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    997 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]

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    Investigating the Interaction of Cyclic RGD Peptidomimetics with αVβ₆ Integrin by Biochemical and Molecular Docking Studies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 21;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
    The interaction of a small library of cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptidomimetics with αVβ₆ integrin has been investigated by means of competitive solid phase binding assays to the isolated receptor and docking calculations in the crystal structure of the αVβ₆ binding site. To this aim, a rigid receptor-flexible ligand docking protocol has been set up and then applied to predict the binding mode of the cyclic RGD peptidomimetics to αVβ₆ integrin. Although the RGD interaction with αVβ₆ recapitulates the RGD binding mode observed in αVβ₃, differences between the integrin binding pockets can strongly affect the ligand binding ability. Read More

    Involvement of the Integrin α1β1 in the Progression of Colorectal Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 26;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Laboratory of Intestinal Physiopathology, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada.
    Integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins involved in bidirectional cell signaling that participate in the regulation of cell shape, adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation. The integrin α1β1 is known to be involved in RAS/ERK proliferative pathway activation and plays an important role in fibroblast proliferation. In the small intestine, the integrin α1 subunit is present in the crypt proliferative compartment and absent in the villus. Read More

    Integrins and Exosomes, a Dangerous Liaison in Cancer Progression.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 26;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 14, Pavia 27100, Italy.
    Integrin activity and function is classically related to the bi-directional regulation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts that regulate a number of cell pathways linked to cell adhesion, cell detachment from ECM, cell migration, and anoikis. Interestingly, emerging data continue to uncover new roles for integrins in cancer-relevant pathways, particularly concerning the regulation of immune cell activity in the tumor niche, like myeloid cell differentiation and function and, very recently, the regulation of metastatic processes by exosomes. Exosomes are deeply involved in cell-cell communication processes and several studies have shown that integrins found in tumor-associated exosomes can promote cancer progression by two novel cooperative mechanisms: horizontal transfer of integrin transcripts as vescicle cargo, and selection of target tissues to form new tumor niches during metastatic spread by integrins carried on the exosome's surface. Read More

    Liver Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 20;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome 00141, Italy.
    Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. Read More

    Integrin Activation Contributes to Lower Cisplatin Sensitivity in MV3 Melanoma Cells by Inducing the Wnt Signalling Pathway.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 16;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, 53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Background: integrins have been associated with the development of chemotherapy resistant tumour cells, mostly those of hematopoietic origin, by mediating the binding to the extracellular matrix. The relevance for solid tumour cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

    Methods: using MTT assays, we detected the loss in cisplatin sensitivity of human MV3 melanoma cells upon integrin activation. Read More

    MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 13;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Surgery, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu 874-0838, Japan.
    MicroRNAs (miRs) are small RNAs that repress mRNA translation, resulting in the degradation of mRNAs and regulation of the expression levels of various genes. Recent studies have shown that aberrant miR expression has a functional role in the initiation and progression of various malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. miRs have also been shown to have applications as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers because of their high tissue specificity, stability, and altered expression in tumor development. Read More

    EMT and Treatment Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 12;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Digestive Molecular Clinical Oncology Research Unit, Section of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy.
    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of adult cancer mortality in the United States. The poor prognosis for patients with PC is mainly due to its aggressive course, the limited efficacy of active systemic treatments, and a metastatic behavior, demonstrated throughout the evolution of the disease. On average, 80% of patients with PC are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and the half of those who undergo surgery and adjuvant therapy develop liver metastasis within two years. Read More

    Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Cutaneous Malignancies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 12;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. As suggested by its name, ALK was first described as part of a translocation product in cases of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, with other genetic and cytogenetic ALK mutations subsequently coming to attention in the development of many other hematologic and solid organ malignancies. ALK has now been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous malignancies, including secondary cutaneous systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and primary cutaneous ALCL, melanoma, spitzoid tumors, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Read More

    The PI3Kδ Inhibitor Idelalisib Inhibits Homing in an in Vitro and in Vivo Model of B ALL.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 10;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.
    The quest continues for targeted therapies to reduce the morbidity of chemotherapy and to improve the response of resistant leukemia. Adhesion of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells to bone marrow stromal cells triggers intracellular signals that promote cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Idelalisib, an U. Read More

    Acute and Late Toxicities of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 09 8;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
    For patients with unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival as compared to sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but is associated with higher rates of toxicities. Acute, clinically significant esophagitis or pneumonitis can occur in one in five patients. The risks of esophagitis and pneumonitis can impact the decision to deliver concurrent therapy and limit the total dose of radiation therapy that is delivered. Read More

    Predicting Organ-Specific Risk Interactions between Radiation and Chemotherapy in Secondary Cancer Survivors.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 6;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Several studies have shown that pediatric patients have an increased risk of developing a secondary malignancy several decades after treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this work, we use a biologically motivated mathematical formalism to estimate the relative risks of breast, lung and thyroid cancers in childhood cancer survivors due to concurrent therapy regimen. This model specifically includes possible organ-specific interaction between radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Read More

    Reduced Cytokine Release in Ex Vivo Response to Cilengitide and Cetuximab Is a Marker for Improved Survival of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 5;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Targeting of αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins by cilengitide may reduce growth of solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Preclinical investigations suggest increased activity of cilengitide in combination with other treatment modalities. The only published trial in HNSCC (ADVANTAGE) investigated cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) without or with once (PFE+CIL1W) or twice weekly cilengitide (PFE+CIL2W) in recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. Read More

    EML4-ALK Variants: Biological and Molecular Properties, and the Implications for Patients.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 5;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
    Since the discovery of the fusion between EML4 (echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), EML4-ALK, in lung adenocarcinomas in 2007, and the subsequent identification of at least 15 different variants in lung cancers, there has been a revolution in molecular-targeted therapy that has transformed the outlook for these patients. Our recent focus has been on understanding how and why the expression of particular variants can affect biological and molecular properties of cancer cells, as well as identifying the key signalling pathways triggered, as a result. In the clinical setting, this understanding led to the discovery that the type of variant influences the response of patients to ALK therapy. Read More

    Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Institute for Advanced Study and Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPSM), Department Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85747 Garching, Germany.
    Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Read More

    Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM).
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 1;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Cancer immunotherapy has now become a recognized approach to treating cancers. In addition to checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown impressive clinical outcomes in leukemias and is now being explored in solid tumors. CARs are engineered receptors, stably or transiently transduced into T cells, that aim to enhance T cell effector function by recognizing and binding to a specific tumor-associated antigen. Read More

    Stem Cell-Like Properties of CK2β-down Regulated Mammary Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 31;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Chemistry and Biology Department, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38400 Grenoble, France.
    The ubiquitous protein kinase CK2 has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a number of human tumours. This enzyme is composed of two catalytic α or α' subunits and a dimer of β regulatory subunits whose expression levels are probably implicated in CK2 regulation. Several recent papers reported that unbalanced expression of CK2 subunits is sufficient to drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Read More

    Novel Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in Malignancies of the Head and Neck.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 31;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Cancers of the head and neck region are among the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia are identified as precursor lesions to malignancy. Patients cured of an initial primary head and neck cancer are also susceptible to developing second primary tumors due to cancerization of their mucosal field. Read More

    Most Do, but Some Do Not: CD4⁺CD25(-) T Cells, but Not CD4⁺CD25⁺ Treg Cells, Are Cytolytic When Redirected by a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR).
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 29;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Robert-Koch-Str. 21, Cologne D-50931, Germany.
    Evidences are accumulating that CD4⁺ T cells can physiologically mediate antigen specific target cell lysis. By circumventing major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions through an engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4⁺ T cells lyse defined target cells as efficiently as do CD8⁺ T cells. However, the cytolytic capacity of redirected CD4⁺CD25(-) T cells, in comparison with CD4⁺CD25⁺ regulatory T (Treg) cells was so far not thoroughly defined. Read More

    Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update on Clinicopathological and Molecular Features.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 29;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.
    Microphthalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) comprises Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC. Due to the presence of fusion genes, Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC are also known as TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC, respectively. TFE3 and TFEB belong to the MiT family, which regulates melanocyte and osteoclast differentiation, and TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC show characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features. Read More

    Integrins as Therapeutic Targets: Successes and Cancers.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 23;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Translational and Biomarkers Research, Translational Innovation Platform Oncology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. Read More

    Understanding Resistance Mechanisms and Expanding the Therapeutic Utility of PARP Inhibitors.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 22;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 22.
    Department of Hematology-Oncology, National University Cancer Institute of Singapore, National University Hospital, Singapore 119228, Singapore.
    Poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors act through synthetic lethality in cells with defects in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair caused by molecular aberrations such as BRCA mutations, and is approved for treatment in ovarian cancer, with promising clinical activity against other HR defective tumors including breast and prostate cancers. Three PARP inhibitors have been FDA approved, while another two have shown promising activity and are in late stage development. Nonetheless, both primary and secondary resistance to PARP inhibition have led to treatment failure, and the development of predictive biomarkers and the ability to identify and overcome mechanisms of resistance is vital for optimization of its clinical utility. Read More

    National and Subnational Population-Based Incidence of Cancer in Thailand: Assessing Cancers with the Highest Burdens.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 17;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 17.
    Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai 90110, Thailand.
    In Thailand, five cancer types-breast, cervical, colorectal, liver and lung cancer-contribute to over half of the cancer burden. The magnitude of these cancers must be quantified over time to assess previous health policies and highlight future trajectories for targeted prevention efforts. We provide a comprehensive assessment of these five cancers nationally and subnationally, with trend analysis, projections, and number of cases expected for the year 2025 using cancer registry data. Read More

    ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Pathobiology, Epidemiology, Detection from Tumor Tissue and Algorithm Diagnosis in a Daily Practice.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 12;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Pasteur Hospital, 30 avenue de la voie romaine, 06001 Nice cedex 01, France.
    Patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an ALK rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. Several increasingly effective ALK inhibitors are now available for treatment of patients. However, despite an initial favorable response to treatment, in most cases relapse or progression occurs due to resistance mechanisms mainly caused by mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of ALK. Read More

    ALK Status Assessment with Liquid Biopsies of Lung Cancer Patients.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 12;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 12.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Côte d'Azur University, FHU OncoAge, 06001 Nice Cedex 01, France.
    Patients with advanced stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring an anaplastic lymphoma kinase ALK gene rearrangement, detected from a tissue sample, can benefit from targeted ALK inhibitor treatment. However, while treatment is initially effective in most cases, relapse or progression occurs due to different resistance mechanisms including mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML44)-ALK. The liquid biopsy concept has recently radically changed the clinical care of NSCLC patients, in particular for those harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutation. Read More

    The Role of Cancer-Derived Exosomes in Tumorigenicity & Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 10.
    Department of Urology, Loyola University Medical Center, 2160 S. First Ave., Maywood, IL 60153, USA.
    Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process by which epithelial cells lose their basement membrane interaction and acquire a more migratory, mesenchymal phenotype. EMT has been implicated in cancer cell progression, as cells transform and increase motility and invasiveness, induce angiogenesis, and metastasize. Exosomes are 30-100 nm membrane-bound vesicles that are formed and excreted by all cell types and released into the extracellular environment. Read More

    Complex Determinants of Epithelial: Mesenchymal Phenotypic Plasticity in Ovarian Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 9;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 9.
    Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46617, USA.
    Unlike most epithelial malignancies which metastasize hematogenously, metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) occurs primarily via transcoelomic dissemination, characterized by exfoliation of cells from the primary tumor, avoidance of detachment-induced cell death (anoikis), movement throughout the peritoneal cavity as individual cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs), adhesion to and disruption of the mesothelial lining of the peritoneum, and submesothelial matrix anchoring and proliferation to generate widely disseminated metastases. This exceptional microenvironment is highly permissive for phenotypic plasticity, enabling mesenchymal-to-epithelial (MET) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal (EMT) transitions. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on EOC heterogeneity in an EMT context, outline major regulators of EMT in ovarian cancer, address controversies in EMT and EOC chemoresistance, and highlight computational modeling approaches toward understanding EMT/MET in EOC. Read More

    Localization of VEGF to Vascular ECM Is an Important Aspect of Tumor Angiogenesis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 28;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 28.
    Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Immunology Program, Cancer Center, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.
    Our research has identified several examples in which reduced VEGF-A binding to deficient vascular extracellular matrix leads to deficits in tumor vascularization and tumor growth: (1) germline ablation of collagen VI in the stroma of intracranial B16F10 melanomas; (2) knockdown of the Tks5 scaffolding protein in MDA-MB-231 mammary tumor cells; (3) germline ablation of NG2 proteoglycan in the stroma of MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors; and (4) myeloid-specific ablation of NG2 in the stroma of intracranial B16F10 melanomas. Tumor hypoxia is increased in each of the four types of experimental mice, accompanied by increases in total VEGF-A. However, while VEGF-A is highly associated with tumor blood vessels in control mice, it is much more diffusely distributed in tumors in all four sets of experimental mice, likely due to reduced extent of the vascular extracellular matrix. Read More

    Secondary Intracranial Tumors Following Radiotherapy for Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 8;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.
    Laboratory of Molecular Target Therapy for Cancer, Graduate School for Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.
    Pituitary adenomas are often treated with radiotherapy for the management of tumor progression or recurrence. Despite the improvement in cure rates, patients treated by radiotherapy are at risk of development of secondary malignancies. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the secondary intracranial tumors that occurred following radiotherapy to pituitary adenomas to obtain clinicopathological characteristics. Read More

    Significance of microRNAs in Androgen Signaling and Prostate Cancer Progression.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 7;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Department of Functional Biogerontology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.
    The androgen receptor (AR) plays important roles in prostate cancer development and prostate tumor growth. After binding to androgens, AR functions as a nuclear receptor and translocates to the nucleus to bind to specific AR-binding sites (ARBSs). AR regulates epigenetic factor recruitments to activate its downstream signaling. Read More

    Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and MicroRNAs in Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 3;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    INSERM UMR-S1147, CNRS SNC 5014, Saints-Pères Research Center, 45 rue des Saints-Pères Paris-Descartes University, Sorbonne Paris Cité University, 75006 Paris, France.
    Despite major advances, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains the major cause of cancer-related death in developed countries. Metastasis and drug resistance are the main factors contributing to relapse and death. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a complex molecular and cellular process involved in tissue remodelling that was extensively studied as an actor of tumour progression, metastasis and drug resistance in many cancer types and in lung cancers. Read More

    Crosstalk between microRNA and DNA Methylation Offers Potential Biomarkers and Targeted Therapies in ALK-Positive Lymphomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 3;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 3.
    Inserm, UMR1037 CRCT, F-31000 Toulouse, France.
    The discovery of microRNA (miRNA) has provided new and powerful tools for studying the mechanism, diagnosis and treatment of human cancers. The down-regulation of tumor suppressive miRNA by hypermethylation of CpG island (CpG is shorthand for 5'-C-phosphate-G-3', that is, cytosine and guanine separated by only one phosphate) is emerging as a common hallmark of cancer and appears to be involved in drug resistance. This review discusses the role of miRNA and DNA methylation in drug resistance mechanisms and highlights their potential as anti-cancer therapies in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-positive lymphomas. Read More

    Performance of a RT-PCR Assay in Comparison to FISH and Immunohistochemistry for the Detection of ALK in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 1;9(8). Epub 2017 Aug 1.
    Department of Medical Oncology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, VIC 2410 Lee Avenue, Victoria, BC V8R 6V5, Canada.
    Patients with lung cancers harboring an activating anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement respond favorably to ALK inhibitor therapy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) are validated and widely used screening tests for ALK rearrangements but both methods have limitations. The ALK RGQ RT-PCR Kit (RT-PCR) is a single tube quantitative real-time PCR assay for high throughput and automated interpretation of ALK expression. Read More

    EMT/MET at the Crossroad of Stemness, Regeneration and Oncogenesis: The Ying-Yang Equilibrium Recapitulated in Cell Spheroids.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 29;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 29.
    Department of Pediatrics and Infant Neuropsychiatry, "Umberto I" Hospital, "La Sapienza" University of Rome, 00195 Roma, Italy.
    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential trans-differentiation process, which plays a critical role in embryonic development, wound healing, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and cancer progression. It is the fundamental mechanism by which epithelial cells lose many of their characteristics while acquiring features typical of mesenchymal cells, such as migratory capacity and invasiveness. Depending on the contest, EMT is complemented and balanced by the reverse process, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Read More

    Seed-in-Soil: Pancreatic Cancer Influenced by Tumor Microenvironment.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 21;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 21.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Molecular Medicine Graduate Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine and Comprehensive Cancer Center, 108 N. Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a fatal malignancy with a five-year survival rate lower than 7%, and most patients dying within six months of diagnosis. The factors that contribute to the aggressiveness of the disease include, but are not limited to: late diagnosis, prompt metastasis to adjacent vital organs, poor response, and resistance to anticancer treatments. This malignancy is uniquely associated with desmoplastic stroma that accounts for 80% of tumor mass. Read More

    Targeting Platelets for the Treatment of Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 22;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 22.
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth 6100, Australia.
    The majority of cancer-associated mortality results from the ability of tumour cells to metastasise leading to multifunctional organ failure and death. Disseminated tumour cells in the blood circulation are faced with major challenges such as rheological shear stresses and cell-mediated cytotoxicity mediated by natural killer cells. Nevertheless, circulating tumour cells with metastatic ability appear equipped to exploit host cells to aid their survival. Read More

    Complex DNA Damage: A Route to Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    DNA Damage Laboratory, Physics Department, School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 15780 Athens, Greece.
    Cellular effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are of great variety and level, but they are mainly damaging since radiation can perturb all important components of the cell, from the membrane to the nucleus, due to alteration of different biological molecules ranging from lipids to proteins or DNA. Regarding DNA damage, which is the main focus of this review, as well as its repair, all current knowledge indicates that IR-induced DNA damage is always more complex than the corresponding endogenous damage resulting from endogenous oxidative stress. Specifically, it is expected that IR will create clusters of damage comprised of a diversity of DNA lesions like double strand breaks (DSBs), single strand breaks (SSBs) and base lesions within a short DNA region of up to 15-20 bp. Read More

    Regional Delivery of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-Cells for Cancer Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 18.
    Department of Surgery, Boston University, Boston, MA 02118, USA.
    Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T-cells are T-cells with recombinant receptors targeted to tumor antigens. CAR-T cell therapy has emerged as a mode of immunotherapy and is now being extensively explored in hematologic cancer. In contrast, CAR-T cell use in solid tumors has been hampered by multiple obstacles. Read More

    SIRT3: Oncogene and Tumor Suppressor in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 12;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Grupo Multidisciplinar de Oncología Traslacional, Institut Universitari d´Investigació en Ciències de la Salut (IUNICS), Universitat de les Illes Balears. Cra de Valldemossa, km 7.5, 07122 Palma, Illes Balears 07122, Spain.
    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), the major deacetylase in mitochondria, plays a crucial role in modulating oxygen reactive species (ROS) and limiting the oxidative damage in cellular components. SIRT3 targets different enzymes which regulate mitochondrial metabolism and participate in ROS detoxification, such as the complexes of the respiratory chain, the isocitrate dehydrogenase, or the manganese superoxide dismutase. Thus, SIRT3 activity is essential in maintaining mitochondria homeostasis and has recently received great attention, as it is considered a fidelity protein for mitochondrial function. Read More

    The Role of Radiation Induced Injury on Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 12;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 12.
    Department of Biology, Laurentian University 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON P3E 2C6, Canada.
    This manuscript evaluates the role of cell killing, tissue disorganization, and tissue damage on the induction of lung cancer following low dose rate radiation exposures from internally deposited radioactive materials. Beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to (90)Y, (91)Y, (144)Ce, or (90)Sr in fused clay particles. Dogs lived out their life span with complete pathology conducted at the time of death. Read More

    The Role of miRNAs in Angiogenesis, Invasion and Metabolism and Their Therapeutic Implications in Gliomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 10;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 10.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center & Arthur, G. James Cancer Hospital, Columbus, OH 43012, USA.
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding, endogenous RNA molecules that function in gene silencing by post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The dysregulation of miRNA plays a pivotal role in cancer tumorigenesis, including the development and progression of gliomas. Their small size, stability and ability to target multiple oncogenes have simultaneously distinguished miRNAs as attractive candidates for biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for glioma patients. Read More

    Potential of Integrin Inhibitors for Treating Ovarian Cancer: A Literature Review.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka Suita, Osaka 5650871, Japan.
    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a fatal disease, with a cure rate of only 30%. Several recent studies have targeted integrins for cancer treatment. Preclinical studies have shown the effectiveness of several integrin inhibitors for blocking cancer progression, especially by blocking angiogenesis. Read More

    Integrin αvβ3 Signaling in Tumor-Induced Bone Disease.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 8;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 8.
    Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA.
    Tumor-induced bone disease is common among patients with advanced solid cancers, especially those with breast, prostate, and lung malignancies. The tendency of these cancers to metastasize to bone and induce bone destruction is, in part, due to alterations in integrin expression and signaling. Substantial evidence from preclinical studies shows that increased expression of integrin αvβ3 in tumor cells promotes the metastatic and bone-invasive phenotype. Read More

    Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Dependent Signalling Pathways in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 11;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Centre for Cell Biology and Cutaneous Research, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AT, UK.
    Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) derives from keratinocytes in the epidermis and accounts for 15-20% of all cutaneous malignancies. Although it is usually curable by surgery, 5% of these tumours metastasise leading to poor prognosis mostly because of a lack of therapies and validated biomarkers. As the incidence rate is rising worldwide it has become increasingly important to better understand the mechanisms involved in cSCC development and progression in order to develop therapeutic strategies. Read More

    Cost Saving Opportunities in NSCLC Therapy by Optimized Diagnostics.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 11;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Kliniken der Stadt Köln gGmbH, Klinikum der Privaten Universität Witten/Herdecke mit Sitz in Köln, Institut für Pathologie, D-51109 Cologne, Germany.
    With an incidence of 68 new cases per 100,000 people per year, an estimated total number of up to 350,000 new non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases are diagnosed each year in the European Union. Up to 10% of NSCLC patients are eligible for therapy with novel ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase) inhibitors, as they have been diagnosed with a mutation in the gene coding for ALK. The ALK inhibitor therapy costs add up to approx. Read More

    Role and Therapeutic Targeting of the HGF/MET Pathway in Glioblastoma.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 11;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 11.
    Department of Neurology and The Cancer Center, Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Cancer Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.
    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal brain tumor with dismal prognosis. Current therapeutic options, consisting of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, have only served to marginally increase patient survival. Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are dysregulated in approximately 90% of GBM; attributed to this, research has focused on inhibiting RTKs as a novel and effective therapy for GBM. Read More

    Inside the Cell: Integrins as New Governors of Nuclear Alterations?
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Section of Immuno-oncology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Gregorio Marañón, 28007 Madrid, Spain.
    Cancer cell migration is a complex process that requires coordinated structural changes and signals in multiple cellular compartments. The nucleus is the biggest and stiffest organelle of the cell and might alter its physical properties to allow cancer cell movement. Integrins are transmembrane receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions, which regulate numerous intracellular signals and biological functions under physiological conditions. Read More

    The Role of the Core Non-Homologous End Joining Factors in Carcinogenesis and Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.
    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are deleterious DNA lesions that if left unrepaired or are misrepaired, potentially result in chromosomal aberrations, known drivers of carcinogenesis. Pathways that direct the repair of DSBs are traditionally believed to be guardians of the genome as they protect cells from genomic instability. The prominent DSB repair pathway in human cells is the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway, which mediates template-independent re-ligation of the broken DNA molecule and is active in all phases of the cell cycle. Read More

    Roles of Integrin α6β4 Glycosylation in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 5;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Division of Regulatory Glycobiology, Institute of Molecular Biomembrane and Glycobiology, Tohoku Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 4-4-1 Komatsushima, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 981-8558, Japan.
    Malignant transformation is accompanied with aberrant glycosylation of proteins. Such changes in glycan structure also occur in the integrins, which are a large family of cell surface receptors for the extracellular matrix and play key roles in tumor progression. There is now increasing evidence that glycosylation of integrins affects cellular signaling and interaction with the extracellular matrix, receptor tyrosine kinases, and galectins, thereby regulating cell adhesion, motility, growth, and survival. Read More

    Erratum: Tanaka, T. et al. Cimetidine and Clobenpropit Attenuate Inflammation-Associated Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Male ICR Mice. Cancers, 2016, 8, 25.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 5;9(7). Epub 2017 Jul 5.
    Department of Gastroenterology/Internal Medicine, Gifu University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu City, Gifu 501-1194, Japan.

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