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    1098 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]

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    Respiratory-gated Proton Beam Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Adjacent to the Gastrointestinal Tract without Fiducial Markers.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 21;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Radiology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa City, Ishikawa 920-8641, Japan.
    The efficacy of proton beam therapy (PBT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been reported, but insertion of fiducial markers in the liver is usually required. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of respiratory-gated PBT without fiducial markers for HCC located within 2 cm of the gastrointestinal tract. From March 2011 to December 2015 at our institution, 40 patients were evaluated (median age, 72 years; range, 38-87 years). Read More

    Recommendations and Choices for BRCA Mutation Carriers at Risk for Ovarian Cancer: A Complicated Decision.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 21;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Current ovarian cancer screening guidelines in high-risk women vary according to different organizations. Risk reducing surgery remains the gold standard for definitive treatment in BRCA mutation carriers, but research advancements have created more short-term options for patients to consider. The decisions involved in how a woman manages her BRCA mutation status can cause a great deal of stress and worry due to the imperfect therapy options. Read More

    Towards a Clinical Decision Support System for External Beam Radiation Oncology Prostate Cancer Patients: Proton vs. Photon Radiotherapy? A Radiobiological Study of Robustness and Stability.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 18;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 18.
    Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Doctor Tanslaan 12, Maastricht 6229 ET, The Netherlands.
    We present a methodology which can be utilized to select proton or photon radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Four state-of-the-art competing treatment modalities were compared (by way of an in silico trial) for a cohort of 25 prostate cancer patients, with and without correction strategies for prostate displacements. Metrics measured from clinical image guidance systems were used. Read More

    Advanced EUS Guided Tissue Acquisition Methods for Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 17;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Mayo Clinic Florida, 4500 San Pablo Road, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.
    Pancreas cancer is a lethal cancer as the majority patients are diagnosed at an advanced incurable stage. Despite improvements in diagnostic modalities and management strategies, including surgery and chemotherapies, the outcome of pancreas cancer remains poor. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is an important imaging tool for pancreas cancer. Read More

    A Phase I/II Study Targeting Angiogenesis Using Bevacizumab Combined with Chemotherapy and a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (Valproic Acid) in Advanced Sarcomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 17;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.
    Epigenetic events and genetic alterations under the control of the tumor microenvironment potentially mediate tumor induced angiogenesis involved in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) metastasis. Addition of antiangiogenic agent, such as bevacizumab, to standard chemotherapy in treatment of sarcoma has been studied in clinical trials, but most of the findings have not supported its use. We hypothesized the existence of an epigenetically mediated "angiogenic switch", and the tumor microenvironment, prevents bevacizumab from truly blocking angiogenesis. Read More

    Next Generation Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer: DNA Vaccination is Seeking New Combo Partners.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 16;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy.
    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an almost incurable radio- and chemo-resistant tumor, and its microenvironment is characterized by a strong desmoplastic reaction associated with a significant infiltration of T regulatory lymphocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Tregs, MDSC). Investigating immunological targets has identified a number of metabolic and cytoskeletal related molecules, which are typically recognized by circulating antibodies. Among these molecules we have investigated alpha-enolase (ENO1), a glycolytic enzyme that also acts a plasminogen receptor. Read More

    Alleviating Pancreatic Cancer-Associated Pain Using Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Neurolysis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 15;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kindai University Faculty of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama 589-8511, Japan.
    The most common symptom in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer is abdominal pain. This has traditionally been treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid analgesics. However, these treatments result in inadequate pain control or drug-related adverse effects in some patients. Read More

    Cancer Stem Cells, Bone and Tumor Microenvironment: Key Players in Bone Metastases.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 20;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Surgical Sciences (DISC), Orthopaedic Clinic-IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino, Genoa 16132, Italy.
    Tumor mass is constituted by a heterogeneous group of cells, among which a key role is played by the cancer stem cells (CSCs), possessing high regenerative properties. CSCs directly metastasize to bone, since bone microenvironment represents a fertile environment that protects CSCs against the immune system, and maintains their properties and plasticity. CSCs can migrate from the primary tumor to the bone marrow (BM), due to their capacity to perform the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Read More

    Beyond Brooding on Oncometabolic Havoc in IDH-Mutant Gliomas and AML: Current and Future Therapeutic Strategies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 11;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA.
    Isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1,2), the key Krebs cycle enzymes that generate NADPH reducing equivalents, undergo heterozygous mutations in >70% of low- to mid-grade gliomas and ~20% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) and gain an unusual new activity of reducing the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) in a NADPH-consuming reaction. The oncometabolite D-2HG, which accumulates >35 mM, is widely accepted to drive a progressive oncogenesis besides exacerbating the already increased oxidative stress in these cancers. More importantly, D-2HG competes with α-KG and inhibits a large number of α-KG-dependent dioxygenases such as TET (Ten-eleven translocation), JmjC domain-containing KDMs (histone lysine demethylases), and the ALKBH DNA repair proteins that ultimately lead to hypermethylation of the CpG islands in the genome. Read More

    Early Diagnosis to Improve the Poor Prognosis of Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 11;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 11.
    Department of Gastroenterology, Shizuoka General Hospital, Shizuoka 420-8527, Japan.
    Pancreatic cancer (PC) has a poor prognosis due to delayed diagnosis. Early diagnosis is the most important factor for improving prognosis. For early diagnosis of PC, patients with clinical manifestations suggestive of PC and high risk for developing PC need to be selected for examinations for PC. Read More

    Bioapplications of Cell-SELEX-Generated Aptamers in Cancer Diagnostics, Therapeutics, Theranostics and Biomarker Discovery: A Comprehensive Review.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 9;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface, Department of Chemistry and Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, UF Genetics Institute and McKnight Brain Institute, Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-7200, USA.
    Currently, functional single-stranded oligonucleotide probes, termed aptamers, generated by an iterative technology, Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX), are utilized to selectively target molecules or cells with high affinity. Aptamers hold considerable promise as multifunctional molecules or conjugates for challenging nanotechnologies or bioapplications now and in the future. In this review, we first describe recent endeavors to select aptamers towards live cancer cells via cell-SELEX. Read More

    Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 9;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Multivisceral Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, Padua University Hospital, Via Giustiniani 2, 35128 Padua, Italy.
    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Read More

    Linking Extracellular Matrix Agrin to the Hippo Pathway in Liver Cancer and Beyond.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 6;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673, Singapore.
    In addition to the structural and scaffolding role, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is emerging as a hub for biomechanical signal transduction that is frequently relayed to intracellular sensors to regulate diverse cellular processes. At a macroscopic scale, matrix rigidity confers long-ranging effects contributing towards tissue fibrosis and cancer. The transcriptional co-activators YAP/TAZ, better known as the converging effectors of the Hippo pathway, are widely recognized for their new role as nuclear mechanosensors during organ homeostasis and cancer. Read More

    Integrin Inhibitors in Prostate Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 6;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 6.
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Puerto Rico, Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR 00936, USA.
    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third highest cause of cancer-related deaths in men in the U.S. The development of chemotherapeutic agents that can bind PCa tumor cells with high specificity is critical in order to increase treatment effectiveness. Read More

    Elevated Polyamines in Saliva of Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 5;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Fourth Department of Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Hachioji, Tokyo 190-0998, Japan.
    Detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) at a resectable stage is still difficult because of the lack of accurate detection tests. The development of accurate biomarkers in low or non-invasive biofluids is essential to enable frequent tests, which would help increase the opportunity of PC detection in early stages. Polyamines have been reported as possible biomarkers in urine and saliva samples in various cancers. Read More

    MYC Regulates α6 Integrin Subunit Expression and Splicing Under Its Pro-Proliferative ITGA6A Form in Colorectal Cancer Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 3;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Laboratory of Intestinal Physiopathology, Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC J1H 5N4, Canada.
    The α6 integrin subunit () pre-mRNA undergoes alternative splicing to form two splicing variants, named ITGA6A and ITGA6B. In primary human colorectal cancer cells, the levels of both ITGA6 and β4 integrin subunit (ITGB4) subunits of the α6β4 integrin are increased. We previously found that the upregulation of ITGA6 is a direct consequence of the increase of the pro-proliferative ITGA6A variant. Read More

    Phosphorylation of Sox2 at Threonine 116 is a Potential Marker to Identify a Subset of Breast Cancer Cells with High Tumorigenecity and Stem-Like Features.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Feb 3;10(2). Epub 2018 Feb 3.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Cross Cancer Institute, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, AB T6G 1Z2, Canada.
    We have previously identified a novel phenotypic dichotomy in breast cancer (BC) based on the response to a SRR2 (Sox2 regulatory region 2) reporter, with reporter responsive (RR) cells being more tumorigenic/stem-like than reporter unresponsive (RU) cells. Since the expression level of Sox2 is comparable between the two cell subsets, we hypothesized that post-translational modifications of Sox2 contribute to their differential reporter response and phenotypic differences. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we found Sox2 to be phosphorylated in RR but not RU cells. Read More

    Precision Immuno-Oncology: Prospects of Individualized Immunotherapy for Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 30;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Departments of Oncology and Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
    Pancreatic cancer, most commonly referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), remains one of the most deadly diseases, with very few effective therapies available. Emerging as a new modality of modern cancer treatments, immunotherapy has shown promises for various cancer types. Over the past decades, the potential of immunotherapy in eliciting clinical benefits in pancreatic cancer have also been extensively explored. Read More

    Colorectal Cancer and Alcohol Consumption-Populations to Molecules.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 30;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Division of Digestive Diseases, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, being the third most common cancer diagnosed in both men and women in the world. Several environmental and habitual factors have been associated with the CRC risk. Alcohol intake, a common and rising habit of modern society, is one of the major risk factors for development of CRC. Read More

    Regulation of Cancer Stem Cell Metabolism by Secreted Frizzled-Related Protein 4 (sFRP4).
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 31;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6102, Australia.
    Tumours contain a small number of treatment-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is through these that tumour regrowth originates at secondary sites, thus rendering CSCs an attractive target for treatment. Cancer cells adapt cellular metabolism for aggressive proliferation. Tumour cells use less efficient glycolysis for the production of ATP and increasing tumour mass, instead of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Read More

    Electrotransfer of Different Control Plasmids Elicits Different Antitumor Effectiveness in B16.F10 Melanoma.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 29;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Experimental Oncology, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Several studies have shown that different control plasmids may cause antitumor action in different murine tumor models after gene electrotransfer (GET). Due to the differences in GET protocols, plasmid vectors, and experimental models, the observed antitumor effects were incomparable. Therefore, the current study was conducted comparing antitumor effectiveness of three different control plasmids using the same GET parameters. Read More

    Targeted Therapies for Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 29;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Medical Oncology & Therapeutics Research, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.
    Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related death and by 2030, it will be second only to lung cancer. We have seen tremendous advances in therapies for lung cancer as well as other solid tumors using a molecular targeted approach but our progress in treating pancreatic cancer has been incremental with median overall survival remaining less than one year. There is an urgent need for improved therapies with better efficacy and less toxicity. Read More

    Reviewing the Utility of EUS FNA to Advance Precision Medicine in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 27;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Centre for Innate Immunity and Infectious Diseases, Hudson Institute of Medical Research, 27-31 Wright St, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia.
    Advanced pancreatic cancer (PC) is an aggressive malignancy with few effective therapeutic options. While the evolution of precision medicine in recent decades has changed the treatment landscape in many cancers, at present no targeted therapies are used in the routine management of PC. Only a minority of patients with PC present with surgically resectable disease, and in the remainder obtaining high quality biopsy material for both diagnosis and molecular testing can prove challenging. Read More

    Extracellular Influences: Molecular Subclasses and the Microenvironment in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 27;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 27.
    Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Academic Medical Center and Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most prevalent form of pancreatic cancer and carries the worst prognosis of all common cancers. Five-year survival rates have not surpassed 6% for some decades and this lack of improvement in outcome urges a better understanding of the PDAC-specific features which contribute to this poor result. One of the most defining features of PDAC known to contribute to its progression is the abundance of non-tumor cells and material collectively known as the stroma. Read More

    The Ever-Evolving Concept of the Cancer Stem Cell in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 26;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 26.
    Department of Biochemistry, Cancer Stem Cell and Tumor Microenvironment Group, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid 28029, Spain.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the most common type of pancreatic cancer, is the 4th most frequent cause of cancer-related death worldwide, primarily due to the inherent chemoresistant nature and metastatic capacity of this tumor. The latter is believed to be mainly due to the existence of a subpopulation of highly plastic "stem"-like cells within the tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which have been shown to have unique metabolic, autophagic, invasive, and chemoresistance properties that allow them to continuously self-renew and escape chemo-therapeutic elimination. As such, current treatments for the majority of PDAC patients are not effective and do not significantly impact overall patient survival (<7 months) as they do not affect the pancreatic CSC (PaCSC) population. Read More

    Tackling Cancer Resistance by Immunotherapy: Updated Clinical Impact and Safety of PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    College of Pharmacy, University of Sharjah, Sharjah 27272, UAE.
    Cancer therapy has been constantly evolving with the hope of finding the most effective agents with the least toxic effects to eradicate tumors. Cancer immunotherapy is currently among the most promising options, fulfilling this hope in a wide range of tumors. Immunotherapy aims to activate immunity to fight cancer in a very specific and targeted manner; however, some abnormal immune reactions known as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) might occur. Read More

    Cell-Penetrating CaCO₃ Nanocrystals for Improved Transport of NVP-BEZ235 across Membrane Barrier in T-Cell Lymphoma.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biologiche e Ambientali, Università del Salento & UdR INSTM di Lecce, Campus Universitario, Via Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy.
    Owing to their nano-sized porous structure, CaCO₃ nanocrystals (CaCO₃NCs) hold the promise to be utilized as desired materials for encapsulating molecules which demonstrate wide promise in drug delivery. We evaluate the possibility to encapsulate and release NVP-BEZ235, a novel and potent dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor that is currently in phase I/II clinical trials for advanced solid tumors, from the CaCO₃NCs. Its chemical nature shows some intrinsic limitations which induce to administer high doses leading to toxicity; to overcome these problems, here we proposed a strategy to enhance its intracellular penetration and its biological activity. Read More

    Volumetric Modulated Arc (Radio) Therapy in Pets Treatment: The "La Cittadina Fondazione" Experience.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 24;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 24.
    Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale della provincia di Lodi, 26841 Casalpusterlengo, Italy.
    Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) is a modern technique, widely used in human radiotherapy, which allows a high dose to be delivered to tumor volumes and low doses to the surrounding organs at risk (OAR). Veterinary clinics takes advantage of this feature due to the small target volumes and distances between the target and the OAR. Sparing the OAR permits dose escalation, and hypofractionation regimens reduce the number of treatment sessions with a simpler manageability in the veterinary field. Read More

    Localization Microscopy Analyses of MRE11 Clusters in 3D-Conserved Cell Nuclei of Different Cell Lines.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 22;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 227, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    In radiation biophysics, it is a subject of nowadays research to investigate DNA strand break repair in detail after damage induction by ionizing radiation. It is a subject of debate as to what makes up the cell's decision to use a certain repair pathway and how the repair machinery recruited in repair foci is spatially and temporarily organized. Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) allows super-resolution analysis by precise localization of single fluorescent molecule tags, resulting in nuclear structure analysis with a spatial resolution in the 10 nm regime. Read More

    Analysis of Site-Specific Methylation of Tumor-Related Genes in Head and Neck Cancer: Potential Utility as Biomarkers for Prognosis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 22;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan.
    Clarifying the epigenetic regulation of tumor-related genes (TRGs) can provide insights into the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and the risk for disease recurrence in HPV-negative head and neck cancers, originating in the hypopharynx, larynx, and oral cavity. We analyzed the methylation status of the promoters of 30 TRGs in 178 HPV-negative head and neck cancer patients using a quantitative methylation-specific PCR. Promoter methylation was correlated with various clinical characteristics and patient survival. Read More

    Contemporary Management of Localized Resectable Pancreatic Cancer.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 20;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902, USA.
    Pancreatic cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Surgical resection with negative margins still constitutes the cornerstone of potentially curative therapy, but is possible only in 15-20% of patients at the time of initial diagnosis. Accumulating evidence suggests that the neoadjuvant approach may improve R0 resection rate in localized resectable and borderline resectable diseases, and potentially downstage locally advanced disease to achieve surgical resection, though the impact on survival is to be determined. Read More

    Colorectal Cancers: An Update on Their Molecular Pathology.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 20;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Division of Pathology, The Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550, Japan.
    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) are the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Rather than being a single, uniform disease type, accumulating evidence suggests that CRCs comprise a group of molecularly heterogeneous diseases that are characterized by a range of genomic and epigenomic alterations. This heterogeneity slows the development of molecular-targeted therapy as a form of precision medicine. Read More

    Estrogen and Androgen Blockade for Advanced Prostate Cancer in the Era of Precision Medicine.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 23;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Functional Biogerontology, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan.
    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been widely prescribed for patients with advanced prostate cancer (PC) to control key signaling pathways via androgen receptor (AR) and AR-collaborative transcriptional factors; however, PC gradually acquires a lethal phenotype and results in castration-resistant PC (CRPC) during ADT. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are required in clinical practice. In addition, ARs; estrogen receptors (ERs; ERα and ERβ); and estrogen-related receptors (ERRs; ERRα, ERRβ, and ERRγ) have been reported to be involved in the development or regulation of PC. Read More

    Proteomic Analysis of Secretomes of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus-Infected Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 23;10(2). Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) strain RH2 induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) with the release and surface exposure of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) SCCVII cells. The supernatants of RH2-infected SCCVII cells also exhibited antitumor ability by intratumoral administration in SCCVII tumor-bearing mice. The supernatants of RH2-infected cells and mock-infected cells were concentrated to produce Med24 and MedC for proteomic analyses. Read More

    mTOR Cross-Talk in Cancer and Potential for Combination Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 19;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Medical Oncology 1, IRCCS Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome 00144, Italy.
    The mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays an essential role in sensing and integrating a variety of exogenous cues to regulate cellular growth and metabolism, in both physiological and pathological conditions. mTOR functions through two functionally and structurally distinct multi-component complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which interact with each other and with several elements of other signaling pathways. In the past few years, many new insights into mTOR function and regulation have been gained and extensive genetic and pharmacological studies in mice have enhanced our understanding of how mTOR dysfunction contributes to several diseases, including cancer. Read More

    AR Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 18;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, 1650 Orleans Street, CRB1-1M45, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
    The notion that androgens and androgen receptor (AR) signaling are the hallmarks of prostate cancer oncogenesis and disease progression is generally well accepted. What is more poorly understood is the role of AR signaling in other human malignancies. This special issue ofinitially reviews the role of AR in advanced prostate cancer, and then explores the potential importance of AR signaling in other epithelial malignancies. Read More

    IRF4 Mediates the Oncogenic Effects of STAT3 in Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 18;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 18.
    Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Torino 10126, Italy.
    Systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) are a category of T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas which can be divided into anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) positive and ALK negative subgroups, based on ALK gene rearrangements. Among several pathways aberrantly activated in ALCL, the constitutive activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is shared by all ALK positive ALCL and has been detected in a subgroup of ALK negative ALCL. To discover essential mediators of STAT3 oncogenic activity that may represent feasible targets for ALCL therapies, we combined gene expression profiling analysis and RNA interference functional approaches. Read More

    Alcohol-Derived Acetaldehyde Exposure in the Oral Cavity.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 14;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 14.
    Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
    Alcohol is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a human carcinogen and its consumption has been associated to an increased risk of liver, breast, colorectum, and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers. Its mechanisms of carcinogenicity remain unclear and various hypotheses have been formulated depending on the target organ considered. In the case of UADT cancers, alcohol's major metabolite acetaldehyde seems to play a crucial role. Read More

    mTOR Pathways in Cancer and Autophagy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 12;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Goodman Cancer Research Center, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 1A3, Canada.
    TOR (target of rapamycin), an evolutionarily-conserved serine/threonine kinase, acts as a central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival in response to nutritional status, growth factor, and stress signals. It plays a crucial role in coordinating the balance between cell growth and cell death, depending on cellular conditions and needs. As such, TOR has been identified as a key modulator of autophagy for more than a decade, and several deregulations of this pathway have been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders, including cancer. Read More

    Advances in Molecular Profiling and Categorisation of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma and the Implications for Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 12;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9NT, UK.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) continues to be a disease with poor outcomes and short-lived treatment responses. New information is emerging from genome sequencing identifying potential subgroups based on somatic and germline mutations. A variety of different mutations and mutational signatures have been identified; the driver mutation in around 93% of PDAC is, with other recorded alterations beingand. Read More

    EpCAM Immunotherapy versus Specific Targeted Delivery of Drugs.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 12;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3128, Australia.
    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), or CD326, was one of the first cancer associated biomarkers to be discovered. In the last forty years, this biomarker has been investigated for use in personalized cancer therapy, with the first monoclonal antibody, edrecolomab, being trialled in humans more than thirty years ago. Since then, several other monoclonal antibodies have been raised to EpCAM and tested in clinical trials. Read More

    Targeting Pancreatic Cancer Cell Plasticity: The Latest in Therapeutics.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 10;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
    Mortality remains alarmingly high for patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), with 93% succumbing to the disease within five years. The vast majority of PDAC cases are driven by activating mutations in the proto-oncogene KRAS, which results in constitutive proliferation and survival signaling. As efforts to target RAS and its downstream effectors continue, parallel research aimed at identifying novel targets is also needed in order to improve therapeutic options and efficacy. Read More

    Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Review of Local Ablative Therapies.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 10;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.
    Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Pancreatic cancer is typically characterized by its aggressive tumor growth and dismal prognosis. Approximately 30% of patients with pancreatic cancer present with locally advanced disease, broadly defined as having a tumor-to-artery interface >180°, having an unreconstructable portal vein or superior mesenteric vein and no signs of metastatic disease. These patients are currently designated to palliative systemic chemotherapy, though median overall survival remains poor (approximately 11 months). Read More

    Translocation Breakpoints Preferentially Occur in Euchromatin and Acrocentric Chromosomes.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 8;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Brisbane, QLD 4102, Australia.
    Chromosomal translocations drive the development of many hematological and some solid cancers. Several factors have been identified to explain the non-random occurrence of translocation breakpoints in the genome. These include chromatin density, gene density and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)/cohesin binding site density. Read More

    Local Acetaldehyde-An Essential Role in Alcohol-Related Upper Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinogenesis.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 5;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Research Unit on Acetaldehyde and Cancer, University of Helsinki, Biomedicum Helsinki P.O. Box 63, 00014 Helsinki, Finland.
    The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such asyeasts) and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes. Read More

    New Interactors of the Truncated EBNA-LP Protein Identified by Mass Spectrometry in P3HR1 Burkitt's Lymphoma Cells.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 5;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    UMR 8126 CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Institut Gustave Roussy, F-94805 Villejuif, France.
    The Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen leader protein (EBNA-LP) acts as a co-activator of EBNA-2, a transcriptional activator essential for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced B-cell transformation. Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells harboring a mutant EBV strain that lacks both the EBNA-2 gene and 3' exons of EBNA-LP express Y1Y2-truncated isoforms of EBNA-LP (tEBNA-LP) and better resist apoptosis than if infected with the wild-type virus. In such BL cells, tEBNA-LP interacts with the protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit (PP2A C), and this interaction likely plays a role in resistance to apoptosis. Read More

    Immune Evasion in Pancreatic Cancer: From Mechanisms to Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 3;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Cancer Research Program, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM), Barcelona 08003, Spain.
    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), the most frequent type of pancreatic cancer, remains one of the most challenging problems for the biomedical and clinical fields, with abysmal survival rates and poor therapy efficiency. Desmoplasia, which is abundant in PDA, can be blamed for much of the mechanisms behind poor drug performance, as it is the main source of the cytokines and chemokines that orchestrate rapid and silent tumor progression to allow tumor cells to be isolated into an extensive fibrotic reaction, which results in inefficient drug delivery. However, since immunotherapy was proclaimed as the breakthrough of the year in 2013, the focus on the stroma of pancreatic cancer has interestingly moved from activated fibroblasts to the immune compartment, trying to understand the immunosuppressive factors that play a part in the strong immune evasion that characterizes PDA. Read More

    Current Advances in Aptamers for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 3;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.
    Nucleic acid aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that interact with target molecules with high affinity and specificity in unique three-dimensional structures. Aptamers are generally isolated by a simple selection process called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) and then can be chemically synthesized and modified. Because of their high affinity and specificity, aptamers are promising agents for biomarker discovery, as well as cancer diagnosis and therapy. Read More

    Modification of Epigenetic Histone Acetylation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
    Cancers (Basel) 2018 Jan 3;10(1). Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan.
    Cells respond to various environmental factors such as nutrients, food intake, and drugs or toxins by undergoing dynamic epigenetic changes. An imbalance in dynamic epigenetic changes is one of the major causes of disease, oncogenic activities, and immunosuppressive effects. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a unique cellular chemical sensor present in most organs, and its dysregulation has been demonstrated in multiple stages of tumor progression in humans and experimental models; however, the effects of the pathogenic mechanisms of AHR on epigenetic regulation remain unclear. Read More

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