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    1026 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]

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    Alcohol and Cancer Stem Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 20;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, 1095 Veterans Drive, Lexington, KY 40536, USA.
    Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Read More

    Cell Line Secretome and Tumor Tissue Proteome Markers for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 16;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Division of Preventive Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.
    Objective: In order to find low abundant proteins secretome and tumor tissue proteome data have been explored in the last few years for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this review we aim to summarize the results of studies evaluating markers derived from the secretome and tumor proteome for blood based detection of colorectal cancer. Methods: Observing the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched systematically for relevant studies published up to 18 July 2017. Read More

    Pancreatic Cancer Chemoresistance to Gemcitabine.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 16;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, PO Box 1171 Blindern, 0318 Oslo, Norway.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), commonly referred to as pancreatic cancer, ranks among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in the Western world due to disease presentation at an advanced stage, early metastasis and generally a very limited response to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Gemcitabine remains a cornerstone of PDAC treatment in all stages of the disease despite suboptimal clinical effects primarily caused by molecular mechanisms limiting its cellular uptake and activation and overall efficacy, as well as the development of chemoresistance within weeks of treatment initiation. To circumvent gemcitabine resistance in PDAC, several novel therapeutic approaches, including chemical modifications of the gemcitabine molecule generating numerous new prodrugs, as well as new entrapment designs of gemcitabine in colloidal systems such as nanoparticles and liposomes, are currently being investigated. Read More

    Novel Molecular Challenges in Targeting Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in ALK-Expressing Human Cancers.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 28;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 28.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taibah University, Almedinah, Medina P.O. Box 41477, Saudi Arabia.
    Targeting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), a receptor tyrosine kinase receptor initially identified as a potent oncogenic driver in anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) in the form of nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion protein, using tyrosine kinase inhibitors has shown to be a promising therapeutic approach for ALK-expressing tumors. However, clinical resistance to ALK inhibitors invariably occurs, and the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Recent studies have clearly shown that clinical resistance to ALK inhibitors is a multifactorial and complex mechanism. Read More

    Current and Prospective Protein Biomarkers of Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 13;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Laboratory for Biomolecular and Medical Technologies, Krasnoyarsk State Medical University named after prof. V.F. Voino-Yaseneckii, 1 P. Zheleznyaka, Krasnoyarsk 660022, Russia.
    Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Read More

    Liquid Biopsy and Therapeutic Targets: Present and Future Issues in Thoracic Oncology.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 10;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, Pasteur Hospital, 30 Avenue de la Voie Romaine, 06001 Nice, CEDEX 01, France.
    The practice of liquid biopsy (LB) has revolutionized the care of patients with metastatic lung cancer. Many oncologists now use this approach in daily practice, applying precise procedures for the detection of activating or resistance mutations in EGFR. These tests are performed with plasma DNA and have been approved as companion diagnostic test for patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Read More

    Evolving Therapeutic Strategies to Exploit Chromosome Instability in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 1;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Biochemistry & Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada.
    Cancer is a devastating disease that claims over 8 million lives each year. Understanding the molecular etiology of the disease is critical to identify and develop new therapeutic strategies and targets. Chromosome instability (CIN) is an abnormal phenotype, characterized by progressive numerical and/or structural chromosomal changes, which is observed in virtually all cancer types. Read More

    Evolving Significance and Future Relevance of Anti-Angiogenic Activity of mTOR Inhibitors in Cancer Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 1;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Department of Visceral Surgery, Lausanne University Hospital, Pavillon 4, avenue de Beaumont, 1011 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    mTOR inhibitors have demonstrated remarkable anti-tumor activity in experimental models, mainly by reducing cancer cell growth and tumor angiogenesis. Their use in cancer patients as monotherapy has, however, generated only limited benefits, increasing median overall survival by only a few months. Likewise, in other targeted therapies, cancer cells develop resistance mechanisms to overcome mTOR inhibition. Read More

    Role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Nov 3;9(11). Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Faculty of Biology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
    The lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) (also known as CD11a/CD18 and αLβ₂), is just one of many integrins in the human body, but its significance is derived from its exclusive presence in leukocytes. In this review, we summarize the studies relating LFA-1 and its major ligand ICAM-1 (or CD54) with cancer, through the function of lymphocytes and myeloid cells on tumor cells. We consider how LFA-1 mediates the interaction of leukocytes with tumors and the role of ICAM-1 in tumor dynamics, which can be independent of its interaction with LFA-1. Read More

    Novel Mechanisms of ALK Activation Revealed by Analysis of the Y1278S Neuroblastoma Mutation.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 30;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 30.
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Numerous mutations have been observed in the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) in both germline and sporadic neuroblastoma. Here, we have investigated the Y1278S mutation, observed in four patient cases, and its potential importance in the activation of the full length ALK receptor. Y1278S is located in the 1278-YRASYY-1283 motif of the ALK activation loop, which has previously been reported to be important in the activation of the ALK kinase domain. Read More

    Clinical and Functional Assays of Radiosensitivity and Radiation-Induced Second Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 27;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 27.
    Cancer Research Division, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, 305 Grattan Street, Parkville, VIC 3000, Australia.
    Whilst the near instantaneous physical interaction of radiation energy with living cells leaves little opportunity for inter-individual variation in the initial yield of DNA damage, all the downstream processes in how damage is recognized, repaired or resolved and therefore the ultimate fate of cells can vary across the population. In the clinic, this variability is observed most readily as rare extreme sensitivity to radiotherapy with acute and late tissue toxic reactions. Though some radiosensitivity can be anticipated in individuals with known genetic predispositions manifest through recognizable phenotypes and clinical presentations, others exhibit unexpected radiosensitivity which nevertheless has an underlying genetic cause. Read More

    Does Hypoxia Cause Carcinogenic Iron Accumulation in Alcoholic Liver Disease (ALD)?
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Center for Alcohol Research, University of Heidelberg and Salem Medical Center, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading health risk worldwide. Hepatic iron overload is frequently observed in ALD patients and it is an important and independent factor for disease progression, survival, and the development of primary liver cancer (HCC). At a systemic level, iron homeostasis is controlled by the liver-secreted hormone hepcidin. Read More

    Advances in Precision Medicine: Tailoring Individualized Therapies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2017 Oct 25.
    Discipline of Surgery, School of Medicine, The Lambe Institute for Translational Research, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway H91 YR71, Ireland.
    The traditional bench-to-bedside pipeline involves using model systems and patient samples to provide insights into pathways deregulated in cancer. This discovery reveals new biomarkers and therapeutic targets, ultimately stratifying patients and informing cohort-based treatment options. Precision medicine (molecular profiling of individual tumors combined with established clinical-pathological parameters) reveals, in real-time, individual patient's diagnostic and prognostic risk profile, informing tailored and tumor-specific treatment plans. Read More

    CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 21;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 21.
    Promab Biotechnologies, Richmond, CA 94806, USA.
    CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor)-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. Read More

    Roles of microRNAs and RNA-Binding Proteins in the Regulation of Colorectal Cancer Stem Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 24;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017, Japan.
    Colorectal cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the initiation, progression and metastasis of human colorectal cancers, and have been characterized by the expression of cell surface markers, such as CD44, CD133, CD166 and LGR5. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed between CSCs and non-tumorigenic cancer cells, and play important roles in the maintenance and regulation of stem cell properties of CSCs. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are emerging epigenetic regulators of various RNA processing events, such as splicing, localization, stabilization and translation, and can regulate various types of stem cells. Read More

    Targeting PDK1 for Chemosensitization of Cancer Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 24;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Metabolic Signaling Group, School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth 6102, Western Australia, Australia.
    Despite the rapid development in the field of oncology, cancer remains the second cause of mortality worldwide, with the number of new cases expected to more than double in the coming years. Chemotherapy is widely used to decelerate or stop tumour development in combination with surgery or radiation therapy when appropriate, and in many cases this improves the symptomatology of the disease. Unfortunately though, chemotherapy is not applicable to all patients and even when it is, there are many cases where a successful initial treatment period is followed by chemotherapeutic drug resistance. Read More

    Association of Vitamin D3 Level with Breast Cancer Risk and Prognosis in African-American and Hispanic Women.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 24;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Division of Cancer Research and Training, Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, 1731 East 120th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90059, USA.
    Background: This study investigated the association of vitamin D3 levels with breast cancer risk and progression in African-Americans and Hispanics. Methods: A total of 237 African-American (Cases = 119, Control = 118) and 423 Hispanic women (Cases = 124, Control = 299) were recruited in the study. Blood samples were collected at the time of breast cancer screening and prior to cancer treatment for 4 weeks on average for the cases. Read More

    The Role of Platelet-Derived ADP and ATP in Promoting Pancreatic Cancer Cell Survival and Gemcitabine Resistance.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 24;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Platelet Research Laboratory, Curtin Health and Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, WA 6102, Australia.
    Platelets have been demonstrated to be vital in cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important step in metastasis. Markers of EMT are associated with chemotherapy resistance. However, the association between the development of chemoresistance, EMT, and the contribution of platelets to the process, is still unclear. Read More

    STAT3 but Not HIF-1α Is Important in Mediating Hypoxia-Induced Chemoresistance in MDA-MB-231, a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Line.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 14;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 14.
    Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada.
    Hypoxia-induced chemoresistance (HICR) is a well-recognized phenomenon, and in many experimental models, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is believed to be a key player. We aimed to better understand the mechanism underlying HICR in a triple negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, with a focus on the role of HIF-1α. In this context, the effect of hypoxia on the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 cells to cisplatin and their stem-like features was evaluated and the role of HIF-1α in both phenomena was assessed. Read More

    From Pathology to Precision Medicine in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Expressing Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK+ ALCL).
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 16;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 16.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma expressing anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK+ ALCL) is a distinct subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this review, we discuss the historical findings that led to its classification as a unique disease, despite its varied clinical presentation and histology. We discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying ALK+ ALCL pathology and the questions that remain in the field. Read More

    Radiation-Induced Changes of microRNA Expression Profiles in Radiosensitive and Radioresistant Leukemia Cell Lines with Different Levels of Chromosome Abnormalities.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 13;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, S.P. Kapitsa Research Institute of Technology, Ulyanovsk State University, 42 Lva Tolstogo St., Ulyanovsk 432017, Russia.
    In our study, we estimate an effect from chromosome aberrations and genome mutations on changes in microRNA expression profiles in cancer cell lines demonstrating different radiosensitivity. Here, cell viability and microRNA spectrum have been estimated 1, 4, and 24 h after irradiation. MiSeq high-throughput sequencing system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) is employed to perform microRNA spectrum estimation. Read More

    Can Intensity-Modulated-Radiotherapy Reduce Toxicity in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma?
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Oct 6;9(10). Epub 2017 Oct 6.
    Department of Oncology, Radiation-Oncology, KU Leuven, University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a modern radiotherapy technique that was implemented in the mid-1990s. It allows closer shaping of dose, to target volumes, thereby sparing organs at risk (OARs). Before the IMRT-era, two-dimensional radiotherapy (2DRT) and later three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) were the techniques of choice, but this robust way of irradiating caused more normal tissue to receive a higher dose. Read More

    The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Breast Cancer: Focus on Basal-Like Carcinomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 30;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 30.
    Dipartimento di Ricerca Traslazionale a Supporto dei Percorsi Oncologici, S.C. Genomica Funzionale, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-IRCCS-Fondazione G Pascale, 80131 Naples, Italy.
    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a high grade of cell plasticity arising from the contribution of a diverse range of factors. When combined, these factors allow a cancer cell to transition from an epithelial to a mesenchymal state through a process of dedifferentiation that confers stem-like features, including chemoresistance, as well as the capacity to migrate and invade. Understanding the complex events that lead to the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype will therefore help to design new therapies against metastatic breast cancer. Read More

    Platelet Integrins in Tumor Metastasis: Do They Represent a Therapeutic Target?
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Université de Strasbourg, INSERM, EFS Grand-Est, BPPS UMR-S 949, FMTS, F-67000 Strasbourg, France.
    Platelets are small anucleated cell fragments that ensure the arrest of bleeding after a vessel wall injury. They are also involved in non-hemostatic function such as development, immunity, inflammation, and in the hematogeneous phase of metastasis. While the role of platelets in tumor metastasis has been recognized for 60 years, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains largely unclear. Read More

    Regulation of mTOR, Metabolic Fitness, and Effector Functions by Cytokines in Natural Killer Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 28;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Centre International de recherche en Infectiologie, CIRI, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, University of Lyon, 69007 Lyon, France.
    The control of cellular metabolism is now recognized as key to regulate functional properties of immune effectors such as T or Natural Killer (NK) cells. During persistent infections or in the tumor microenvironment, multiple metabolic changes have been highlighted in T cells that contribute to their dysfunctional state or exhaustion. NK cells may also undergo major phenotypic and functional modifications when infiltrating tumors that could be linked to metabolic alterations. Read More

    The Emerging Role of Polo-Like Kinase 1 in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Tumor Metastasis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 27;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Department of Human and Molecular Genetics, VCU Institute of Molecular Medicine, VCU Massey Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
    Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. PLK1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, and its expression level often correlates with increased cellular proliferation and poor prognosis in cancer patients. It has been suggested that PLK1 controls cancer development through multiple mechanisms that include canonical regulation of mitosis and cytokinesis, modulation of DNA replication, and cell survival. Read More

    Alcohol and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Adding Fuel to the Flame.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 25;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 25.
    Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52074 Aachen, Germany.
    Primary tumors of the liver represent the fifth most common type of cancer in the world and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Case-control studies from different countries report that chronic ethanol consumption is associated with an approximately 2-fold increased odds ratio for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite the substantial epidemiologic data in humans demonstrating that chronic alcohol consumption is a major risk factor for HCC development, the pathways causing alcohol-induced liver cancer are poorly understood. Read More

    Alcohol Misuse Link to POEMS Syndrome in a Patient.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 23;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 23.
    In Vitro Drug Safety and Biotechnology, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 1L5, Canada.
    Previously called Crow-Fukase syndrome, POEMS syndrome is characterized by poly-neuropathy, osteo-sclerotic myeloma, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal plasma cell disorder, and skin changes. Extremely elevated levels of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are characteristic of the syndrome. Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) infections can also be present in POEMS. Read More

    Investigating the Interaction of Cyclic RGD Peptidomimetics with αVβ₆ Integrin by Biochemical and Molecular Docking Studies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 21;9(10). Epub 2017 Sep 21.
    Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy.
    The interaction of a small library of cyclic RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptidomimetics with αVβ₆ integrin has been investigated by means of competitive solid phase binding assays to the isolated receptor and docking calculations in the crystal structure of the αVβ₆ binding site. To this aim, a rigid receptor-flexible ligand docking protocol has been set up and then applied to predict the binding mode of the cyclic RGD peptidomimetics to αVβ₆ integrin. Although the RGD interaction with αVβ₆ recapitulates the RGD binding mode observed in αVβ₃, differences between the integrin binding pockets can strongly affect the ligand binding ability. Read More

    Involvement of the Integrin α1β1 in the Progression of Colorectal Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 26;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Laboratory of Intestinal Physiopathology, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada.
    Integrins are a family of heterodimeric glycoproteins involved in bidirectional cell signaling that participate in the regulation of cell shape, adhesion, migration, survival and proliferation. The integrin α1β1 is known to be involved in RAS/ERK proliferative pathway activation and plays an important role in fibroblast proliferation. In the small intestine, the integrin α1 subunit is present in the crypt proliferative compartment and absent in the villus. Read More

    Integrins and Exosomes, a Dangerous Liaison in Cancer Progression.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Jul 26;9(8). Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 14, Pavia 27100, Italy.
    Integrin activity and function is classically related to the bi-directional regulation of cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) contacts that regulate a number of cell pathways linked to cell adhesion, cell detachment from ECM, cell migration, and anoikis. Interestingly, emerging data continue to uncover new roles for integrins in cancer-relevant pathways, particularly concerning the regulation of immune cell activity in the tumor niche, like myeloid cell differentiation and function and, very recently, the regulation of metastatic processes by exosomes. Exosomes are deeply involved in cell-cell communication processes and several studies have shown that integrins found in tumor-associated exosomes can promote cancer progression by two novel cooperative mechanisms: horizontal transfer of integrin transcripts as vescicle cargo, and selection of target tissues to form new tumor niches during metastatic spread by integrins carried on the exosome's surface. Read More

    Liver Cancer: Molecular Characterization, Clonal Evolution and Cancer Stem Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 20;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 20.
    Department of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome 00141, Italy.
    Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. The major forms of primary liver cancer are hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). Both these tumors develop against a background of cirrhotic liver, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic liver damage and fibrosis. Read More

    Integrin Activation Contributes to Lower Cisplatin Sensitivity in MV3 Melanoma Cells by Inducing the Wnt Signalling Pathway.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 16;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 16.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, 53121 Bonn, Germany.
    Background: integrins have been associated with the development of chemotherapy resistant tumour cells, mostly those of hematopoietic origin, by mediating the binding to the extracellular matrix. The relevance for solid tumour cells and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

    Methods: using MTT assays, we detected the loss in cisplatin sensitivity of human MV3 melanoma cells upon integrin activation. Read More

    MicroRNAs as Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 13;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 13.
    Department of Surgery, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu 874-0838, Japan.
    MicroRNAs (miRs) are small RNAs that repress mRNA translation, resulting in the degradation of mRNAs and regulation of the expression levels of various genes. Recent studies have shown that aberrant miR expression has a functional role in the initiation and progression of various malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC), which is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. miRs have also been shown to have applications as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers because of their high tissue specificity, stability, and altered expression in tumor development. Read More

    EMT and Treatment Resistance in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 12;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Digestive Molecular Clinical Oncology Research Unit, Section of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Verona, Verona 37134, Italy.
    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the third leading cause of adult cancer mortality in the United States. The poor prognosis for patients with PC is mainly due to its aggressive course, the limited efficacy of active systemic treatments, and a metastatic behavior, demonstrated throughout the evolution of the disease. On average, 80% of patients with PC are diagnosed with metastatic disease, and the half of those who undergo surgery and adjuvant therapy develop liver metastasis within two years. Read More

    Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase in Cutaneous Malignancies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 12;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of neoplasms. As suggested by its name, ALK was first described as part of a translocation product in cases of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, with other genetic and cytogenetic ALK mutations subsequently coming to attention in the development of many other hematologic and solid organ malignancies. ALK has now been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of several cutaneous malignancies, including secondary cutaneous systemic anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) and primary cutaneous ALCL, melanoma, spitzoid tumors, epithelioid fibrous histiocytoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma. Read More

    The PI3Kδ Inhibitor Idelalisib Inhibits Homing in an in Vitro and in Vivo Model of B ALL.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 10;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 10.
    Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA.
    The quest continues for targeted therapies to reduce the morbidity of chemotherapy and to improve the response of resistant leukemia. Adhesion of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells to bone marrow stromal cells triggers intracellular signals that promote cell-adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR). Idelalisib, an U. Read More

    Acute and Late Toxicities of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally-Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 09 8;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 8.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.
    For patients with unresectable locally-advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC), concurrent chemoradiotherapy improves overall survival as compared to sequential chemotherapy and radiation therapy, but is associated with higher rates of toxicities. Acute, clinically significant esophagitis or pneumonitis can occur in one in five patients. The risks of esophagitis and pneumonitis can impact the decision to deliver concurrent therapy and limit the total dose of radiation therapy that is delivered. Read More

    Predicting Organ-Specific Risk Interactions between Radiation and Chemotherapy in Secondary Cancer Survivors.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 6;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 6.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
    Several studies have shown that pediatric patients have an increased risk of developing a secondary malignancy several decades after treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In this work, we use a biologically motivated mathematical formalism to estimate the relative risks of breast, lung and thyroid cancers in childhood cancer survivors due to concurrent therapy regimen. This model specifically includes possible organ-specific interaction between radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Read More

    Reduced Cytokine Release in Ex Vivo Response to Cilengitide and Cetuximab Is a Marker for Improved Survival of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 5;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Targeting of αVβ3 and αVβ5 integrins by cilengitide may reduce growth of solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Preclinical investigations suggest increased activity of cilengitide in combination with other treatment modalities. The only published trial in HNSCC (ADVANTAGE) investigated cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, and cetuximab (PFE) without or with once (PFE+CIL1W) or twice weekly cilengitide (PFE+CIL2W) in recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. Read More

    EML4-ALK Variants: Biological and Molecular Properties, and the Implications for Patients.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 5;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.
    Since the discovery of the fusion between EML4 (echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4) and ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), EML4-ALK, in lung adenocarcinomas in 2007, and the subsequent identification of at least 15 different variants in lung cancers, there has been a revolution in molecular-targeted therapy that has transformed the outlook for these patients. Our recent focus has been on understanding how and why the expression of particular variants can affect biological and molecular properties of cancer cells, as well as identifying the key signalling pathways triggered, as a result. In the clinical setting, this understanding led to the discovery that the type of variant influences the response of patients to ALK therapy. Read More

    Exploring the Role of RGD-Recognizing Integrins in Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 4;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 4.
    Institute for Advanced Study and Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPSM), Department Chemie, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstraße 4, 85747 Garching, Germany.
    Integrins are key regulators of communication between cells and with their microenvironment. Eight members of the integrin superfamily recognize the tripeptide motif Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) within extracelluar matrix (ECM) proteins. These integrins constitute an important subfamily and play a major role in cancer progression and metastasis via their tumor biological functions. Read More

    Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cell Therapy for Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM).
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Sep 1;9(9). Epub 2017 Sep 1.
    Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
    Cancer immunotherapy has now become a recognized approach to treating cancers. In addition to checkpoint blockade, adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) using chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown impressive clinical outcomes in leukemias and is now being explored in solid tumors. CARs are engineered receptors, stably or transiently transduced into T cells, that aim to enhance T cell effector function by recognizing and binding to a specific tumor-associated antigen. Read More

    Stem Cell-Like Properties of CK2β-down Regulated Mammary Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 31;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Chemistry and Biology Department, Université Grenoble Alpes, F-38400 Grenoble, France.
    The ubiquitous protein kinase CK2 has been demonstrated to be overexpressed in a number of human tumours. This enzyme is composed of two catalytic α or α' subunits and a dimer of β regulatory subunits whose expression levels are probably implicated in CK2 regulation. Several recent papers reported that unbalanced expression of CK2 subunits is sufficient to drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition, a process involved in cancer invasion and metastasis. Read More

    Novel Molecular Targets for Chemoprevention in Malignancies of the Head and Neck.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 31;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Yale Comprehensive Cancer Center, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.
    Cancers of the head and neck region are among the leading causes of cancer-related mortalities worldwide. Oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia are identified as precursor lesions to malignancy. Patients cured of an initial primary head and neck cancer are also susceptible to developing second primary tumors due to cancerization of their mucosal field. Read More

    Most Do, but Some Do Not: CD4⁺CD25(-) T Cells, but Not CD4⁺CD25⁺ Treg Cells, Are Cytolytic When Redirected by a Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR).
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 29;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Robert-Koch-Str. 21, Cologne D-50931, Germany.
    Evidences are accumulating that CD4⁺ T cells can physiologically mediate antigen specific target cell lysis. By circumventing major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restrictions through an engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR), CD4⁺ T cells lyse defined target cells as efficiently as do CD8⁺ T cells. However, the cytolytic capacity of redirected CD4⁺CD25(-) T cells, in comparison with CD4⁺CD25⁺ regulatory T (Treg) cells was so far not thoroughly defined. Read More

    Translocation Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Update on Clinicopathological and Molecular Features.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 29;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.
    Microphthalmia-associated transcription (MiT) family translocation renal cell carcinoma (tRCC) comprises Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC. Due to the presence of fusion genes, Xp11 tRCC and t(6;11) RCC are also known as TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC, respectively. TFE3 and TFEB belong to the MiT family, which regulates melanocyte and osteoclast differentiation, and TFE3- and TFEB-rearranged RCC show characteristic clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features. Read More

    Integrins as Therapeutic Targets: Successes and Cancers.
    Cancers (Basel) 2017 Aug 23;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 23.
    Translational and Biomarkers Research, Translational Innovation Platform Oncology, Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Integrins are transmembrane receptors that are central to the biology of many human pathologies. Classically mediating cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interaction, and with an emerging role as local activators of TGFβ, they influence cancer, fibrosis, thrombosis and inflammation. Their ligand binding and some regulatory sites are extracellular and sensitive to pharmacological intervention, as proven by the clinical success of seven drugs targeting them. Read More

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