopsy, is still the diagnostic gold standard. Here, we rigorously analyzed two independent patient cohorts comprising the clinical entities PCNSL ( = 47), secondary central nervous system lymphomas (SCNSL; = 13), multiple sclerosis (MS, = 23), glioma ( = 10), other tumors ( = 17) and tumor-free controls ( = 21) by proteomic approaches. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071732DOI Listing

Targeting Altered Energy Metabolism in Colorectal Cancer: Oncogenic Reprogramming, the Central Role of the TCA Cycle and Therapeutic Opportunities.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most frequent cancer entities worldwide. Multiple factors are causally associated with CRC development, such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, inflammatory bowel disease, lifestyle and dietary factors. During malignant transformation, the cellular energy metabolism is reprogrammed in order to promote cancer cell growth and proliferation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071731DOI Listing

Enhancement of Breast Cancer Cell Aggressiveness by lncRNA and its Mir-675 Derivative: Insight into Shared and Different Actions.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

University of Lille, CNRS, INSERM, CHU Lille, Centre Oscar Lambret, UMR 9020-UMR 1277-Canther-Cancer Heterogeneity, Plasticity and Resistance to Therapies, F-59000 Lille, France.

Breast cancer is a major public health problem and the leading world cause of women death by cancer. Both the recurrence and mortality of breast cancer are mainly caused by the formation of metastasis. The long non-coding RNA , the precursor of miR-675, is involved in breast cancer development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071730DOI Listing

Basics and Frontiers on Pancreatic Cancer for Radiation Oncology: Target Delineation, SBRT, SIB technique, MRgRT, Particle Therapy, Immunotherapy and Clinical Guidelines.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Radiation Oncology Center, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine-DIMES, University of Bologna, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Pancreatic cancer represents a modern oncological urgency. Its management is aimed to both distal and local disease control. Resectability is the cornerstone of treatment aim. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071729DOI Listing

Pimasertib Versus Dacarbazine in Patients With Unresectable -Mutated Cutaneous Melanoma: Phase II, Randomized, Controlled Trial with Crossover.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Dermato Cancerology, CIC 1413, CRCINA Inserm 1232, CHU Nantes, 44093 Nantes, France.

This study investigated the efficacy and safety of pimasertib (1/2 inhibitor) versus dacarbazine (DTIC) in patients with untreated -mutated melanoma. Phase II, multicenter, open-label trial. Patients with unresectable, stage IIIc/IVM1 -mutated cutaneous melanoma were randomized 2:1 to pimasertib (60 mg; oral twice-daily) or DTIC (1000 mg/m; intravenously) on Day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071727DOI Listing

PTEN Protein Loss and Loss-of-Function Mutations in Gastric Cancers: The Relationship with Microsatellite Instability, EBV, HER2, and PD-L1 Expression.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology and Translational Genomics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 06351, Korea.

Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is caused by multiple mechanisms, and loss of PTEN activity is related to the progression of various cancers. In gastric cancer (GC), the relationship between the loss of PTEN protein expression and various genetic alterations remains unclear. The effects of microsatellite instability (MSI), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HER2 overexpression, and PD-L1 expression on mutation have not been fully explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071724DOI Listing

Dendrogenin A synergizes with Cytarabine to Kill Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR)1037, Cancer Research Center of Toulouse (CRCT), Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) Université de Toulouse, Team Cholesterol Metabolism and Therapeutic Innovations, Equipe labellisée par la Ligue Contre le Cancer, 31037 Toulouse, France.

Dendrogenin A (DDA) is a mammalian cholesterol metabolite that displays potent antitumor properties on acute myeloid leukemia (AML). DDA triggers lethal autophagy in cancer cells through a biased activation of the oxysterol receptor LXRβ, and the inhibition of a sterol isomerase. We hypothesize that DDA could potentiate the activity of an anticancer drug acting through a different molecular mechanism, and conducted in vitro and in vivo combination tests on AML cell lines and patient primary tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071725DOI Listing

Cotargeting CHK1 and PI3K Synergistically Suppresses Tumor Growth of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Patient-Derived Xenografts.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan.

Oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) are aggressive tumors, and their recurrence leads to poor prognosis and reduced survival rates. This study aimed to identify therapeutic targets and to evaluate the efficacy of targeted inhibitors in OSCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Herein, we reported that OSCC PDXs recapitulated the genomic signatures of their paired primary tumors and the expression of , , and was significantly upregulated in OSCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071726DOI Listing

The Expression of Carbonic Anhydrases II, IX and XII in Brain Tumors.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, FI-33520 Tampere, Finland.

Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing metalloenzymes that participate in the regulation of pH homeostasis in addition to many other important physiological functions. Importantly, CAs have been associated with neoplastic processes and cancer. Brain tumors represent a heterogeneous group of diseases with a frequently dismal prognosis, and new treatment options are urgently needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071723DOI Listing

Human Plasma-Derived 3D Cultures Model Breast Cancer Treatment Responses and Predict Clinically Effective Drug Treatment Concentrations.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Cancer Biology and Immunotherapies Group, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, USA.

Lack of efficacy and a low overall success rate of phase I-II clinical trials are the most common failures when it comes to advancing cancer treatment. Current drug sensitivity screenings present several challenges including differences in cell growth rates, the inconsistent use of drug metrics, and the lack of translatability. Here, we present a patient-derived 3D culture model to overcome these limitations in breast cancer (BCa). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071722DOI Listing

Beyond the Paclitaxel and Vinca Alkaloids: Next Generation of Plant-Derived Microtubule-Targeting Agents with Potential Anticancer Activity.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Division of Oncology Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Plants are an important source of chemically diverse natural products that target microtubules, one of the most successful targets in cancer therapy. Colchicine, paclitaxel, and vinca alkaloids are the earliest plant-derived microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs), and paclitaxel and vinca alkaloids are currently important drugs used in the treatment of cancer. Several additional plant-derived compounds that act on microtubules with improved anticancer activity are at varying stages of development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071721DOI Listing

Interleukin-6 and Lymphocyte Count Associated and Predicted the Progression of Frailty Syndrome in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Antiandrogen Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 29;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Medicine and Nursing. University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Frailty syndrome is a functional state that includes a loss of ability to react to stressors, and is associated with poor outcomes, morbidity and premature mortality. The first line treatment in many men with prostate cancer (PCa) consists of an androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) which can promote or favor frailty syndrome and ADT may therefore favor the progression of frailty over time. Among the pathophysiological bases of frailty, the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation has been associated with its adverse outcomes, but longitudinal studies are needed to validate these biomarkers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071716DOI Listing

Design, Implementation, Evaluation and Application of a 32-Channel Radio Frequency Signal Generator for Thermal Magnetic Resonance Based Anti-Cancer Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), 13125 Berlin, Germany.

Thermal Magnetic Resonance (ThermalMR) leverages radio frequency (RF)-induced heating to examine the role of temperature in biological systems and disease. To advance RF heating with multi-channel RF antenna arrays and overcome the shortcomings of current RF signal sources, this work reports on a 32-channel modular signal generator (SG). The SG was designed around phase-locked loop (PLL) chips and a field-programmable gate array chip. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071720DOI Listing

Dysregulation of MITF Leads to Transformation in MC1R-Defective Melanocytes.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Tumor Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, 0424 Oslo, Norway.

The MC1R/cAMP/MITF pathway is a key determinant for growth, differentiation, and survival of melanocytes and melanoma. MITF-M is the melanocyte-specific isoform of Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) in human melanoma. Here we use two melanocyte cell lines to show that forced expression of hemagglutinin (HA) -tagged MITF-M through lentiviral transduction represents an oncogenic insult leading to consistent cell transformation of the immortalized melanocyte cell line Hermes 4C, being a melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) compound heterozygote, while not causing transformation of the MC1R wild type cell line Hermes 3C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071719DOI Listing

Index of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Is Superior to the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Score in Prognosis Prediction.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan.

In many solid tumors, tissue of the mesenchymal subtype is frequently associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), strong stromal infiltration, and poor prognosis. Emerging evidence from tumor ecosystem studies has revealed that the two main components of tumor stroma, namely, infiltrated immune cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), also express certain typical EMT genes and are not distinguishable from intrinsic tumor EMT, where bulk tissue is concerned. Transcriptomic analysis of xenograft tissues provides a unique advantage in dissecting genes of tumor (human) or stroma (murine) origins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071718DOI Listing

The Intermediate Filament Synemin Regulates Non-Homologous End Joining in an ATM-Dependent Manner.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, 01307 Dresden, Germany.

The treatment resistance of cancer cells is a multifaceted process in which DNA repair emerged as a potential therapeutic target. DNA repair is predominantly conducted by nuclear events; yet, how extra-nuclear cues impact the DNA damage response is largely unknown. Here, using a high-throughput RNAi-based screen in three-dimensionally-grown cell cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), we identified novel focal adhesion proteins controlling DNA repair, including the intermediate filament protein, synemin. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071717DOI Listing

Efficacy of Panitumumab and Cetuximab in Patients with Colorectal Cancer Previously Treated with Bevacizumab; a Combined Analysis of Individual Patient Data from ASPECCT and WJOG6510G.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Medical Oncology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital and University of Adelaide, 5011 Woodville, Australia.

Background: Phase-III ASPECCT and randomised phase-II WJOG6510G trials demonstrated the noninferiority of panitumumab, when compared with cetuximab, for overall survival in patients with chemotherapy-refractory wild-type exon 2 metastatic colorectal cancer.

Methods: The subgroup that received bevacizumab either prior to panitumumab or cetuximab monotherapy (ASPECCT) or in combination with irinotecan (WJOG6510G) was included. Multivariate Cox models were created, including the treatment arms as covariates together with patient, disease and treatment characteristics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071715DOI Listing

DNA Repair and Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Impact on Risk, Prognosis and Therapy Outcome.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Molecular Biology of Cancer, Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague, Czech Republic.

There is ample evidence for the essential involvement of DNA repair and DNA damage response in the onset of solid malignancies, including ovarian cancer. Indeed, highpenetrance germline mutations in DNA repair genes are important players in familial cancers: , mutations or mismatch repair, and polymerase deficiency in colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Recently, some molecular hallmarks (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071713DOI Listing

Current and Future Treatments in the Fight Against Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Cellular & Molecular Metabolism Laboratory, Monash Institute of Pharmacological Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Obesity is recognised as a risk factor for many types of cancers, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A critical factor in the development of HCC from non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Therapies aimed at NASH to reduce the risk of HCC are sparse and largely unsuccessful. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071714DOI Listing

Vitamin A Rich Diet Diminishes Early Urothelial Carcinogenesis by Altering Retinoic Acid Signaling.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Laboratory for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, University of Split, 21000 Split, Croatia.

Urinary bladder cancer is one of the leading malignancies worldwide, with the highest recurrence rates. A diet rich in vitamin A has proven to lower the risk of cancer, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. We found that vitamin A decreased urothelial atypia and apoptosis during early bladder carcinogenesis induced by -butyl--(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071712DOI Listing

Single-Drug Approach with Edoxaban is Effective for Resolving Non-Acute Cancer-Associated Venous Thrombosis: A Single-Arm Retrospective Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 28;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Medical Oncology, Showa University Koto Toyosu Hospital, 5-1-38 Toyosu, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8577, Japan.

Recently, cancer-related venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been termed "cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT)" and is the focus of current research. We retrospectively investigated the efficacy of a single-drug approach with edoxaban for the treatment of non-acute CAT. Thirty-two non-acute CAT patients who received edoxaban were analyzed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071711DOI Listing

Stratifying Brain Tumour Histological Sub-Types: The Application of ATR-FTIR Serum Spectroscopy in Secondary Care.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Technology and Innovation Centre, University of Strathclyde, 99 George St, Glasgow G1 1RD, UK.

Patients living with brain tumours have the highest average years of life lost of any cancer, ultimately reducing average life expectancy by 20 years. Diagnosis depends on brain imaging and most often confirmatory tissue biopsy for histology. The majority of patients experience non-specific symptoms, such as headache, and may be reviewed in primary care on multiple occasions before diagnosis is made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071710DOI Listing

Lifestyle Intervention on Body Weight and Physical Activity in Patients with Breast Cancer can reduce the Risk of Death in Obese Women: The EMILI Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Oncology and Hematology, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Modena, 41124 Modena, Italy.

Background obesity and sedentary lifestyle have been shown to negatively affect survival in breast cancer (BC). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a lifestyle intervention on body mass index (BMI) and physical activity (PA) levels among BC survivors in Modena, Italy, in order to show an outcome improvement in obese and overweight patients.

Methods: This study is a single-arm experimental design, conducted between November 2009 and May 2016 on 430 women affected by BC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071709DOI Listing

Protein Conformational Changes in Breast Cancer Sera Using Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303, USA.

Protein structural alterations, including misfolding and aggregation, are a hallmark of several diseases, including cancer. However, the possible clinical application of protein conformational analysis using infrared spectroscopy to detect cancer-associated structural changes in proteins has not been established yet. The present study investigates the applicability of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in distinguishing the sera of healthy individuals and breast cancer patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071708DOI Listing

Multi-Habitat Radiomics Unravels Distinct Phenotypic Subtypes of Glioblastoma with Clinical and Genomic Significance.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Centerfor Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon 16419, Korea.

We aimed to evaluate the potential of radiomics as an imaging biomarker for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and explore the molecular rationale behind radiomics using a radio-genomics approach. A total of 144 primary GBM patients were included in this study (training cohort). Using multi-parametric MR images, radiomics features were extracted from multi-habitats of the tumor. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071707DOI Listing

Targeting the Redox Landscape in Cancer Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 27;12(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced predominantly by the mitochondrial electron transport chain and by NADPH oxidases in peroxisomes and in the endoplasmic reticulum. The antioxidative defense counters overproduction of ROS with detoxifying enzymes and molecular scavengers, for instance, superoxide dismutase and glutathione, in order to restore redox homeostasis. Mutations in the redox landscape can induce carcinogenesis, whereas increased ROS production can perpetuate cancer development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071706DOI Listing

Potential of Tyrosine Kinase Receptor TIE-1 as Novel Therapeutic Target in High-PI3K-Expressing Ovarian Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577, Japan.

Tyrosine kinase receptor TIE-1 plays a critical role in angiogenesis and blood-vessel stability. In recent years, increased TIE-1 expression has been observed in many types of cancers; however, the biological significance and underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the tumor biological functions of TIE-1 in ovarian cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061705DOI Listing

CRISPR-Mediated Non-Viral Site-Specific Gene Integration and Expression in T Cells: Protocol and Application for T-Cell Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.

T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) show great promise in the treatment of some cancers. Modifying T cells to express CARs generally relies on T-cell transduction using viral vectors carrying a transgene, resulting in semi-random DNA integration within the T-cell genome. While this approach has proven successful and is used in generating the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, USA) approved B-lymphocyte antigen CD19-specific CAR T cells, it is possible the transgene could integrate into a locus that would lead to malignant transformation of the engineered T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061704DOI Listing

Tracing Nutrient Flux Following Monocarboxylate Transporter-1 Inhibition with AZD3965.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Division of Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK.

The monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is a key element in tumor cell metabolism and inhibition of MCT1 with AZD3965 is undergoing clinical trials. We aimed to investigate nutrient fluxes associated with MCT1 inhibition by AZD3965 to identify possible biomarkers of drug action. We synthesized an F-labeled lactate analogue, [F]--fluorolactate ([F]--FL), that was used alongside [F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([F]FDG), and C-labeled glucose and lactate, to investigate the modulation of metabolism with AZD3965 in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma models in NOD/SCID mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061703DOI Listing

TRPV1 Antagonist DWP05195 Induces ER Stress-Dependent Apoptosis through the ROS-p38-CHOP Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

In addition to their analgesic activity, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonists and antagonists demonstrate profound anti-cancer activities in various human cancers. In the present study, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of a novel TRPV1 antagonist, DWP05195, and evaluated its molecular mechanism in human ovarian cancer cells. DWP05195 demonstrated potent growth inhibitory effects in all five ovarian cancer cell lines examined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061702DOI Listing

Mixed Type Histology as a Predictive Factor for Esophagojejunostomy Leak in Advanced Gastric Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Radziwiłłowska 13 St., 20-080 Lublin, Poland.

Since esophagojejunostomy leak (EJL) after gastrectomy is a potentially fatal complication and may impact the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer (GC), it is important to establish risk factors for the EJL and to prevent this surgical complication. The aim of this study was analysis of predictors for the postoperative clinically apparent EJL. All patients operated for advanced GC between October 2016 and December 2019 were analyzed from a prospectively maintained database. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061701DOI Listing

Are Leading Risk Factors for Cancer and Mental Disorders Multimorbidity Shared by These Two Individual Conditions in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged Adults?

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Centre for Eye Research Australia, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3002, Australia.

Data on the leading shared risk factors of cancer and mental disorders are limited. We included 98,958 participants (54.8% women) aged 45-64 years from the 45 and Up Study who were free of cancer, depression, and anxiety at baseline (2006-2009). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061700DOI Listing

Optimizing Oncolytic Viral Design to Enhance Antitumor Efficacy: Progress and Challenges.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

The field of oncolytic virotherapy has seen remarkable advancements in last two decades, leading to approval of the first oncolytic immuno-virotherapy, Talimogene Laherparepvec, for the treatment of melanoma. A plethora of preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated excellent safety profiles of other oncolytic viruses. While oncolytic viruses show clinical promise in already immunogenic malignancies, response rates are inconsistent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061699DOI Listing

The Value of Laboratory Parameters for Anemia, Renal Function, Systemic Inflammation and Nutritional Status as Predictors for Outcome in Elderly Patients with Head-and-Neck Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg-Medical Center, Robert-Koch-Str. 3, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of routine blood markers regarding their predictive potential for treatment outcomes of elderly head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. In total, 246 elderly HNSCC patients (≥65 years) undergoing (chemo)radiotherapy from 2010 to 2018 were analyzed for treatment outcomes, depending on their hemoglobin, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), C-reactive protein (CRP) and albumin values, representing anemia, kidney function, inflammation and nutrition status, respectively. Local/locoregional control, progression-free and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061698DOI Listing

Influence of Fibroblasts on Mammary Gland Development, Breast Cancer Microenvironment Remodeling, and Cancer Cell Dissemination.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

The stromal microenvironment regulates mammary gland development and tumorigenesis. In normal mammary glands, the stromal microenvironment encompasses the ducts and contains fibroblasts, the main regulators of branching morphogenesis. Understanding the way fibroblast signaling pathways regulate mammary gland development may offer insights into the mechanisms of breast cancer (BC) biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061697DOI Listing

Molecular Characterization of Astrocytoma Progression Towards Secondary Glioblastomas Utilizing Patient-Matched Tumor Pairs.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Partner Site Dresden, D-01307 Dresden, Germany.

Astrocytomas are primary human brain tumors including diffuse or anaplastic astrocytomas that develop towards secondary glioblastomas over time. However, only little is known about molecular alterations that drive this progression. We measured multi-omics profiles of patient-matched astrocytoma pairs of initial and recurrent tumors from 22 patients to identify molecular alterations associated with tumor progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061696DOI Listing

Association of Allostatic Load with All-Cause andCancer Mortality by Race and Body Mass Index in theREGARDS Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Among 29,701 Black and White participants aged 45 years and older in the Reasons forGeographic and Racial Difference in Stroke (REGARDS) study, allostatic load (AL) was defined asthe sum score of established baseline risk-associated biomarkers for which participants exceeded aset cutoff point. Cox proportional hazard regression was utilized to determine the association of ALscore with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality, with analyses stratified by body-mass index, agegroup, and race. At baseline, Blacks had a higher AL score compared with Whites (Black mean ALscore: 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061695DOI Listing

A Clinically Applicable Approach to the Classification of B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas with Flow Cytometry and Machine Learning.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Laboratory of Immunopathology, Division of Pathology, A.O. Ordine Mauriziano, 10128 Turin, Italy.

The immunophenotype is a key element to classify B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (B-NHL); while it is routinely obtained through immunohistochemistry, the use of flow cytometry (FC) could bear several advantages. However, few FC laboratories can rely on a long-standing practical experience, and the literature in support is still limited; as a result, the use of FC is generally restricted to the analysis of lymphomas with bone marrow or peripheral blood involvement. In this work, we applied machine learning to our database of 1465 B-NHL samples from different sources, building four artificial predictive systems which could classify B-NHL in up to nine of the most common clinico-pathological entities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061684DOI Listing

Integration of Tumor Mutation Burden and PD-L1 Testing in Routine Laboratory Diagnostics in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Institut für Hämatopathologie Hamburg, Fangdieckstraße 75A, 22547 Hamburg, Germany.

In recent years, Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved into a prime example for precision oncology with multiple FDA-approved "precision" drugs. For the majority of NSCLC lacking targetable genetic alterations, immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) has become standard of care in first-line treatment or beyond. PD-L1 tumor expression represents the only approved predictive biomarker for PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint inhibition by therapeutic antibodies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061685DOI Listing

Role of Colposcopy after Treatment for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Colposcopy is often used in follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) despite its marked inter-observer variability and low sensitivity. Our objective was to assess the role of colposcopy in post-treatment follow-up in comparison to hrHPV (high-risk human papillomavirus) testing, cytology, and cone margin status. Altogether, 419 women treated for histological high-grade lesion (HSIL) with large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ) attended colposcopy with cytology and hrHPV test at six months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061683DOI Listing

Multiparametric Analysis of Longitudinal Quantitative MRI data to Identify Distinct Tumor Habitats in Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

This study identifies physiological tumor habitats from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data and evaluates their alterations in response to therapy. Two models of breast cancer (BT-474 and MDA-MB-231) were imaged longitudinally with diffusion-weighted MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to quantify tumor cellularity and vascularity, respectively, during treatment with trastuzumab or albumin-bound paclitaxel. Tumors were stained for anti-CD31, anti-Ki-67, and H&E. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061682DOI Listing

Integrating the Tumor Microenvironment into Cancer Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Low Prevalence Tumors, Centro de investigación biomédica en red de cáncer (CIBERONC), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Tumor progression is mediated by reciprocal interaction between tumor cells and their surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME), which among other factors encompasses the extracellular milieu, immune cells, fibroblasts, and the vascular system. However, the complexity of cancer goes beyond the local interaction of tumor cells with their microenvironment. We are on the path to understanding cancer from a systemic viewpoint where the host macroenvironment also plays a crucial role in determining tumor progression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061677DOI Listing

Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: The Origin and Targeted Therapy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osakasayama, Osaka 589-8511, Japan.

Endometrial cysts (ECs) are thought to be the origin of endometriosis-associated ovarian cancer (EAOC). A hypothesis that the oxidative stress of iron in cysts causes "malignant transformation of ECs" has been proposed, but this has not been verified. Several population-based studies showed that endometriosis was a risk factor but did not reflect the "malignant transformation of ECs". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061676DOI Listing

Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment and Follow-Up of Exocrine Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: Evidence Evaluation and Recommendations by the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM).

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele, 20132 Milan, Italy.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in women (7%) and the sixth in men (5%) in Italy, with a life expectancy of around 5% at 5 years. From 2010, the Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM) developed national guidelines for several cancers. In this report, we report a summary of clinical recommendations of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of PDAC, which may guide physicians in their current practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061681DOI Listing

Telomerase Biogenesis and Activities from the Perspective of Its Direct Interacting Partners.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT)-the catalytic subunit of telomerase-is reactivated in up to 90% of all human cancers. TERT is observed in heterogenous populations of protein complexes, which are dynamically regulated in a cell type- and cell cycle-specific manner. Over the past two decades, in vitro protein-protein interaction detection methods have discovered a number of endogenous TERT binding partners in human cells that are responsible for the biogenesis and functionalization of the telomerase holoenzyme, including the processes of TERT trafficking between subcellular compartments, assembly into telomerase, and catalytic action at telomeres. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061679DOI Listing

The Double-Edged Sword Role of Viruses in Gastric Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Immunotherapy, Medical University of Lublin, 20-093 Lublin, Poland.

Due to its high morbidity and mortality, gastric cancer is a topic of a great concern throughout the world. Major ways of treatment are gastrectomy and chemotherapy, unfortunately they are not always successful. In a search for more efficient therapy strategies, viruses and their potential seem to be an important issue. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061680DOI Listing

Comparative Efficacy of First-Line Immune-Based Combination Therapies in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 24;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, 75015 Paris, France.

Three drug combinations, ipilimumab-nivolumab (Ipi-Nivo), pembrolizumab-axitinib (Pembro-Axi), and avelumab-axitinib (Ave-Axi), have received regulatory approval in the USA and Europe for the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma with clear cell component (mRCC). However, no head-to-head comparison data are available to identify the best option. Therefore, we aimed to compare these new treatments in a first-line setting. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061673DOI Listing