1,804 results match your criteria Cancers [Journal]


New Insights into Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer and Metastasis.

Authors:
Yutong Sun Li Ma

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 () is one of the most abundant, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in normal tissues. This lncRNA is highly conserved among mammalian species, and based on in vitro results, has been reported to regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing and gene expression. However, knockout mice develop and grow normally, and do not show alterations in alternative splicing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020216DOI Listing
February 2019

Synergistic Effects of Bortezomib-OV Therapy and Anti-Invasive Strategies in Glioblastoma: A Mathematical Model.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Mathematics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

It is well-known that the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in the regulation of tumor growth and the efficacy of anti-tumor therapies. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of combination therapies, using oncolytic viruses (OVs) in conjunction with proteosome inhibitors for the treatment of glioblastoma, but the role of the TME in such therapies has not been studied. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model for combination therapies based on the proteosome inhibitor bortezomib and the oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV), with the goal of understanding their roles in bortezomib-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and how the balance between apoptosis and necroptosis is affected by the treatment protocol. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020215DOI Listing
February 2019

Paradoxical Roles of Oxidative Stress Response in the Digestive System before and after Carcinogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama 700-8558, Japan.

Oxidative stress is recognized as a cancer-initiating stress response in the digestive system. It is produced through mitochondrial respiration and induces DNA damage, resulting in cancer cell transformation. However, recent findings indicate that oxidative stress is also a necessary anticancer response for destroying cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020213DOI Listing
February 2019

The Enigmatic Protein Kinase C-eta.

Authors:
Alakananda Basu

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 13;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology & Genetics, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX 76107, USA.

Protein kinase C (PKC), a multi-gene family, plays critical roles in signal transduction and cell regulation. Protein kinase C-eta (PKCη) is a unique member of the PKC family since its regulation is distinct from other PKC isozymes. PKCη was shown to regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020214DOI Listing
February 2019

Cell-Free DNA Variant Sequencing Using CTC-Depleted Blood for Comprehensive Liquid Biopsy Testing in Metastatic Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital of Essen, 45122 Essen, Germany.

Liquid biopsy analytes such as cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) exhibit great potential for personalized treatment. Since cfDNA and CTCs are considered to give additive information and blood specimens are limited, isolation of cfDNA and CTC in an "all from one tube" format is desired. We investigated whether cfDNA variant sequencing from CTC-depleted blood (CTC-depl. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020238DOI Listing
February 2019

The Functional Implications of Endothelial Gap Junctions and Cellular Mechanics in Vascular Angiogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Molecular Pathobiology and Cell Adhesion Biology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu-city, Mie 514-8507, Japan.

Angiogenesis-the sprouting and growth of new blood vessels from the existing vasculature-is an important contributor to tumor development, since it facilitates the supply of oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Endothelial cells are critically affected during the angiogenic process as their proliferation, motility, and morphology are modulated by pro-angiogenic and environmental factors associated with tumor tissues and cancer cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies have revealed that the gap junctions of endothelial cells also participate in the promotion of angiogenesis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020237DOI Listing
February 2019

Replacement of miR-155 Elicits Tumor Suppressive Activity and Antagonizes Bortezomib Resistance in Multiple Myeloma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, 88100 Catanzaro, Italy.

Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM). While miR-155 is considered a therapeutic target in several malignancies, its role in MM is still unclear. The analysis of miR-155 expression indicates its down-regulation in MM patient-derived as compared to healthy plasma cells, thus pointing to a tumor suppressor role in this malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020236DOI Listing
February 2019

Loss of MYBBP1A Induces Cancer Stem Cell Activity in Renal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 18;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (HUVR), Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 41013 Seville, Spain.

Tumors are cellular ecosystems where different populations and subpopulations of cells coexist. Among these cells, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be the origin of the tumor mass, being involved in metastasis and in the resistance to conventional therapies. Furthermore, tumor cells have an enormous plasticity and a phenomenon of de-differentiation of mature tumor cells to CSCs may occur. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020235DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploring lncRNA-Mediated Regulatory Networks in Endometrial Cancer Cells and the Tumor Microenvironment: Advances and Challenges.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8638, Japan.

Recent studies have revealed both the promise and challenges of targeting long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to diagnose and treat endometrial cancer (EC). LncRNAs are upregulated or downregulated in ECs compared to normal tissues and their dysregulation has been linked to tumor grade, FIGO stage, the depth of myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis and patient survival. Tumor suppressive lncRNAs (GAS5, MEG3, FER1L4 and LINC00672) and oncogenic lncRNAs (CCAT2, BANCR, NEAT1, MALAT1, H19 and Linc-RoR) have been identified as upstream modulators or downstream effectors of major signaling pathways influencing EC metastasis, including the PTEN/PI3K/AKT/mTOR, RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK, WNT/β-catenin and p53 signaling pathways. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020234DOI Listing
February 2019

Comparison of Diagnosis-Specific Survival Scores for Patients with Small-Cell Lung Cancer Irradiated for Brain Metastases.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ 85259, USA.

Diagnosis-specific survival scores including a new score developed in 157 patients with brain metastases from small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with 30 Gy in 10 fractions (WBRT-30-SCLC) were compared. Three prognostic groups were designed based on the 6-month survival probabilities of significant or almost significant factors, (age, performance score, number of brain metastases, extra-cerebral metastasis). Six-month survival rates were 6% (6⁻11 points), 44% (12⁻14 points) and 86% (16⁻19 points). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020233DOI Listing
February 2019

PDL-1 Antibody Drug Conjugate for Selective Chemo-Guided Immune Modulation of Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 16;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 16.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, 259 Mack Ave, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Targeting immune checkpoint molecules such as programmed death ligand-1 (PDL1) is an emerging strategy for anti-cancer therapy. However, transient expression of PDL1 and difficulty in tumor stroma penetration has limited the utility of anti-PDL1 therapy. To overcome these limitations, we report a new conjugate between the clinically approved PDL1 antibody (PDL1 AB) and drug Doxorubicin (Dox), named PDL1-Dox. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020232DOI Listing
February 2019

Nitric Oxide Antagonism to Anti-Glioblastoma Photodynamic Therapy: Mitigation by Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Generation.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA.

Many studies have shown that low flux nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS/NOS2) in various tumors, including glioblastomas, can promote angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and migration/invasion. Minimally invasive, site-specific photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly promising anti-glioblastoma modality. Recent research in the authors' laboratory has revealed that iNOS-derived NO in glioblastoma cells elicits resistance to 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based PDT, and moreover endows PDT-surviving cells with greater proliferation and migration/invasion aggressiveness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020231DOI Listing
February 2019

Absence of Intraocular Lymphatic Vessels in Uveal Melanomas with Extrascleral Growth.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Pathology, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of intraocular lymphatic vessels in patients with uveal melanomas and extrascleral extension using a panel of lymphatic markers. The following immunohistochemical markers were analyzed: lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor-1 (LYVE-1), podoplanin (D2-40), prospero-related homeobox gene-1 (Prox-1), pan-endothelial marker cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31), and blood vessel endothelium-specific CD34. Lymphatic vessels were defined as a combination of staining of the following positive markers: LYVE-1, D2-40, Prox-1, and CD31; and no staining of the negative marker CD34. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020228DOI Listing
February 2019

Infiltration of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells is a Strong and Independent Prognostic Factor in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Human Anatomy and Experimental Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Mons, 7000 Mons, Belgium.

Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by a large heterogeneity in terms of the location and risk factors. For a few years now, immunotherapy seems to be a promising approach in the treatment of these cancers, but a better understanding of the immune context could allow to offer a personalized treatment and thus probably increase the survival of HNSCC patients. In this context, we evaluated the infiltration of FoxP3+ Tregs on 205 human formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HNSCC and we assessed its prognostic value compared to other potential prognostic factors, including HPV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020227DOI Listing
February 2019

Detecting Chromosome Instability in Cancer: Approaches to Resolve Cell-to-Cell Heterogeneity.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Biochemistry & Medical Genetics, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0J9, Canada.

Chromosome instability (CIN) is defined as an increased rate of chromosome gains and losses that manifests as cell-to-cell karyotypic heterogeneity and drives cancer initiation and evolution. Current research efforts are aimed at identifying the etiological origins of CIN, establishing its roles in cancer pathogenesis, understanding its implications for patient prognosis, and developing novel therapeutics that are capable of exploiting CIN. Thus, the ability to accurately identify and evaluate CIN is critical within both research and clinical settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020226DOI Listing
February 2019

Does Risk-Adapted Proton Beam Therapy Have a Role as a Complementary or Alternative Therapeutic Option for Hepatocellular Carcinoma?

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Center for Liver Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769, Korea.

To evaluate the role of risk-adapted proton beam therapy (PBT) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, a total of 243 HCC patients receiving risk-adapted PBT with three dose-fractionation regimens (regimen A [ = 40], B [ = 60], and C [ = 143]) according to the proximity of their gastrointestinal organs (<1 cm, 1⁻1.9 cm, and ≥2 cm, respectively) were reviewed: The prescribed doses to planning target volume 1 (PTV1) were 50 gray equivalents (GyE) (EQD2 [equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions], 62.5 GyE), 60 GyE (EQD2, 80 GyE), and 66 GyE (EQD2, 91. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020230DOI Listing
February 2019

In Vitro Activity of 3-Bromopyruvate, an Anticancer Compound, Against Antibiotic-Susceptible and Antibiotic-Resistant Strains.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw 50-368, Poland.

is a bacterium capable of inducing chronic active gastritis, which in some people, develops into gastric cancers. One of the substances that may be useful in the eradication of this microorganism is 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BP), an anticancer compound with antimicrobial properties. The aim of this article was to determine the activity of 3-BP against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant strains. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020229DOI Listing
February 2019

The Value of Histological Algorithms to Predict the Malignancy Potential of Pheochromocytomas and Abdominal Paragangliomas-A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.

Pheochromocytomas (PCCs) and abdominal paragangliomas (PGLs), collectively abbreviated PPGLs, are neuroendocrine tumors of the adrenal medulla and paraganglia, respectively. These tumors exhibit malignant potential but seldom display evidence of metastatic spread, the latter being the only widely accepted evidence of malignancy. To counter this, pre-defined histological algorithms have been suggested to stratify the risk of malignancy: Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Gland Scaled Score (PASS) and the Grading system for Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020225DOI Listing
February 2019
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Current Therapeutic Results and Treatment Options for Older Patients with Relapsed Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Division of Hematology, Spedali Civili, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

Considerable progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, current therapeutic results are still unsatisfactory in untreated high-risk patients and poorer in those with primary refractory or relapsed disease. In older patients, reluctance by clinicians to treat unfit patients, higher AML cell resistance related to more frequent adverse karyotype and/or precedent myelodysplastic syndrome, and preferential involvement of chemorefractory early hemopoietic precursors in the pathogenesis of the disease further account for poor prognosis, with median survival lower than six months. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020224DOI Listing
February 2019

Combination of Baseline LDH, Performance Status and Age as Integrated Algorithm to Identify Solid Tumor Patients with Higher Probability of Response to Anti PD-1 and PD-L1 Monoclonal Antibodies.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Medical Oncology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano, Via Giacomo Venezian 1, 20133 Milan, Italy.

Predictive biomarkers of response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are an urgent clinical need. The aim of this study is to identify manageable parameters to use in clinical practice to select patients with higher probability of response to ICIs. Two-hundred-and-seventy-one consecutive metastatic solid tumor patients, treated from 2013 until 2017 with anti- Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) ICIs, were evaluated for baseline lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) serum level, performance status (PS), age, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, type of immunotherapy, number of metastatic sites, histology, and sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020223DOI Listing
February 2019

Novel Ran-RCC1 Inhibitory Peptide-Loaded Nanoparticles Have Anti-Cancer Efficacy In Vitro and In Vivo.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK.

The delivery of anticancer agents to their subcellular sites of action is a significant challenge for effective cancer therapy. Peptides, which are integral to several oncogenic pathways, have significant potential to be utilised as cancer therapeutics due to their selectivity, high potency and lack of normal cell toxicity. Novel Ras protein-Regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (Ran-RCC1) inhibitory peptides designed to interact with Ran, a novel therapeutic target in breast cancer, were delivered by entrapment into polyethylene glycol-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PEG-PLGA polymeric nanoparticles (NPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020222DOI Listing
February 2019
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A H2AX⁻CARP-1 Interaction Regulates Apoptosis Signaling Following DNA Damage.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

John D. Dingell Veterans Administration Medical Center, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

Cell Cycle and Apoptosis Regulatory Protein (CARP-1/CCAR1) is a peri-nuclear phosphoprotein that regulates apoptosis via chemotherapeutic Adriamycin (doxorubicin) and a novel class of CARP-1 functional mimetic (CFM) compounds. Although Adriamycin causes DNA damage, data from Comet assays revealed that CFM-4.16 also induced DNA damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020221DOI Listing
February 2019
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Anti-Invasion and Antiangiogenic Effects of Stellettin B through Inhibition of the Akt/Girdin Signaling Pathway and VEGF in Glioblastoma Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, No. 123, Dapi Road, Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City 833, Taiwan.

Angiogenesis and invasion are highly related with tumor metastatic potential and recurrence prediction in the most aggressive brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). For the first time, this study reveals that marine-sponge-derived stellettin B reduces angiogenesis and invasion. We discovered that stellettin B reduces migration of glioblastoma cells by scratch wound healing assay and invasion via chamber transwell assay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020220DOI Listing
February 2019

Progressive Oncological Surgery Is Associated with Increased Curative Resection Rates and Improved Survival in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University, 5020 Salzburg, Austria.

Background: Secondary resection rates in first-line chemotherapy trials for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain below 15%, representing a clear contrast to reports by specialised surgical centres, where progressive liver, peritoneal-surface, and pulmonary surgery increased access to curative-intent treatment. We present a long-term evaluation of oncosurgical management in a single-centre, analysing the aggregate effect of gradual implementation of surgical subspecialties and systemic treatments on mCRC patients' resection rates and prognosis.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed mCRC from 2003 to 2014 were retrospectively categorised into palliative treatment (PAT) and curative intent surgery (CIS) and three time periods were analysed for treatment changes and factors associated with survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020218DOI Listing
February 2019

Outpatient Cancer Care Delivery in the Context of E-Oncology: A French Perspective on "Cancer outside the Hospital Walls".

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Aix-Marseille Univ, INSERM U1068, CNRS UMR7258, Département d'Oncologie Médicale, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, CRCM, 13009 Marseille, France.

In oncology, the treatment of patients outside of hospitals has become imperative due to an increasing number of patients who are older and live longer, along with issues such as medical desertification, oncologist hyperspecialization, and difficulties in financing mounting health expenditures. Treatments have become less "invasive", with greater precision and efficiency. Patients can therefore receive most of their care outside of hospitals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020219DOI Listing
February 2019

The Phylogeographic Diversity of EBV and Admixed Ancestry in the Americas⁻Another Model of Disrupted Human-Pathogen Co-Evolution.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Advanced Center for Chronic Diseases (ACCDiS), Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 8330034, Chile.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an etiological agent for gastric cancer with significant worldwide variations. Molecular characterizations of EBV have shown phylogeographical variations among healthy populations and in EBV-associated diseases, particularly the cosegregated BamHI-I fragment and XhoI restriction site of exon 1 of the gene. In the Americas, both cosegregated variants are present in EBV carriers, which aligns with the history of Asian and European human migration to this continent. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/2/217
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020217DOI Listing
February 2019
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Targeting the Tetraspanins with Monoclonal Antibodies in Oncology: Focus on Tspan8/Co-029.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 3;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 3.

Université Clermont Auvergne, INSERM U1240, Imagerie Moléculaire et Stratégies Théranostiques, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France.

Tetraspanins are exposed at the surface of cellular membranes, which allows for the fixation of cognate antibodies. Developing specific antibodies in conjunction with genetic data would largely contribute to deciphering their biological behavior. In this short review, we summarize the main functions of Tspan8/Co-029 and its role in the biology of tumor cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020179DOI Listing
February 2019

Immunomagnetic-Enriched Subpopulations of Melanoma Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) Exhibit Distinct Transcriptome Profiles.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jan 30;11(2). Epub 2019 Jan 30.

School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA 6027, Australia.

Cutaneous melanoma circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous. We profiled the gene expression of CTC subpopulations immunomagnetic-captured by targeting either the melanoma-associated marker, MCSP, or the melanoma-initiating marker, ABCB5. Firstly, the expression of a subset of melanoma genes was investigated by RT-PCR in MCSP-enriched and ABCB5-enriched CTCs isolated from a total of 59 blood draws from 39 melanoma cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020157DOI Listing
January 2019

SOURCE: A Registry-Based Prediction Model for Overall Survival in Patients with Metastatic Oesophageal or Gastric Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Prediction models are only sparsely available for metastatic oesophagogastric cancer. Because treatment in this setting is often preference-based, decision-making with the aid of a prediction model is wanted. The aim of this study is to construct a prediction model, called SOURCE, for the overall survival in patients with metastatic oesophagogastric cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020187DOI Listing
February 2019

Virus-Based Immunotherapy of Glioblastoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Immunology, Genetics, and Pathology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, 75185 Uppsala, Sweden.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults. Despite recent advances in cancer therapy, including the breakthrough of immunotherapy, the prognosis of GBM patients remains dismal. One of the new promising ways to therapeutically tackle the immunosuppressive GBM microenvironment is the use of engineered viruses that kill tumor cells via direct oncolysis and via stimulation of antitumor immune responses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020186DOI Listing
February 2019

In Vivo Cell Fusion between Mesenchymal Stroma/Stem-Like Cells and Breast Cancer Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Biochemistry and Tumor Biology Lab, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hannover Medical School, D-30625 Hannover, Germany.

Cellular communication within the tumor microenvironment enables important interactions between cancer cells and recruited adjacent populations including mesenchymal stroma/stem-like cells (MSC). These interactions were monitored in vivo following co-injection of GFP-labeled human MSC together with mcherry-labeled MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in NODscid mice. Within 14 days of tumor development the number of initially co-injected MSC had significantly declined and spontaneous formation of breast cancer/MSC hybrid cells was observed by the appearance of double fluorescing cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020185DOI Listing
February 2019

The Diverse Consequences of Deregulation in Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Leukaemia Biology Laboratory, Cancer Research UK Manchester Institute, The University of Manchester, Manchester M20 4JG, UK.

Forkhead box C1 (FOXC1) is a transcription factor with essential roles in mesenchymal lineage specification and organ development during normal embryogenesis. In keeping with these developmental properties, mutations that impair the activity of FOXC1 result in the heritable Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome and other congenital disorders. Crucially, gain of FOXC1 function is emerging as a recurrent feature of malignancy; FOXC1 overexpression is now documented in more than 16 cancer types, often in association with an unfavorable prognosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020184DOI Listing
February 2019

Activation of CD8⁺ T Cell Responses after Melanoma Antigen Targeting to CD169⁺ Antigen Presenting Cells in Mice and Humans.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam Infection and Immunity Institute, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The lack of tumor-reactive T cells is one reason why immune checkpoint inhibitor therapies still fail in a significant proportion of melanoma patients. A vaccination that induces melanoma-specific T cells could potentially enhance the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we describe a vaccination strategy in which melanoma antigens are targeted to mouse and human CD169 and thereby induce strong melanoma antigen-specific T cell responses. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/2/183
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020183DOI Listing
February 2019
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Reprogramming of Energy Metabolism in Response to Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Unidad de Investigación Biomédica en Cáncer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, México/Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, San Fernando No. 22, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan, Ciudad de México 14080, México.

Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Head and neck squamous cells carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most frequent subtype of HNC. The development of HNSCC is associated to alcohol consumption, smoking or infection by high-risk human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020182DOI Listing
February 2019

Cord-Blood-Stem-Cell-Derived Conventional Dendritic Cells Specifically Originate from CD115-Expressing Precursors.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Translational Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3584 XC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells which instruct both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Once mature, they have the capacity to activate and prime naïve T cells for recognition and eradication of pathogens and tumor cells. These characteristics make them excellent candidates for vaccination strategies. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/2/181
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020181DOI Listing
February 2019
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Exploring Cancer Cell Behavior In Vitro in Three-Dimensional Multicellular Bioprintable Collagen-Based Hydrogels.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Fondazione Instituto di Ricerca Pediatrica Citta' della Speranza, Neuroblastoma Laboratory, 35127 Padua, Italy.

In vitro cancer 3D models are valuable tools to provide mechanistic insight into solid tumor growth, invasion, and drug delivery. The 3D spheroid model of solid tumors has been the most popular cancer model in use until now. However, previous studies have shown that these spheroid models lack sufficient morphological parameters, which may affect their response to chemicals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020180DOI Listing
February 2019

Lung Cancer Screening, Towards a Multidimensional Approach: Why and How?

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Institute of Research on Cancer and Ageing (IRCAN), Université Côte d'Azur, FHU OncoAge, CNRS, INSERM, 06107 Nice, France.

Early-stage treatment improves prognosis of lung cancer and two large randomized controlled trials have shown that early detection with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) reduces mortality. Despite this, lung cancer screening (LCS) remains challenging. In the context of a global shortage of radiologists, the high rate of false-positive LDCT results in overloading of existing lung cancer clinics and multidisciplinary teams. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020212DOI Listing
February 2019

Nucleotide Weight Matrices Reveal Ubiquitous Mutational Footprints of AID/APOBEC Deaminases in Human Cancer Genomes.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Departments of Microbiology and Pathology; Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Genetics, Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA.

Cancer genomes accumulate nucleotide sequence variations that number in the tens of thousands per genome. A prominent fraction of these mutations is thought to arise as a consequence of the off-target activity of DNA/RNA editing cytosine deaminases. These enzymes, collectively called activation induced deaminase (AID)/APOBECs, deaminate cytosines located within defined DNA sequence contexts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020211DOI Listing
February 2019

TARBP2-Enhanced Resistance during Tamoxifen Treatment in Breast Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 12;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 704, Taiwan.

Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormone therapy in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, which accounts for approximately 70% of all breast cancers. Although patients who receive tamoxifen therapy benefit with respect to an improved overall prognosis, resistance and cancer recurrence still occur and remain important clinical challenges. A recent study identified TAR (HIV-1) RNA binding protein 2 (TARBP2) as an oncogene that promotes breast cancer metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020210DOI Listing
February 2019
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Metformin Treatment Suppresses Melanoma Cell Growth and Motility Through Modulation of microRNA Expression.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan.

Melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer with high mortality in advanced stages.Metformin is an oral biguanide drug used for diabetes and has demonstrated positive effects oncancer prevention and treatment. Herein, we found that metformin significantly suppressedmelanoma cancer cell motility and growth through inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase andpromoting cell apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020209DOI Listing
February 2019
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ORAI1 and ORAI3 in Breast Cancer Molecular Subtypes and the Identification of ORAI3 as a Hypoxia Sensitive Gene and a Regulator of Hypoxia Responses.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4102, Queensland, Australia.

The remodeling of specific calcium-permeable ion channels is a feature of some breast cancer subtypes. ORAI1 is a protein that forms a calcium-permeable ion channel responsible for store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) in a variety of cell types. ORAI3, a related isoform, is not a regulator of SOCE in most cell types. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020208DOI Listing
February 2019
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Hydroxyethyl Starch-Based Nanoparticles Featured with Redox-Sensitivity and Chemo-Photothermal Therapy for Synergized Tumor Eradication.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

National Engineering Research Center for Nanomedicine, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Chemo-photothermal combination therapy could achieve synergistically enhanced efficiency against tumors. Nanocarriers with good safety and high efficiency for chemo- photothermal therapy are pressingly needed. A new type of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) based on nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) was, thus, developed in this study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020207DOI Listing
February 2019

Zoledronic Acid Modulation of TRPV1 Channel Currents in Osteoblast Cell Line and Native Rat and Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoblasts: Cell Proliferation and Mineralization Effect.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 11;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy-Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari, Italy.

Bisphosphonates (BPs) reduce bone pain and fractures by balancing the osteoblast/osteoclast ratio. The behavior of ion channels in the presence of BPs is not known. To investigate this, the effect of zoledronic acid BP (ZOL) (3 × 10 to 5 × 10 M) treatment, on ion channels, cell proliferation, and mineralization, has been investigated on preosteoclast-like cells, RAW264. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020206DOI Listing
February 2019

Mechanistic Modelling of Radiation Responses.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Centre for Cancer Research & Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7AE, Northern Ireland, UK.

Radiobiological modelling has been a key part of radiation biology and therapy for many decades, and many aspects of clinical practice are guided by tools such as the linear-quadratic model. However, most of the models in regular clinical use are abstract and empirical, and do not provide significant scope for mechanistic interpretation or making predictions in novel cell lines or therapies. In this review, we will discuss the key areas of ongoing mechanistic research in radiation biology, including physical, chemical, and biological steps, and review a range of mechanistic modelling approaches which are being applied in each area, highlighting the possible opportunities and challenges presented by these techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020205DOI Listing
February 2019

Non-Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer: A distinct Entity in Terms of Tumor Biology, Patient Characteristics and Impact of Hereditary Cancer Predisposition.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Division of Medicine, The UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in non-, and especially in never-smoking patients is considered a biologically unique type of lung cancer, since risk factors and tumorigenic conditions, other than tobacco smoke, come into play. In this review article, we comprehensively searched and summarized the current literature with the aim to outline what exactly triggers lung cancer in non-smokers. Changes in the tumor microenvironment, distinct driver genes and genetic pathway alterations that are specific for non-smoking patients, as well as lifestyle-related risk factors apart from tobacco smoke are critically discussed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020204DOI Listing
February 2019

Utility of FIB4-T as a Prognostic Factor for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Gastroenterology and Liver Disease Center, Okayama City Hospital, Okayama 700-8557, Japan.

Background: Most integrated scores for predicting the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) comprise tumor progression factors and liver function variables. The FIB4 index is an indicator of hepatic fibrosis calculated on the basis of age, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, and platelet count, but it does not include variables directly related to liver function. We propose a new staging system, referred to as "FIB4-T," comprising the FIB4 index as well as tumor progression factors, and examine its usefulness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020203DOI Listing
February 2019

SYK Inhibition Potentiates the Effect of Chemotherapeutic Drugs on Neuroblastoma Cells in Vitro.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Molecular Inflammation Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Hansine Hansens veg 18, 9019 Tromsø, Norway.

Neuroblastoma is a malignancy arising from the developing sympathetic nervous system and the most common and deadly cancer of infancy. New therapies are needed to improve the prognosis for high-risk patients and to reduce toxicity and late effects. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) has previously been identified as a promising drug target in various inflammatory diseases and cancers but has so far not been extensively studied as a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020202DOI Listing
February 2019

The Role of Molecular Profiling to Predict the Response to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Medical Oncology. Centre Georges-François Leclerc, 21000 Dijon, France.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors radically changed the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, only one-quarter of patients benefit from these new therapies when used as monotherapy. The assessment of Program Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) tumor expression by immunohistochemistry is used to select potential responder patients, but this not an optimal marker since it does not predict the absence of anti PD-1 efficacy. Read More

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http://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/2/201
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020201DOI Listing
February 2019
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Continuous Separation of Circulating Tumor Cells from Whole Blood Using a Slanted Weir Microfluidic Device.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 10;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Electronic Engineering, Hanyang University College of Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 04763, Korea.

The separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the peripheral blood is an important issue that has been highlighted because of their high clinical potential. However, techniques that depend solely on tumor-specific surface molecules or just the larger size of CTCs are limited by tumor heterogeneity. Here, we present a slanted weir microfluidic device that utilizes the size and deformability of CTCs to separate them from the unprocessed whole blood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020200DOI Listing
February 2019

Identification of Cross Talk between FoxM1 and RASSF1A as a Therapeutic Target of Colon Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Feb 8;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is characterized by the expression of cellular oncogenes, the loss of tumor suppressor gene function. Therefore, identifying integrated signaling between onco-suppressor genes may facilitate the development of effective therapy for mCRC. To investigate these pathways we utilized cell lines and patient derived organoid models for analysis of gene/protein expression, gene silencing, overexpression, and immunohistochemical analyses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11020199DOI Listing
February 2019