300,122 results match your criteria Cancer biology & therapy[Journal]


The utility of brain biopsy in pediatric cryptogenic neurological disease.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jul 3:1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Departments of1Neurosurgery.

Objective: The authors' aim was to characterize a single-center experience of brain biopsy in pediatric cryptogenic neurological disease.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective review of consecutive brain biopsies at a tertiary pediatric neurosciences unit between 1997 and 2017. Children < 18 years undergoing biopsy for neurological pathology were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.PEDS19783DOI Listing

IL-7 receptor alpha defines heterogeneity and signature of human effector memory CD8 T cells in high dimensional analysis.

Cell Immunol 2020 Jun 24;355:104155. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Departments of Internal Medicine and Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

The IL-7 receptor alpha chain (IL-7Rα or CD127) can be differentially expressed in memory CD8 T cells. Here we investigated whether IL-7Rα could serve as a key molecule in defining a comprehensive landscape of heterogeneity in human effector memory (EM) CD8 T cells using high-dimensional Cytometry by Time-Of-Flight (CyTOF) and single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq). IL-7Rα had diverse, but organized, expressional relationship in EM CD8 T cells with molecules related to cell function and gene regulation, which rendered an immune landscape defining heterogeneous cell subsets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellimm.2020.104155DOI Listing

Inferring evolutionary dynamics of mutation rates through the lens of mutation spectrum variation.

Curr Opin Genet Dev 2020 Jun 30;62:50-57. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Genome Sciences, Foege Hall, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, United States; Computational Biology Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Eastlake Ave E, Seattle, WA 98109, United States. Electronic address:

There are many possible failure points in the transmission of genetic information that can produce heritable germline mutations. Once a mutation has been passed from parents to offspring for several generations, it can be difficult or impossible to identify its root cause; however, sometimes the nature of the ancestral and derived DNA sequences can provide mechanistic clues about a genetic change that happened hundreds or thousands of generations ago. Here, we review evidence that the sequence context 'spectrum' of germline mutagenesis has been evolving surprisingly rapidly over the history of humans and other species. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gde.2020.05.024DOI Listing

Peripheral cytokines are not influenced by the type of surgical approach for non-small cell lung cancer by four weeks postoperatively.

Lung Cancer 2020 Jun 27;146:303-309. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: The influence of surgical approach on systemic inflammatory response and the subsequent oncologic impact for non-small cell lung cancer is debated. We aimed to measure the effects of thoracic surgical approach on peripheral cytokine milieu over time.

Methods: Patients undergoing primary lung resection without neoadjuvant therapy (2016-2018) were evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.06.022DOI Listing

Investigation of spectroscopic and proteomic alterations underlying prostate carcinogenesis.

J Proteomics 2020 Jun 30:103888. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

iBiMED - Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Prostate cancer (PCa) treatment remains challenging, especially in advanced stages, where the lack of sensitivity and specificity of available biomarkers makes it difficult to establish an accurate prognosis. Therefore, it is imperative to study PCa biology to identify key molecules that can improve PCa management. In this study, eight prostate tumor tissues and paired normal tissues were analyzed using two approaches-Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy for spectroscopic profiling of biomolecules and antibody microarray for signaling proteins-with the main goal of identifying metabolic and proteomic changes that enable the distinction between normal and tumor conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2020.103888DOI Listing

Three Photobiomodulation Protocols in the Prevention/Treatment of Radiotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Jun 30:101906. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Stomatology Department- A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Stomatology Department School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare three Photobiomodulation protocols to prevent/treat oral mucositis associated to radiotherapy.

Methods: Seventy-three patients with cancer in oral cavity, oropharynx, and nasopharynx, who underwent RT with dose in facial fields equal or higher than 6000 cGy were randomized into three groups (mean RT dose = 66 cGy ±4.9). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.101906DOI Listing

Early Neutrophil Responses to Chemical Carcinogenesis Shape Long-Term Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

iScience 2020 Jun 17;23(7):101277. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Tumour Host Interaction Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Road, NW1 1AT London, UK. Electronic address:

Neoplastic transformation causing cancer is a key problem in tumor biology and can be triggered by exposure to environmental substances. We investigated whether the cellular composition of a tissue contributes to its predisposition to cancer upon a specific carcinogen. Neutrophils are important immune components involved in cancer progression, but their contribution to generation of transformed cells is elusive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101277DOI Listing

(-)-Kusunokinin inhibits breast cancer in N-nitrosomethylurea-induced mammary tumor rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2020 Jun 30:173311. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand; The Excellent Research Laboratory of Cancer Molecular Biology, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla, 90110, Thailand. Electronic address:

Natural and synthetic (-)-kusunokinin inhibited breast cancer, colon cancer and cholangiocarcinoma cells at the G2/M phase and induced apoptosis. However, there is no report on the action and adverse effects of (-)-kusunokinin in animal models. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of (-)-kusunokinin from Piper nigrum on cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2020.173311DOI Listing

Binding properties of marine bromophenols with human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B: Molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance and cellular insulin resistance study.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China; Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a highly validated target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Previous studies have shown that bromophenols from marine red alga Rhodomela confervoides can inhibit PTP1B activity. However, traditional in vitro enzymatic assays may result in false positive activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.263DOI Listing

Loss of TET2 Affects Proliferation and Drug Sensitivity through Altered Dynamics of Cell-State Transitions.

Cell Syst 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

A persistent puzzle in cancer biology is how mutations, which neither alter growth signaling pathways nor directly interfere with drug mechanism, can still recur and persist in tumors. One example is the mutation of the DNA demethylase tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) in acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) that frequently persists from diagnosis through remission and relapse, but whose fitness advantage in chemotherapy is unclear. Here, we use isogenic human AML cell lines to show that TET2 loss of function alters the dynamics of transitions between differentiated and stem-like states. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cels.2020.06.003DOI Listing

A Multiplex Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Platform Defines Molecular and Functional Subclasses of Autism-Related Genes.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 Jul;27(1):35-49.e6

The Center for Stem Cell Biology, Developmental Biology Program, Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Autism is a clinically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interactions, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Despite significant advances in the genetics of autism, understanding how genetic changes perturb brain development and affect clinical symptoms remains elusive. Here, we present a multiplex human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) platform, in which 30 isogenic disease lines are pooled in a single dish and differentiated into prefrontal cortex (PFC) lineages to efficiently test early-developmental hypotheses of autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.004DOI Listing

Rubbing Out Leukemia Stem Cells by Erasing the Eraser.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 Jul;27(1):3-5

Molecular Pharmacology Program, Center for Cell Engineering, Center for Stem Cell Biology, Center for Experimental Therapeutics, Center for Hematologic Malignancies, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Shen et al. (2020) and Wang et al. (2020) independently identify the essential function of mA demethylase ALKBH5 in maintaining myeloid leukemia stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.009DOI Listing

Cell-by-Cell Deconstruction of Stem Cell Niches.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 Jul;27(1):19-34

Department of Pathology and Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Single-cell sequencing approaches offer exploration of tissue architecture at unprecedented resolution. These tools are especially powerful when deconvoluting highly specialized microenvironments, such as stem cell (SC) niches. Here, we review single-cell studies that map the cellular and transcriptional makeup of stem and progenitor niches and discuss how these high-resolution analyses fundamentally advance our understanding of how niche factors shape SC biology and activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.06.013DOI Listing

Emerging roles of long non-coding RNAs in breast cancer biology and management.

Semin Cancer Biol 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Experimental Medicine, TOR, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy; Istituto Dermopatico dell'Immacolata, IDI-IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women with the highest mortality among this gender. Despite treatment strategies including surgery, hormone therapy and targeted therapy have recently advanced, innovative biomarkers are needed for the early detection, treatment and prognosis. An increasing number of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have shown great potential as crucial players in different stages of the breast cancer tumorigenesis, influencing cell death, metabolism, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and drug resistance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.06.019DOI Listing

A Non-canonical BRCT-Phosphopeptide Recognition Mechanism Underlies RhoA Activation in Cytokinesis.

Curr Biol 2020 Jun 26. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

Cytokinesis partitions the cell contents to complete mitosis. During cytokinesis, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) activates the small GTPase RhoA to assemble a contractile actomyosin ring. PLK1 is proposed to pattern RhoA activation by creating a docking site on the central spindle that concentrates the RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor ECT2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.090DOI Listing

Pharmaceutical-Grade Rigosertib Is a Microtubule-Destabilizing Agent.

Mol Cell 2020 Jul;79(1):191-198.e3

Department of Cellular & Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA; Center for RNA Systems Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA. Electronic address:

We recently used CRISPRi/a-based chemical-genetic screens and cell biological, biochemical, and structural assays to determine that rigosertib, an anti-cancer agent in phase III clinical trials, kills cancer cells by destabilizing microtubules. Reddy and co-workers (Baker et al., 2020, this issue of Molecular Cell) suggest that a contaminating degradation product in commercial formulations of rigosertib is responsible for the microtubule-destabilizing activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.008DOI Listing

Technologies and Computational Analysis Strategies for CRISPR Applications.

Mol Cell 2020 Jul;79(1):11-29

Molecular Pathology Unit, Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA; Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. Electronic address:

The CRISPR-Cas system offers a programmable platform for eukaryotic genome and epigenome editing. The ability to perform targeted genetic and epigenetic perturbations enables researchers to perform a variety of tasks, ranging from investigating questions in basic biology to potentially developing novel therapeutics for the treatment of disease. While CRISPR systems have been engineered to target DNA and RNA with increased precision, efficiency, and flexibility, assays to identify off-target editing are becoming more comprehensive and sensitive. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.012DOI Listing

TP63, SOX2, and KLF5 Establish a Core Regulatory Circuitry That Controls Epigenetic and Transcription Patterns in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

Gastroenterology 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, USA; Cancer Science Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore; National University Cancer Institute, National University Hospital Singapore, Singapore.

Background & Aims: We investigated the transcriptome of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells, activity of gene regulatory (enhancer and promoter regions), and the effects of blocking epigenetic regulatory proteins.

Methods: We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing with antibodies against H3K4me1, H3K4me3, and H3K27ac and an assay for transposase accessible chromatin to map the enhancer regions and accessible chromatin in 8 ESCC cell lines. We used the CRC_Mapper algorithm to identify core regulatory circuitry transcription factors in ESCC cell lines, and determined genome occupancy profiles for 3 of these factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.06.050DOI Listing

TBL1XR1 Mutations Drive Extranodal Lymphoma by Inducing a Pro-tumorigenic Memory Fate.

Cell 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, Cornell University, New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address:

The most aggressive B cell lymphomas frequently manifest extranodal distribution and carry somatic mutations in the poorly characterized gene TBL1XR1. Here, we show that TBL1XR1 mutations skew the humoral immune response toward generating abnormal immature memory B cells (MB), while impairing plasma cell differentiation. At the molecular level, TBL1XR1 mutants co-opt SMRT/HDAC3 repressor complexes toward binding the MB cell transcription factor (TF) BACH2 at the expense of the germinal center (GC) TF BCL6, leading to pre-memory transcriptional reprogramming and cell-fate bias. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.049DOI Listing

Telomere Stress Potentiates STING-Dependent Anti-tumor Immunity.

Cancer Cell 2020 Jun 10. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Telomerase is an attractive target for anti-tumor therapy as it is almost universally expressed in cancer cells. Here, we show that treatment with a telomere-targeting drug, 6-thio-2'-deoxyguanosine (6-thio-dG), leads to tumor regression through innate and adaptive immune-dependent responses in syngeneic and humanized mouse models of telomerase-expressing cancers. 6-thio-dG treatment causes telomere-associated DNA damages that are sensed by dendritic cells (DCs) and activates the host cytosolic DNA sensing STING/interferon I pathway, resulting in enhanced cross-priming capacity of DCs and tumor-specific CD8 T cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.05.020DOI Listing

Structural Insights into Pseudokinase Domains of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

Mol Cell 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmacology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA; Yale Cancer Biology Institute, Yale University West Campus, West Haven, CT 06516, USA. Electronic address:

Despite their apparent lack of catalytic activity, pseudokinases are essential signaling molecules. Here, we describe the structural and dynamic properties of pseudokinase domains from the Wnt-binding receptor tyrosine kinases (PTK7, ROR1, ROR2, and RYK), which play important roles in development. We determined structures of all pseudokinase domains in this family and found that they share a conserved inactive conformation in their activation loop that resembles the autoinhibited insulin receptor kinase (IRK). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.06.018DOI Listing

Celosiadines A and B, unusual guanidine alkaloids from .

Nat Prod Res 2020 Jul 3:1-5. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Bioactive Botanical Research Laboratory, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA.

Two unusual di-isopentenyl guanidine alkaloids, named celosiadines A () and B (), were isolated from aerial parts. The structures of the compounds were elucidated from extensive spectroscopic analyses including HRMS, NMR and ECD. Celosiadines A and B showed favorable binding affinity to the androgen receptor (AR) and were cytotoxic towards AR-sensitive (LNCaP) but not AR-insensitive (PC3) human prostate cancer cells . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1784174DOI Listing

Targeting NUPR1 for Cancer Treatment: A Risky Endeavor.

Curr Cancer Drug Targets 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan Cairo 11795. Egypt.

NUPR1 is a transcription factor that has attracted great attention because its various roles in cancer. Several studies were carried out to determine its molecular targets and mechanism of action to develop novel therapies against cancer. Here, we shed light on the role of NUPR1 in different types of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568009620666200703152523DOI Listing

Clinical utility of target capture-based panel sequencing in hematological malignancies: a multicenter feasibility study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan.

Although next-generation sequencing-based panel testing is well-practiced in the field of cancer medicine for the identification of target molecules in solid tumors, the clinical utility and clinical issues surrounding panel testing in hematological malignancies have yet to be fully evaluated. We conducted a multicenter prospective clinical-sequencing study to verify the feasibility of a panel test for hematological tumors, including acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Out of 96 eligible patients, 79 patients (82%) showed potentially actionable findings, based on the clinical-sequencing assays. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14552DOI Listing

A conditional mouse expressing an activating mutation in NRF2 displays hyperplasia of the upper gastrointestinal tract and decreased white adipose tissue.

J Pathol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, US.

Activation of the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (NFE2L2 or NRF2) transcription factor is a critical and evolutionarily conserved cellular response to oxidative stress, metabolic stress, and xenobiotic insult. Deficiency of NRF2 results in hypersensitivity to a variety of stressors, whereas its aberrant activation contributes to several cancer types, most commonly squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus, oral cavity, bladder, and lung. Between 10 and 35% of patients with squamous cell carcinomas display hyperactive NRF2 signaling, harboring activating mutations and copy number amplifications of the NFE2L2 oncogene or inactivating mutations or deletions of KEAP1 or CUL3, the proteins of which co-complex to ubiquitylate and degrade NRF2 protein. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5504DOI Listing

Efficient weighted univariate clustering maps outstanding dysregulated genomic zones in human cancers.

Bioinformatics 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Computer Science, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA.

Motivation: Chromosomal patterning of gene expression in cancer can arise from aneuploidy, genome disorganization, or abnormal DNA methylation. To map such patterns, we introduce a weighted univariate clustering algorithm to guarantee linear runtime, optimality, and reproducibility.

Results: We present the chromosome clustering method, establish its optimality and runtime, and evaluate its performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa613DOI Listing

Racial Capitalism within Public Health: How Occupational Settings Drive COVID-19 Disparities.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Epidemiology of the U.S. COVID-19 outbreak focuses on individuals' biology and behaviors, despite centrality of occupational environments in the viral spread. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa126DOI Listing

Inhibition of APE1/Ref-1 Redox Signaling Alleviates Intestinal Dysfunction and Damage to Myenteric Neurons in a Mouse Model of Spontaneous Chronic Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University; Western Centre for Health, Research and Education, Sunshine Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) associates with damage to the enteric nervous system (ENS), leading to gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction. Oxidative stress is important for the pathophysiology of inflammation-induced enteric neuropathy and GI dysfunction. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a dual functioning protein that is an essential regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa161DOI Listing

Epiviz File Server: Query, Transform and Interactively Explore Data from Indexed Genomic Files.

Bioinformatics 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.

Motivation: Genomic data repositories like The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), Bioconductor's AnnotationHub and ExperimentHub etc., provide public access to large amounts of genomic data as flat files. Researchers often download a subset of data files from these repositories to perform exploratory data analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa591DOI Listing

The Expression Pattern of Epidermal Differentiation Marker Keratin 10 in the Normal Human Breast and Breast Cancer Cells.

J Histochem Cytochem 2020 Jul 3:22155420940220. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Cells of the human breast gland express an array of keratins, of which some are used for characterizing both normal and neoplastic breast tissue. However, the expression pattern of certain keratins has yet to be detailed. Here, the expression of a differentiation marker of epidermal epithelium, keratin 10 (K10), was investigated in the human breast gland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155420940220DOI Listing

QSP-IO: A quantitative systems pharmacology toolbox for mechanistic multi-scale modeling for immuno-oncology applications.

CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, USA.

Immunotherapy has shown great potential in the treatment of cancer, however, only a fraction of patients respond to treatment and many experience autoimmune-related side effects. The pharmaceutical industry has relied on mathematical models to study the behavior of candidate drugs and more recently, complex, whole-body, quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP) models have become increasingly popular for discovery and development. QSP modeling has the potential to discover novel predictive biomarkers, as well as test the efficacy of treatment plans and combination therapies through virtual clinical trails. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/psp4.12546DOI Listing

Comparison of Different Anti-Ki67 Antibody Clones and Hotspot Sizes for Assessing Proliferative Index and Grading in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours using Manual and Image Analysis.

Histopathology 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Cellular Pathology, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK.

Aims: Ki67 proliferative index (PI) is essential for grading gastroenteric and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP NETs). Analytical and preanalytical variables can affect Ki67 PI. In contrast to counting methodology, until now little attention has focussed on the question of clone equivalence and effect of hotspot size on Ki67 PI in GEP NETs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/his.14200DOI Listing

Proper E-cadherin membrane location in colon requires Dab2 and it modifies by inflammation and cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.

We reported that Disabled-2 (Dab2) is located at the apical membrane in suckling rat intestine. Here, we discovered that, in colon of suckling and adult mouse and of adult human, Dab2 is only at lateral crypt cell membrane and colocalized with E-cadherin. Dab2 depletion in Caco-2 cells led to E-cadherin internalization indicating that its membrane location requires Dab2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29917DOI Listing

Function of DHX33 in promoting Warburg effect via regulation of glycolytic genes.

J Cell Physiol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biology, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

Cancer cells metabolize glucose through glycolysis to promote cell proliferation even with abundant oxygen. Multiple glycolysis genes are deregulated during cancer development. Despite intensive effort, the cause of their deregulation remains incompletely understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29909DOI Listing

Interleukin-17 producing mucosal associated invariant T cells - emerging players in chronic inflammatory diseases?

Eur J Immunol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Kathleen Lonsdale Institute for Human Health Research, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a population of evolutionarily conserved T cells, which express an invariant T cell receptor (TCR) and represent a significant subset of innate-like T cells in humans, yet their role in immunity is still emerging. Unlike conventional αβ T cells, MAIT cells are not restricted by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, but instead uniquely recognise microbially-derived vitamin metabolites presented by the MHC-I like molecule MR1. MAIT cells are enriched in mucosal sites and tissues including liver and adipose tissue where they are thought to play an important role in immunosurveillance and immunity against microbial infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048645DOI Listing

Longitudinal associations of light-intensity physical activity with quality of life, functioning and fatigue after colorectal cancer.

Qual Life Res 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology, GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University, P.O. Box 616, 6200 MD, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that higher levels of light-intensity physical activity (LPA) are associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. However, these associations have not been investigated in longitudinal studies that provide the opportunity to analyse how within-individual changes in LPA affect HRQoL. We investigated longitudinal associations of LPA with HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors, from 6 weeks to 2 years post-treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-020-02566-7DOI Listing

Priming Before In Vitro Maturation Cycles in Cancer Patients Undergoing Urgent Fertility Preservation: a Randomized Controlled Study.

Reprod Sci 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Reproductive Medicine and Fertility Preservation, Hôpital Antoine Béclère, Université Paris saclay, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, 92140, Clamart, France.

In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes retrieved at germinal vesicle stage, followed by vitrification of mature oocytes, has emerged as a fertility preservation (FP) option. This technique was first developed for patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome. In this population, providing LH activity prior to oocyte collection has been associated with better IVM outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00244-0DOI Listing

Translation of the long-term fundamental studies on viral DNA packaging motors into nanotechnology and nanomedicine.

Sci China Life Sci 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Center for RNA Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine; College of Pharmacy; College of Medicine; Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute; and Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.

Many years of fundamental studies on viral genome packaging motors have led to fruitful applications. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses package their genomes into preformed protein shells via nanomotors including several elegant and meticulous coaxial modules. The motor is geared by the hexameric RNA ring. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1752-1DOI Listing

Advances in Molecular Classification and Therapeutic Opportunities in Meningiomas.

Curr Oncol Rep 2020 Jul 3;22(8):84. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Perlmutter Cancer Center, Brain and Spine Tumor Center, NYU Langone Health, 240 E. 38th Street, 19th floor, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic alterations in meningioma and the underlying tumor biology of meningioma has significantly changed over the past decade and resulted in revision of prognostically relevant meningioma subclasses within and beyond the WHO classification of CNS tumors.

Recent Findings: The 2016 WHO classification of CNS tumors recognizes WHO grade I, II, and III based on histopathological features. Recent work has identified genetic alterations with prognostic implications, including mutations of the TERT promoter, loss of function of the DMD gene, and inactivation of the tumor suppressor BAP-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11912-020-00937-4DOI Listing

Flavonoid calycopterin triggers apoptosis in triple-negative and ER-positive human breast cancer cells through activating different patterns of gene expression.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Phytochemistry, Medicinal Plants and Drugs Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Breast cancer is the most common cause of death related to cancer in women, and several studies proved that flavonoids could induce apoptosis in this cancer through different pathways. Calycopterin is a flavonoid which was shown to induce preferential antiproliferative effects on some cancers; however, no information is available on its effect on breast cancer. Therefore, in this paper, the apoptotic effect of calycopterin and its underlying mechanism in two different breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 cell lines were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-01917-yDOI Listing

LCRF-0006, a small molecule mimetic of the N-cadherin antagonist peptide ADH-1, synergistically increases multiple myeloma response to bortezomib.

FASEB Bioadv 2020 Jun 15;2(6):339-353. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Myeloma Research Laboratory Adelaide Medical School Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences The University of Adelaide Adelaide Australia.

N-cadherin is a homophilic cell-cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in maintaining vascular stability and modulating endothelial barrier permeability. Pre-clinical studies have shown that the N-cadherin antagonist peptide, ADH-1, increases the permeability of tumor-associated vasculature thereby increasing anti-cancer drug delivery to tumors and enhancing tumor response. Small molecule library screens have identified a novel compound, LCRF-0006, that is a mimetic of the classical cadherin His-Ala-Val sequence-containing region of ADH-1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fba.2019-00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325588PMC

Prediction of Nephrotoxicity Associated With Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy in Testicular Cancer Patients.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Jun 23;4(3):pkaa032. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Health Technology, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark.

Background: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy may induce nephrotoxicity. This study presents a random forest predictive model that identifies testicular cancer patients at risk of nephrotoxicity before treatment.

Methods: Clinical data and DNA from saliva samples were collected for 433 patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315098PMC

Sulfation modulates the targeting properties of hyaluronic acid to P-selectin and CD44.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 Jun 4;6(6):3585-3598. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, United States.

Many targeting strategies can be employed to direct nanoparticles to tumors for imaging and therapy. However, tumors display a dynamic, heterogeneous microenvironment that undergoes spatiotemporal changes, including the expression of targetable cell-surface biomarkers. Here, we develop a nanoparticle system to effectively target two receptors overexpressed in the microenvironment of aggressive tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.0c00115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331950PMC

Whole genome sequencing analysis identifies recurrent structural alterations in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

PeerJ 2020 26;8:e9294. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Laboratory for Cancer Genomics, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Yokohama, Japan.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the predominant type of esophageal cancer in the Asian region, including Japan. A previous study reported mutational landscape of Japanese ESCCs by using exome sequencing. However, somatic structural alterations were yet to be explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323713PMC

Sorafenib and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy: A Promising Approach for Treatment of HCC.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 14;2020:9602728. Epub 2020 Jun 14.

Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS), Tissue Engineering & Applied Cell Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Sorafenib (Sora) is used as a targeted therapy for HCC treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are applied as a new approach to fight malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9602728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312705PMC

Endocrine Surgery during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Recommendations from the Turkish Association of Endocrine Surgery.

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul 2020 16;54(2):117-131. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of General Surgery, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was initially seen in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. World Health Organization classified COVID-19 as a pandemic after its rapid spread worldwide in a few months. With the pandemic, all elective surgeries and non-emergency procedures have been postponed in our country, as in others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14744/SEMB.2020.65902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326680PMC

Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng chemoprevents both initiation and promotion of cutaneous carcinoma by enhancing cell-mediated immunity and maintaining redox homeostasis.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jul 21;44(4):580-592. Epub 2019 May 21.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Pharmacology and Safety Evaluation of Chinese Materia Medica, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, China.

Background: Radix et Rhizoma Ginseng (thereafter called ginseng) has been used as a medicinal herb for thousands of years to maintain people's physical vitality and is also a non-organ-specific cancer preventive and therapeutic traditional medicine in several epidemiologic and preclinical studies. Owing to few toxic side effects and strong enhancement on body immunity, ginseng has admirable application potential and value in cancer chemoprevention. The study aims at investigating the chemopreventive effects of ginseng on cutaneous carcinoma and the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2019.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322735PMC

Cervinomycins C with cytotoxic and antibacterial activity from Streptomyces sp. CPCC 204980.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

NHC Key Laboratory of Biotechnology of Antibiotics, CAMS Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology for Drug Innovation, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China.

Polycyclic xanthones are secondary metabolites from actinomycetes and cervinomycin A and B are bioactive 26-membered polycyclic xanthones from Streptomyces sp. CPCC 204980. Herein, we report cervinomycins C (1-4) from the same strain. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-020-0342-1DOI Listing

Disease-related cellular protein networks differentially affected under different EGFR mutations in lung adenocarcinoma.

Sci Rep 2020 Jul 2;10(1):10881. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Chest Surgery, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, 216-8511, Japan.

It is unclear how epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR major driver mutations (L858R or Ex19del) affect downstream molecular networks and pathways. This study aimed to provide information on the influences of these mutations. The study assessed 36 protein expression profiles of lung adenocarcinoma (Ex19del, nine; L858R, nine; no Ex19del/L858R, 18). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67894-7DOI Listing

ACTL6A suppresses p21 expression to enhance the epidermal squamous cell carcinoma phenotype.

Oncogene 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Epidermal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a common and highly invasive form of cancer. SCC arises due to ultraviolet light exposure and is associated with increased expression of pro-cancer genes and reduced expression of cancer suppressors. Actin-Like Protein 6A (ACTL6A, BAF53a) is an important protein subunit of the SWI/SNF epigenetic chromatin regulatory complex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-1371-8DOI Listing