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    4448 results match your criteria Cancer immunology immunotherapy : CII[Journal]

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    Abscopal effects of radiotherapy and combined mRNA-based immunotherapy in a syngeneic, OVA-expressing thymoma mouse model.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 16. Epub 2018 Jan 16.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Tübingen, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Tübingen, Germany.
    Background: Tumor metastasis and immune evasion present major challenges of cancer treatment. Radiotherapy can overcome immunosuppressive tumor microenvironments. Anecdotal reports suggest abscopal anti-tumor immune responses. Read More

    T cell responses to tumor: how dominant assumptions on immune activity led to a neglect of pathological functions, and how evolutionary considerations can help identify testable hypotheses for improving immunotherapy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 15. Epub 2018 Jan 15.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Via Rita Levi Montalcini 4, Pieve Emanuele, 20089, Milano, Italy.
    Cancer immunotherapy is based on the premise that activated, pro-inflammatory T cell responses to tumor will mostly combat tumor growth. Nowadays accepted as largely valid, this hypothesis has been formed as a result of extensive theoretical and experimental argumentation on the inherent function of the immune system and the nature of the immunological self, dating back to the foundations of immunology. These arguments have also been affected by how current working hypotheses were set by researchers, an issue that has been the focus of study by medical anthropologists. Read More

    Combined sublethal irradiation and agonist anti-CD40 enhance donor T cell accumulation and control of autochthonous murine pancreatic tumors.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Penn State College of Medicine, 500 University Drive, H107, Hershey, PA, 17033, USA.
    Tumor-reactive T lymphocytes can promote the regression of established tumors. However, their efficacy is often limited by immunosuppressive mechanisms that block T cell accumulation or function. ACT provides the opportunity to ameliorate immune suppression prior to transfer of tumor-reactive T cells to improve the therapeutic benefit. Read More

    Linear doggybone DNA vaccine induces similar immunological responses to conventional plasmid DNA independently of immune recognition by TLR9 in a pre-clinical model.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Cancer Sciences Unit and Cancer Research UK and Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre Protein Core Facility, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Tremona road, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
    Vaccination with DNA that encodes cancer antigens is a simple and convenient way to raise immunity against cancer and has already shown promise in the clinical setting. Conventional plasmid DNA is commonly used which together with the encoded antigen also includes bacterial immunostimulatory CpG motifs to target the DNA sensor Toll-like receptor 9. Recently DNA vaccines using doggybone DNA (dbDNA™), have been developed without the use of bacteria. Read More

    The role of interleukin-2, all-trans retinoic acid, and natural killer cells: surveillance mechanisms in anti-GD2 antibody therapy in neuroblastoma.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Developmental Neurobiology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, 262 Danny Thomas Place, Memphis, TN, 38105, USA.
    Although anti-disialoganglioside (GD2) antibodies are successfully used for neuroblastoma therapy, a third of patients with neuroblastoma experience treatment failure or serious toxicity. Various strategies have been employed in the clinic to improve antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), such as the addition of interleukin (IL)-2 to enhance natural killer (NK) cell function, adoptive transfer of allogeneic NK cells to exploit immune surveillance, and retinoid-induced differentiation therapy. Nevertheless, these mechanisms are not fully understood. Read More

    A novel biologic platform elicits profound T cell costimulatory activity and antitumor immunity in mice.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, UConn Health, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.
    Combination immunotherapies utilizing complementary modalities that target distinct tumor attributes or immunosuppressive mechanisms, or engage different arms of the antitumor immune response, can elicit greater therapeutic efficacy than the component monotherapies. Increasing the number of agents included in a therapeutic cocktail can further increase efficacy, however, this approach poses numerous challenges for clinical translation. Here, a novel platform to simplify combination immunotherapy by covalently linking immunotherapeutic agonists to the costimulatory receptors CD134 and CD137 into a single heterodimeric drug, "OrthomAb", is shown. Read More

    Correction to: Characterization of the first fully human anti-TEM1 scFv in models of solid tumor imaging and immunotoxin-based therapy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
    Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) has been identified as a novel surface marker upregulated on the blood vessels and stroma in many solid tumors. We previously isolated a novel single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 78 against TEM1 from a yeast display scFv library. Here we evaluated the potential applications of scFv78 as a tool for tumor molecular imaging, immunotoxin-based therapy and nanotherapy. Read More

    Reduction of myeloid-derived suppressor cells reinforces the anti-solid tumor effect of recipient leukocyte infusion in murine neuroblastoma-bearing allogeneic bone marrow chimeras.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Laboratory of Experimental Transplantation, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Katholieke Universiteit (KU) Leuven, Herestraat 49, Box 811, 3000, Leuven, Belgium.
    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an emerging treatment option for solid tumors because of its capacity to elicit immune graft-versus-tumor effects. However, these are often limited and associated with GvHD. Adoptive recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI) was shown to enhance anti-tumor responses of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in murine neuroblastoma (Neuro2A)-bearing chimeras. Read More

    Ex vivo-expanded NK cells from blood and ascites of ovarian cancer patients are cytotoxic against autologous primary ovarian cancer cells.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 3. Epub 2018 Jan 3.
    Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre, McMaster University, Rm 4015 Michael DeGroote Centre for Learning and Discovery, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada.
    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of gynecological cancer-related death in North America. Most ovarian cancer patients (OCPs) experience disease recurrence after first-line surgery and chemotherapy; thus, there is a need for novel second-line treatments to improve the prognosis of OC. Although peripheral blood-derived NK cells are known for their ability to spontaneously lyse tumour cells without prior sensitization, ascites-derived NK cells (ascites-NK cells) isolated from OCPs exhibit inhibitory phenotypes, impaired cytotoxicity and may play a pro-tumourigenic role in cancer progression. Read More

    Anti-PD-1-induced high-grade hepatitis associated with corticosteroid-resistant T cells: a case report.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Melanoma Immunology and Oncology Unit, Centenary Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Effective treatment or prevention of immune side effects associated with checkpoint inhibitor therapy of cancer is an important goal in this new era of immunotherapy. Hepatitis due to immunotherapy with antibodies against PD-1 is uncommon and generally of low severity. We present an unusually severe case arising in a melanoma patient after more than 6 months uncomplicated treatment with anti-PD-1 in an adjuvant setting. Read More

    Cytosolic high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) and/or PD-1+ TILs in the tumor microenvironment may be contributing prognostic biomarkers for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who have undergone neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 21. Epub 2017 Dec 21.
    Cancer Center Building, Cancer Center, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, No. 2 Yude Road, North District, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan, ROC.
    Rectal cancer, which comprises 30% of all colorectal cancer cases, is one of the most common forms of cancer in the world. Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) are often treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (neoCRT) followed by surgery. However, after neoCRT treatment, approximately one-third of the patients progress to local recurrence or distant metastasis. Read More

    Splice variants of human natural cytotoxicity receptors: novel innate immune checkpoints.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 20. Epub 2017 Dec 20.
    The Shraga Segal Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Goldman Building, Room 143, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, 84105, Israel.
    The natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCRs; NKp30, NKp44, and NKp46) were first defined as activating receptors on human NK cells that are important in recognition of and response to tumors. A flurry of recent research, however, has revealed that differential splicing can occur during transcription of each of the NCR genes, resulting in some transcripts that encode receptor isoforms with inhibitory functions. These alternative transcripts can arise in certain tissue microenvironments and appear to be induced by cytokines. Read More

    IL-6 and IL-10 are associated with good prognosis in early stage invasive breast cancer patients.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 18. Epub 2017 Dec 18.
    Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, Academic Clinical Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, City Hospital Campus, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB, UK.
    Macrophage-associated cytokines play an important role in cancer metastasis; however, the functions of interleukins (IL) 6 and 10 in breast cancer (BC) progression and metastasis are not clear. In this study the roles of IL-6/IL-10 in regulating vascular invasion and their prognostic significance in BC are investigated. MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 migration (± IL-6 or IL-10) was assessed by scratch wound assay. Read More

    Human c-SRC kinase (CSK) overexpression makes T cells dummy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    Section for Cellular Therapy, Department for Cancer Treatment, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet, PO Box 4953, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.
    Adoptive cell therapy with T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells represents a powerful method to redirect the immune system against tumours. However, although TCR recognition is restricted to a specific peptide-MHC (pMHC) complex, increasing numbers of reports have shown cross-reactivity and off-target effects with severe consequences for the patients. This demands further development of strategies to validate TCR safety prior to clinical use. Read More

    High PD-L1 expression indicates poor prognosis of HIV-infected patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Divison of Oncology, Research Center for Medical Sciences, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8 Nishi-shimbashi, Manato, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.
    Background: The status of antitumor immunity represented by the expression of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and immune cell (IC) infiltration is unknown in HIV-infected patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    Methods: Fifteen HIV-infected patients with NSCLC were compared with 29 non-HIV-infected patients with NSCLC. Analysis of 13 propensity-score-matched patients in the two groups was also compared. Read More

    Haploidentical natural killer cells induce remissions in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with low levels of immune-suppressor cells.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 7. Epub 2017 Dec 7.
    Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, MMC 480, 420 Delaware Street, Minneapolis, MN, 55455, USA.
    We report a novel phase 2 clinical trial in patients with poor prognosis refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) testing the efficacy of haploidentical donor natural killer (NK) cell therapy (NK dose 0.5-3.27 × 107 NK cells/kg) with rituximab and IL-2 (clinicaltrials. Read More

    Characterization of PD-L1 expression in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients with PTEN expression as a means for tissue quality screening.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 106 Zhong-shan Er Road, Guangzhou, 510030, China.
    The goal of this study is to evaluate PD-L1 prevalence and its association with major clinical characteristics in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to inform the clinical development of anti-PD1/PD-L1 agents in this population. We used phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression through IHC as a surrogate tissue quality marker to screen surgical NSCLC samples in tissue microarray (TMA; 172 cases) or whole-section (268 cases) format. The samples were then analyzed with a clinically validated PD-L1 IHC assay. Read More

    Post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at week 6 is prognostic in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancers treated with anti-PD-1 antibody.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82, Gumi-ro 173 beon-gil, Bundang-Gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do, 13620, Republic of Korea.
    We investigated inflammatory markers such as the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) that may predict the response to anti-PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1) antibody therapy. Data from 54 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with anti-PD-1 antibodies were retrospectively analyzed. The NLR was assessed at baseline and 6 weeks after the start of treatment (post-treatment). Read More

    Combination of mAb-AR20.5, anti-PD-L1 and PolyICLC inhibits tumor progression and prolongs survival of MUC1.Tg mice challenged with pancreatic tumors.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    The Eppley Institute for Cancer and Allied Diseases, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986805 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198-6805, USA.
    A substantial body of evidence suggests the existence of MUC1-specific antibodies and cytotoxic T cell activities in pancreatic cancer patients. However, tumor-induced immunosuppression renders these responses ineffective. The current study explores a novel therapeutic combination wherein tumor-bearing hosts can be immunologically primed with their own antigen, through opsonization with a tumor antigen-targeted antibody, mAb-AR20. Read More

    The Immunoscore system predicts prognosis after liver metastasectomy in colorectal cancer liver metastases.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, 651# Dongfeng Road East, Guangzhou, 510060, People's Republic of China.
    Background: The Immunoscore was initially established to evaluate the prognosis of stage I/II/III colorectal cancer patients. However, the feasibility of the Immunoscore for the prognosis of colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) has not been reported.

    Methods: Liver metastases in 249 CRCLM patients were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

    Therapeutic reduction of cell-mediated immunosuppression in mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, Suite 500.68 Medical Arts Building, 3708 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
    Tumor progression is associated with progressive immunosuppression mediated in part by T regulatory cell(s) (Treg) and/or myeloid-derived suppressor cell(s) (MDSC). Development of strategies to reduce populations of immune cells with suppressive function in cancer patients may enable the induction or recovery of immunity against tumor cells, which may limit or reverse disease progression. With a goal of developing Treg and MDSC neutralizing strategies to treat mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary syndrome (SzS), we determined the association between disease stage and suppressor cell populations in patients with MF/SzS, including those responding to therapy. Read More

    2nd Symposium on Advances in Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy, December 15-17, 2016, Athens, Greece.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 1;67(1):153-159. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Cancer Immunology and Immunotherapy Center, Saint Savas Cancer Hospital, Athens, Greece.
    This is the 2nd Symposium of a series organized annually. It aims to integrate tumor immunology basic research with results from most recent clinical trials based on the use of anti-cancer agents targeting immune system components. Read More

    Epidemiology, biology and therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma: conclusions from the EU project IMMOMEC.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 30. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive, often lethal neuroendocrine cancer. Its carcinogenesis may be either caused by the clonal integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus into the host genome or by UV-induced mutations. Notably, virally-encoded oncoproteins and UV-induced mutations affect comparable signaling pathways such as RB restriction of cell cycle progression or p53 inactivation. Read More

    Synergistic cytotoxicity of a prostate cancer-specific immunotoxin in combination with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 29. Epub 2017 Nov 29.
    Department of Urology, Medical Center - University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Str. 66, 79106, Freiburg, Germany.
    In many tumors, including prostate cancer, anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family are overexpressed and cause cell death resistance, which is a typical hallmark of cancer. Different therapeutic approaches, therefore, aim to restore the death mechanisms for enhanced apoptosis. Our recombinant immunotoxin D7(VL-VH)-PE40 is composed of the scFv D7(VL-VH) against the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) on the surface of prostate cancer cells and of the cytotoxic domain of the bacterial toxin Pseudomonas Exotoxin A (PE40). Read More

    High PDL1 mRNA expression predicts better survival of stage pT1 non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 17. Epub 2017 Nov 17.
    Institute of Pathology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany.
    Introduction And Objectives: Checkpoint inhibition has emerged as new therapeutic option in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic role of PD1 and PDL1 expression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and establish an objective measuring method using RNA quantification.

    Materials And Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues (FFPE) of patients with stage pT1 NMIBC who underwent transurethral resection of the bladder. Read More

    Cancer vaccine strategies: translation from mice to human clinical trials.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.
    We translated two cancer vaccine strategies from mice into human clinical trials. (1) In preclinical studies on TARP, an antigen expressed in most prostate cancers, we mapped epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201, modified them to increase affinity and immunogenicity in HLA transgenic mice, and induced human T cells that killed human cancer cells ("epitope enhancement"). In a clinical trial, HLA-A2+ prostate cancer patients with PSA biochemical recurrence (Stage D0) were vaccinated with two peptides either in Montanide-ISA51 or on autologous dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

    Targeting and suppression of HER3-positive breast cancer by T lymphocytes expressing a heregulin chimeric antigen receptor.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 10. Epub 2017 Nov 10.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, 169 Changle West Road, Xi'an, 710032, Shaanxi, China.
    Chimeric antigen receptor-modulated T lymphocytes (CAR-T) have emerged as a powerful tool for arousing anticancer immunity. Endogenous ligands for tumor antigen may outperform single-chain variable fragments to serve as a component of CARs with high cancer recognition efficacy and minimized immunogenicity. As heterodimerization and signaling partners for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), HER3/HER4 has been implicated in tumorigenic signaling and therapeutic resistance of breast cancer. Read More

    The class I/IV HDAC inhibitor mocetinostat increases tumor antigen presentation, decreases immune suppressive cell types and augments checkpoint inhibitor therapy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Mirati Therapeutics, Inc., 9393 Towne Center Dr, Suite 200, San Diego, CA, 92121, USA.
    Checkpoint inhibitor therapy has led to major treatment advances for several cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Despite this, a significant percentage of patients do not respond or develop resistance. Potential mechanisms of resistance include lack of expression of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), decreased capacity to present tumor antigens, and the presence of an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Read More

    Prophylactic DNA vaccine targeting Foxp3+ regulatory T cells depletes myeloid-derived suppressor cells and improves anti-melanoma immune responses in a murine model.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 9. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Immunology, Building No. 7, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poursina Avenue, Tehran, 14155-6447, Iran.
    Regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are the two important and interactive immunosuppressive components of the tumor microenvironment that hamper anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, targeting these two populations together might be beneficial for overcoming immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. We have recently shown that prophylactic Foxp3 DNA/recombinant protein vaccine (Foxp3 vaccine) promotes immunity against Treg in tumor-free conditions. Read More

    Tumor-derived high-mobility group box 1 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin are involved in modulating dendritic cells to activate T regulatory cells in a mouse model.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 7. Epub 2017 Nov 7.
    Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA.
    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is involved in the tumor-associated activation of regulatory T cells (Treg), but the mechanisms remain unknown. In a mouse tumor model, silencing HMGB1 in tumor cells or inhibiting tumor-derived HMGB1 not only dampened the capacity of tumor cells to produce thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), but also aborted the tumor-associated modulation of Treg-activating DC. Tumor-derived HMGB1 triggered the production of TSLP by tumor cells. Read More

    BRAF peptide vaccine facilitates therapy of murine BRAF-mutant melanoma.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Division of Pharmacoengineering and Molecular Pharmaceutics and Center for Nanotechnology in Drug Delivery, Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1315 Kerr Hall, Campus Box 7571, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.
    Approximately, 50% of human melanomas are driven by BRAF mutations, which produce tumors that are highly immunosuppressive and often resistant to vaccine therapy. We introduced lipid-coated calcium phosphate nanoparticles (LCP NPs) as a carrier to efficiently deliver a tumor-specific antigen, the BRAFV600E peptide, to drive dendritic cell (DC) maturation and antigen presentation in C57BL6 mice. The BRAF peptide vaccine elicited a robust, antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell response and potent tumor growth inhibition in a murine BRAF-mutant melanoma model. Read More

    A phase I vaccination study with dendritic cells loaded with NY-ESO-1 and α-galactosylceramide: induction of polyfunctional T cells in high-risk melanoma patients.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Nov 1. Epub 2017 Nov 1.
    Malaghan Institute of Medical Research, PO Box 7060, Wellington, 6242, New Zealand.
    Vaccines that elicit targeted tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses have the potential to be used as adjuvant therapy in patients with high risk of relapse. However, the responses induced by vaccines in cancer patients have generally been disappointing. To improve vaccine function, we investigated the possibility of exploiting the immunostimulatory capacity of type 1 Natural killer T (NKT) cells, a cell type enriched in lymphoid tissues that can trigger improved antigen-presenting function in dendritic cells (DCs). Read More

    Cross-talk between TNF-α and IFN-γ signaling in induction of B7-H1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Immunology and Key Laboratory of Infection and Immunity of Shandong Province, Shandong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, 44# Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, 250012, China.
    Clinical benefit from immunotherapy of B7-H1/PD-1 checkpoint blockade indicates that it is important to understand the regulatory mechanism of B7-H1 expression in cancer cells. As an adaptive response to the endogenous antitumor immunity, B7-H1 expression is up-regulated in HCC cells. B7-H1 expression is induced mainly by IFN-γ released from tumor-infiltrating T cells in HCC. Read More

    CXCL13 expression is prognostic and predictive for postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in patients with gastric cancer.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 31. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Fudan University, Room 358, Building West 7, 130 Dongan Rd, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Background: Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1) is a cytokine from C-X-C chemokine family, which is selectively chemotactic for B cells. Previous research has demonstrated that high CXCL13 expression is correlated to poor prognosis in various cancers. However, the association between CXCL13 expression and gastric cancer is still unclear. Read More

    A CD3-bispecific molecule targeting P-cadherin demonstrates T cell-mediated regression of established solid tumors in mice.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 24. Epub 2017 Oct 24.
    Oncology Research and Development Pfizer Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA.
    Strong evidence exists supporting the important role T cells play in the immune response against tumors. Still, the ability to initiate tumor-specific immune responses remains a challenge. Recent clinical trials suggest that bispecific antibody-mediated retargeted T cells are a promising therapeutic approach to eliminate hematopoietic tumors. Read More

    NY-ESO-1- and survivin-specific T-cell responses in the peripheral blood from patients with glioma.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Therapeutic Immunology, F79, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Hälsovägen, Huddinge, 14186, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The prognosis for patients with glioblastoma is grim. Ex vivo expanded tumor-associated antigen (TAA)-reactive T-cells from patients with glioma may represent a viable source for anticancer-directed cellular therapies. Immunohistochemistry was used to test the survivin (n = 40 samples) and NY-ESO-1 (n = 38 samples) protein expression in tumor specimens. Read More

    Clinical and immunologic evaluation of three metastatic melanoma patients treated with autologous melanoma-reactive TCR-transduced T cells.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Surgery, Loyola University Chicago, 2160 S. 1st Avenue, Maywood, IL, 60153, USA.
    Malignant melanoma incidence has been increasing for over 30 years, and despite promising new therapies, metastatic disease remains difficult to treat. We describe preliminary results from a Phase I clinical trial (NCT01586403) of adoptive cell therapy in which three patients received autologous CD4+ and CD8+ T cells transduced with a lentivirus carrying a tyrosinase-specific TCR and a marker protein, truncated CD34 (CD34t). This unusual MHC Class I-restricted TCR produces functional responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Read More

    Absolute lymphocyte counts at end of induction correlate with distinct immune cell compartments in pediatric B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, 950 West 28th Avenue, Reid Lab (Room 3062), Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4H4, Canada.
    Several retrospective studies in children with B cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) provided clinical evidence that higher absolute lymphocyte counts (ALC) early into treatment significantly correlated with improved relapse-free and overall survival. It still remains unknown, however, whether the predictive role of higher ALCs reflects general bone marrow recovery or a more specific attribute of immune function. To investigate this question, we implemented a prospective observational cohort study in 20 children with BCP ALL on day 29 (D29) of induction chemotherapy and immunophenotyped their lymphoid (T, B and natural killer cells) and myeloid (neutrophils, monocytes, dendritic cells) compartments. Read More

    Immunotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma patients: is it ready for prime time?
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School, 450 Brookline Avenue, M1B13, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Current treatment options for patients with intermediate and advanced HCC are limited, and there is an unmet need for novel therapeutic approaches. HCC is an attractive target for immunomodulation therapy, since it arises in an inflammatory milieu due to hepatitis B and C infections and cirrhosis. Read More

    Clinicopathologic implications of CD8+/Foxp3+ ratio and miR-574-3p/PD-L1 axis in spinal chordoma patients.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 20. Epub 2017 Oct 20.
    Department of Pathology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410011, China.
    Currently, little is known about the interactions between microRNAs (miRNAs) and the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling pathway in chordoma, and data discussing the role of the immune milieu in chordoma prognosis are limited. We aimed to analyze the relationship between PD-L1, miR-574-3p, microenvironmental tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and clinicopathological features of spinal chordoma patients. PD-L1 expression and TILs (including Foxp3+, CD8+, PD-1+ and PD-L1+) were assessed by immunohistochemistry in tumor specimens of 54 spinal chordoma patients. Read More

    Cholecystokinin receptor antagonist alters pancreatic cancer microenvironment and increases efficacy of immune checkpoint antibody therapy in mice.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 17. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
    Department of Oncology, Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington DC, USA.
    Advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has typically been resistant to chemotherapy and immunotherapy; therefore, novel strategies are needed to enhance therapeutic response. Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to stimulate growth of pancreatic cancer. CCK receptors (CCKRs) are present on pancreatic cancer cells, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes. Read More

    A filamentous bacteriophage targeted to carcinoembryonic antigen induces tumor regression in mouse models of colorectal cancer.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 12. Epub 2017 Oct 12.
    Laboratory of Gene Immunotherapy, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Ñuñoa, 7780272, Santiago, Chile.
    Colorectal cancer is a deadly disease, which is frequently diagnosed at advanced stages, where conventional treatments are no longer effective. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a new form to treat different malignancies by turning-on the immune system against tumors. However, tumors are able to evade antitumor immune responses by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment. Read More

    Quantification of altered tissue turnover in a liquid biopsy: a proposed precision medicine tool to assess chronic inflammation and desmoplasia associated with a pro-cancerous niche and response to immuno-therapeutic anti-tumor modalities.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 11;67(1):1-12. Epub 2017 Oct 11.
    Nordic Bioscience, Biomarkers & Research, Herlev Hovedgade 205-207, Herlev, Denmark.
    Immuno-therapy has begun to revolutionize cancer treatment. However, despite the significant progress achieved in regard to the duration of clinical benefits, a substantial number of patients do not respond to these therapies. To improve the outcome of patients receiving immuno-therapy, there is a need for novel biomarkers that can predict and monitor treatment. Read More

    Characterization of arthralgia induced by PD-1 antibody treatment in patients with metastasized cutaneous malignancies.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2017 Oct 10. Epub 2017 Oct 10.
    Department of Dermatology and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: PD-1 antibodies (PD1ab) are increasingly used in metastatic melanoma and other malignancies. Arthralgia is an underestimated side effect of PD-1 antibody treatment with unknown cause. Our aim was to characterize PD1ab-induced arthralgia. Read More

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells as potential biomarkers predicting response to treatment and survival in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ipilimumab therapy.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 7;67(1):141-151. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Surgical and Molecular Pathology, National Institute of Oncology, 7-9. Ráth György u., Budapest, H-1122, Hungary.
    Monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoints are gaining ground in the treatment of melanoma and other cancers, and considerable effort is made to identify biomarkers predicting the efficacy of these therapies. Our retrospective study was performed on surgical tissue samples (52 lymph nodes and 34 cutaneous/subcutaneous metastases) from 30 patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab. Using a panel of 11 antibodies against different immune cell types, intratumoral immune cell densities were determined and evaluated in relation to response to ipilimumab treatment and disease outcome. Read More

    Safety of shortened infusion times for combined ipilimumab and nivolumab.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 7;67(1):135-140. Epub 2017 Oct 7.
    Department of Dermatology, Center for Dermatooncology, Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Tübingen, Germany.
    Background: Combined ipilimumab and nivolumab induces encouraging response rates in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma. However, the approved protocol for dual checkpoint inhibition (3 mg/kg ipilimumab over 90 min and 1 mg/kg nivolumab over 60 min) is time-intensive and several trials have shown that both single agents can be safely administered at faster infusion rates.

    Aim: To investigate whether combined checkpoint inhibition with 3 mg/kg ipilimumab and 1 mg/kg nivolumab can be safely administered over 30 min per agent. Read More

    Ipilimumab and early signs of pulmonary toxicity in patients with metastastic melanoma: a prospective observational study.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 5;67(1):127-134. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
    Department of Pulmonology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Ipilimumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, is approved for treatment metastastic melanoma and is a promising agent against other malignancies. There is some preliminary evidence from case reports that ipilimumab treatment may be associated with pulmonary side effects. However, data from prospective studies on ipilimumab-related pulmonary toxicity are still scarce. Read More

    Immunological classification of renal cell carcinoma patients based on phenotypic analysis of immune check-point molecules.
    Cancer Immunol Immunother 2018 Jan 3;67(1):113-125. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Clinical Research in Tumour Immunology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
    Objectives: To clarify comprehensive immunological signature patterns of tumour tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes in patients with renal cell carcinoma and show its clinical significance.

    Materials And Methods: We investigated the surface marker expressions of tumour tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes quantitatively and classified them based on their functional populations. We extracted 109 sets of tumour tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes from 80 patients who underwent surgical resection of renal cell carcinoma, of which 44 tumour tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes were multiply extracted from 15 patients. Read More

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