2,200 results match your criteria Cancer Treat. Res.[Journal]


CAR T Cell Therapy Progress and Challenges for Solid Tumors.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:297-326

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Department of Immuno-Oncology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

The past two decades have marked the beginning of an unprecedented success story for cancer therapy through redirecting antitumor immunity [1]. While the mechanisms that control the initial and ongoing immune responses against tumors remain a strong research focus, the clinical development of technologies that engage the immune system to target and kill cancer cells has become a translational research priority. Early attempts documented in the late 1800s aimed at sparking immunity with cancer vaccines were difficult to interpret but demonstrated an opportunity that more than 100 years later has blossomed into the current field of cancer immunotherapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_11DOI Listing
January 2020

Immunogenic Cell Death Driven by Radiation-Impact on the Tumor Microenvironment.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:281-296

Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.

Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a particular form of cell death that can initiate adaptive immunity against antigens expressed by dying cells in the absence of exogenous adjuvants. This implies that cells undergoing ICD not only express antigens that are not covered by thymic tolerance, but also deliver adjuvant-like signals that enable the recruitment and maturation of antigen-presenting cells toward an immunostimulatory phenotype, culminating with robust cross-priming of antigen-specific CD8 T cells. Such damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), which encompass cellular proteins, small metabolites and cytokines, are emitted in a spatiotemporally defined manner in the context of failing adaptation to stress. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_10DOI Listing
January 2020

Translational Biomarkers and Rationale Strategies to Overcome Resistance to Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Solid Tumors.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:251-279

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California Davis School of Medicine, University of California, Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, 4501 X Street, Suite 3016, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the programed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand PD-L1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) pathways have improved the survival for patients with solid tumors. Unfortunately, durable clinical responses are seen in only 10-40% of patients at the cost of potential immune-related adverse events. In the tumor microenvironment (TME), tumor cells can influence the microenvironment by releasing extracellular signals and generating peripheral immune tolerance, while the immune cells can affect the initiation, growth, proliferation, and evolution of cancer cells. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_9DOI Listing
January 2020

The Immune Landscape in Women Cancers.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:215-249

INSERM U932, Institut Curie, PSL Research University, Paris, France.

In this chapter, we summarize the latest findings in the field of immuno-oncology of women cancers, particularly ovarian and breast tumors. We describe the relationship between immune parameters and clinical outcomes by evaluating the contribution of different players of the tumor microenvironment, with a particular focus on different immune cell subsets and their essential role during the development of the disease, the response to standard chemotherapy, and to emerging immunotherapeutic approaches. By reviewing the molecular and genetic features of ovarian and breast cancer subtypes, we report on the multitude of factors influencing treatment outcome, with a particular interest on the possible influence of the immune system (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_8DOI Listing
January 2020

The Role of the Immune Infiltrate in Distinct Cancer Types and Its Clinical Implications : Lymphocytic Infiltration in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:197-211

INSERM Laboratory of Integrative Cancer Immunology, Equipe Labellisée Ligue Contre le Cancer, Sorbonne Université, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Université Paris Descartes, Université Paris Diderot, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, 75006, Paris, France.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a major public health challenges, with one of the highest incidences worldwide. The two affected anatomical sites in CRC, i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_7DOI Listing
January 2020

The Paradox of Cancer Immune Exclusion: Immune Oncology Next Frontier.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:173-195

Refuge Biotechnologies, Inc., Menlo Park, CA, USA.

Checkpoint inhibitor therapy (CIT) has revolutionized cancer treatment but it has also reached a standstill when an absent dialog between cancer and immune cells makes it irrelevant. This occurs with high prevalence in the context of "immune silent" and, even perhaps, "immune-excluded" tumors. The latter are characterized by T cells restricted to the periphery of cancer nests. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_6DOI Listing
January 2020

The Biology of Immune-Active Cancers and Their Regulatory Mechanisms.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:149-172

Allogene, South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

The development of cancer results from the evolutionary balance between the proliferating aptitude of cancer cells and the response of the host's tissues. Some cancers are characterized by genetic instability dependent upon impaired DNA repair mechanisms that lead to the chaotic disruption of multiple cellular functions often in excess of the cancer survival needs and may exert broad effects on surrounding tissues, some beneficial and some detrimental to cancer growth. Among them, inflammatory processes that accompany wound healing may initiate a reaction of the host against the neo-formation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_5DOI Listing
January 2020

Adaptive Immunity and the Tumor Microenvironment.

Authors:
Han Lotze

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:111-147

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

The adaptive immune response is a 500-million-year-old (the "Big Bang" of Immunology) collective set of rearranged and/or selected receptors capable of recognizing soluble and cell surface molecules or shape (B cells, antibody), endogenous and extracellular peptides presented by Major Histocompatibility (MHC) molecules including Class I and Class II (conventional αβ T cells), lipid in the context of MHC-like molecules of the CD1 family (NKT cells), metabolites and B7 family molecules/butyrophilins with stress factors (γδT cells), and stress ligands and absence of MHC molecules (natural killer, NK cells). What makes tumor immunogenic is the recruitment of initially innate immune cells to sites of stress or tissue damage with release of Damage-Associated Molecular Pattern (DAMP) molecules. Subsequent maintenance of a chronic inflammatory state, representing a balance between mature, normalized blood vessels, innate and adaptive immune cells and the tumor provides a complex tumor microenvironment serving as the backdrop for Darwinian selection, tumor elimination, tumor equilibrium, and ultimately tumor escape. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_4DOI Listing
January 2020

Systemic Correlates of the Tumor Microenvironment.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:97-109

Department of Immuno-Oncology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

It is increasingly recognized that cancer does not involve only formation of a tumor, but also systemic changes in the host. Alterations in number, spatial relationship, and function of immune cells have been identified in cancer patients' blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Importantly, these changes correlate with clinical outcome, demonstrating that systemic effects may persist in some patients after initial therapy that underlie future relapse. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_3DOI Listing
January 2020

New Technologies to Image Tumors.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:51-94

UC Davis Health, Sacramento, CA, USA.

The premise of this book is the importance of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Until recently, most research on and clinical attention to cancer biology, diagnosis, and prognosis were focused on the malignant (or premalignant) cellular compartment that could be readily appreciated using standard morphology-based imaging. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_2DOI Listing
January 2020

Functional In Vivo Imaging of Tumors.

Cancer Treat Res 2020 ;180:3-50

Center for Magnetic Resonance and Optical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Noninvasive imaging of functional and molecular changes in cancer has become an indispensable tool for studying cancer in vivo. Targeting the functional and molecular changes in cancer imaging provides a platform for the in vivo analysis of the mechanisms such as gene expression, signal transduction, biochemical reactions, regulatory pathways, cell trafficking, and drug action underlying cancer noninvasively. The main focus of imaging in cancer is the development of new contrast methods/molecular probes for the early diagnosis and the precise evaluation of therapy response. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-38862-1_1DOI Listing
January 2020

Bleeding Disorders Associated with Cancer.

Authors:
Simon Mantha

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:191-203

Department of Medicine, Hematology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Cancer can be associated with several distinct coagulation defects which can lead to bleeding complications. The primary hyperfibrinolytic syndrome associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia has been well recognized and is one of the most severe bleeding disorders. Acquired hemophilia, while rare and not only seen in the oncology setting, can be triggered by a malignancy and must be promptly recognized in order to prevent catastrophic hemorrhage. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_13DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Anticoagulation in the Setting of Primary and Metastatic Brain Tumors.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:179-189

Division of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Venous thromboembolism is commonly diagnosed in patients with primary and secondary brain tumors. Anticoagulation management in the setting of brain tumors is complicated by the high background rate of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. Until recently, there was limited evidence to support the decision to administer therapeutic anticoagulation in the setting of brain metastases or primary brain tumors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_12DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Thrombosis in the Philadelphia Chromosome-Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:159-178

Department of Medicine, Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are clonal stem cell-derived diseases. This chapter focuses on the subcategory of Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-negative classical MPNs, polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF). These MPNs are associated with both microvascular and macrovascular thrombosis, which may occur in the venous and arterial circulation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_11DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Microangiopathy in Cancer: Causes, Consequences, and Management.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:151-158

University College London Hospitals, London, UK.

Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a syndrome involving fragmentation haemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and thrombosis. A range of disorders including cancer may have TMA as a clinical manifestation. TMA in cancer may be caused by several mechanisms, including systemic microvascular metastases, but may also be due to extensive bone marrow involvement with cancer or secondary necrosis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_10DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Management of Thrombocytopenia in Cancer Patients.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:139-150

Hematology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

Chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) is a frequent complication of cancer therapy, leading to increased risk of bleeding, when the thrombocytopenia is severe (<10,000/mcL). However, the major clinical relevance of CIT is the subsequent delay or dose reduction in chemotherapy. CIT, therefore, leads to reduced relative dose intensity (RDI) of cancer therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_9DOI Listing
September 2019

Etiology and Management of Upper-Extremity Catheter-Related Thrombosis in Cancer Patients.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:117-137

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Suite 7300, Baltimore, MD, 21205, USA.

Central venous access devices are a critical instrument in the treatment and supportive care delivery for oncology patients. Catheter-related thrombosis (CRT) is a common complication of central venous access devices in oncology patients. Risk factors for CRT include patient-, device-, and treatment-related risk factors. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_8DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Cancer. Historical Perspective and Evolving Role of the Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:103-115

Department of Medicine, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute at the University of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The management of cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) is complex, and treatment strategies have been evolving over the past 15 years. It is well recognized that oral vitamin K antagonists are difficult to use in cancer patients, with higher rates of treatment failure and bleeding complications than in non-cancer patients. Low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) became the widely accepted standard of care for treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis, following the CLOT study comparing dalteparin with warfarin in 2003. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_7DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Thrombotic Risk from Chemotherapy and Other Cancer Therapies.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:87-101

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Cancer patients have an increased risk of thrombosis. The development of cancer thrombosis is dependent on a number of factors including cancer type, stage, various biologic markers, and the use of central venous catheters. In addition, cancer treatment itself may increase thrombotic risk. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_6DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Biomarkers of Cancer-Associated Thromboembolism.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:69-85

Division of Hematology and Oncology, UC Davis School of Medicine, UC Davis Cancer Center, 4501 X Street, Sacramento, CA, 95817, USA.

Venous thromboembolism is known to be associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality in patients with malignancy. Predictive laboratory biomarkers of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have long been sought after to improve outcomes and help guide clinical decision making. Previously studied biomarkers include C reactive protein (CRP), tissue factor expressing microparticles (TF MP), D-dimer, soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), factor VIII, platelet count, and leukocyte counts. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_5DOI Listing
September 2019
6 Reads

Risk of Thrombosis in Cancer: Clinical Factors and Role of Primary Prophylaxis.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:55-68

Taussig Cancer Institute Cleveland Clinic, 10201 Carnegie Ave, CA60, Cleveland, OH, 44195, USA.

Cancer and its treatments are commonly complicated by venous thromboembolism (VTE), but there is a substantial variation in risk between individual cancer patients. The risk of VTE in cancer patients is influenced by multiple risk factors including primary site of cancer, stage, comorbidities, use of specific antineoplastic agents. Several biomarkers have been associated with subsequent VTE including D-dimer and tissue factor, although no single risk factor or biomarker accurately is predictive of VTE on its own. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_4DOI Listing
September 2019
2 Reads

Pathophysiology 2: The Role of Platelets in Cancer Biology.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:37-54

Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Slot 505, 4301 W. Markham Street, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA.

For over 100 years, a link has been recognized between thrombosis and cancer. However, whether this was a causal or correlational relationship was debated. It is now well established that cancer and thrombosis are mechanistically related in intricate ways and can directly fuel each other. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_3DOI Listing
September 2019

Pathophysiology 1. Mechanisms of Thrombosis in Cancer Patients.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:11-36

Department of Transfusion Medicine and Hematology, Hospital Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.

Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. The pathogenesis of blood coagulation activation in oncological patients is complex and involves both clinical and biological factors. Abnormalities in one or more coagulation test are common in cancer patients, even without thrombotic manifestations, indicating an ongoing hypercoagulable condition. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_2DOI Listing
September 2019
3 Reads

Thrombosis and Hemostasis in Cancer. Scope of the Problem and Overview.

Authors:
Gerald Soff

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;179:1-9

Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, Howard-717, New York, NY, 10065, USA.

"The frequent concurrence of phlegmasia alba dolens with an appreciable cancerous tumor, led me to the inquiry whether a relationship of cause and effect did not exist between the two, and whether the phlegmasia was not the consequence of the cancerous cachexia." (translated from the original French). This famous quote, delivered in a lecture by Armand Trousseau in 1865, is widely recognized as the initial and insightful understanding of the relationship of thrombosis and cancer. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20315-3_1DOI Listing
September 2019
1 Read

Artificial Intelligence and Personalized Medicine.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:265-283

Department of Quantitative Medicine, The Translational Genomics Research Institute (TGen), Phoenix, AZ, USA.

The development of high-throughput, data-intensive biomedical research assays and technologies has created a need for researchers to develop strategies for analyzing, integrating, and interpreting the massive amounts of data they generate. Although a wide variety of statistical methods have been designed to accommodate 'big data,'  experiences with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques suggest that they might be particularly appropriate. In addition,  the results of the application of these assays reveal a great heterogeneity in the pathophysiologic factors and processes that contribute to disease, suggesting that there is a need to tailor, or 'personalize,' medicines to the nuanced and often unique features possessed by individual patients. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_11DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads

Human Microbiota and Personalized Cancer Treatments: Role of Commensal Microbes in Treatment Outcomes for Cancer Patients.

Authors:
Stephen Gately

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:253-264

Translational Drug Development (TD2), Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

The human gut microbiota consists of about 3.8 × 10 microorganisms that play an essential role in health, metabolism, and immunomodulation. These gut microbes alter therapeutic response and toxicity to cancer therapies including cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation therapy, kinase inhibitors, and immunotherapy agents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_10DOI Listing
June 2019
2 Reads

Single-Cell Sequencing in Precision Medicine.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:237-252

Molecular Medicine Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

The application of next-generation sequencing in cancer genomics allowed for a better understanding of the genetics and pathogenesis of cancer. Single-cell genomics is a relatively new field that has enhanced our current knowledge of the genetic diversity of cells involved in the complex biological systems of cancer. Single-cell genomics is a rapidly developing field, and current technologies can assay a single cell's gene expression, DNA variation, epigenetic state, and nuclear structure. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_9DOI Listing
June 2019
16 Reads

Use of Precision Imaging in the Evaluation of Pancreas Cancer.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:209-236

Virginia G Piper Cancer Center at HonorHealth, Scottsdale, AZ, USA.

Pancreas cancer is an aggressive and fatal disease that will become one of the leading causes of cancer mortality by 2030. An all-out effort is underway to better understand the basic biologic mechanisms of this disease ranging from early development to metastatic disease. In order to change the course of this disease, diagnostic radiology imaging may play a vital role in providing a precise, noninvasive method for early diagnosis and assessment of treatment response. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_8DOI Listing
June 2019
13 Reads

Precision Medicine-Enabled Cancer Immunotherapy.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:189-205

Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA.

Repairing defects in anti-tumor immunity has been a longstanding challenge in cancer therapy, and in recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a promising approach for treating advanced disease. While the interactions between the immune system and cancer have been studied for more than a century, only in recent years has the field realized the tremendous potential in stimulating the immune system to eradicate cancer. From early investigations by William Coley in using bacteria to treat cancer patients to more recent work in adoptively transferred engineered T cells to identify and kill cancer cells has opened up an entire field dedicated to re-educating the immune system in a cancer patient. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_7DOI Listing
June 2019
10 Reads

Utilization of Proteomic Technologies for Precision Oncology Applications.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:171-187

Center for Applied Proteomics and Molecular Medicine, George Mason University, 20110, Manassas, VA, USA.

Genomic analysis of tumor specimens has revealed that cancer is fundamentally a proteomic disease at the functional level: driven by genomically defined derangements, but selected for in the proteins that are encoded and the aberrant activation of signaling and biochemical networks. This activation is measured by posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and other modifications that modulate cellular signaling, and these events cannot be effectively measured by genomic analysis alone. Moreover, these signaling networks by and large represent the targets for many FDA-approved and experimental molecularly targeted therapeutics. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_6DOI Listing
June 2019
15 Reads

Genomics-Enabled Precision Medicine for Cancer.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:137-169

Integrated Cancer Genomics Division, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Genomic information is increasingly being incorporated into clinical cancer care. Large-scale sequencing efforts have deepened our understanding of the genomic landscape of cancer and contributed to the expanding catalog of alterations being leveraged to aid in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Genomic profiling can provide clinically relevant information regarding somatic point mutations, copy number alterations, translocations, and gene fusions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_5DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

Immunohistochemistry-Enabled Precision Medicine.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:111-135

Caris Life Sciences, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) can be applied to diagnostic aspects of pathologic examination to provide aid in assignment of lineage and histologic type of cancer. Increasingly, however, IHC is widely used to provide prognostic and predictive (theranostic) information about the neoplastic disease. A refinement of theranostic application of IHC can be seen in the use of "genomic probing" where antibody staining results are directly correlated with an underlying genetic alteration in the tumor (somatic mutations) and/or the patient (germline constitution). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_4DOI Listing
June 2019
1 Read

The Role of Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Patients with Rare Cancers.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:81-108

Hoag Family Cancer Institute, Newport Beach, CA, USA.

Rare cancers pose unique challenges for patients and their physicians arising from a lack of information regarding the best therapeutic options. Very often, a lack of clinical trial data leads physicians to choose treatments based on small case series or case reports. Precision medicine based on genomic analysis of tumors may allow for selection of better treatments with greater efficacy and less toxicity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_3DOI Listing

Update on Precision Medicine in Breast Cancer.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:45-80

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Precision medicine approaches have found applications in the treatment of several tumor types and have led to rapid advancement in the number of available therapies for some difficult-to-treat diseases. In comparison to tumors like EGFR-mutated lung cancer, and BRAF-mutated melanoma for example, precision medicine in breast cancer is still in its infancy despite the much earlier identification of targets like ER and HER2. Though significant progress has been made in new therapies for hormone-receptor-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers, identification of molecular heterogeneity and lack of other valid reproducible targets in triple-negative breast cancer remain a challenge. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_2DOI Listing
June 2019
12 Reads

Targeted Therapies in Non-small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Treat Res 2019 ;178:3-43

Department of Medical Oncology, City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

The treatment landscape for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically shifted over the past two decades. Targeted or precision medicine has primarily been responsible for this shift. Older paradigms of treating metastatic NSCLC with cytotoxic chemotherapy, while still important, have given way to evaluating tumor tissues for specific driver mutations that can be treated with targeted agents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16391-4_1DOI Listing
June 2019
16 Reads

Transplantation.

Authors:
Jasmine Zain

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:269-287

City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-cell NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies including NK/T-cell lymphomas. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important component of the management of T-cell NHL; however, the optimal timing and type of transplant for each different subtype is an ongoing debate. For the purpose of this chapter, PTCL will be classified as (1) systemic PTCL that includes nodal as well as non-nodal histologies in PTCL (2) CTCL-or cutaneous T-cell lymphomas that arise primarily in the skin and (3) NK/T-cell lymphomas both nasal and extranasal types. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_13
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_13DOI Listing
July 2019
30 Reads

CD30-Positive Lymphoproliferative Disorders.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:249-268

Division of Dermatology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPD) encompass lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL), and borderline lesions [1]. CD30+ LPD are the second most common cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) after mycosis fungoides (MF) and represent approximately 25% of all CTCL cases [2]. Their common phenotypic hallmark is an expression of the CD30 antigen, a cytokine receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_12DOI Listing
July 2019
29 Reads

Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas: Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:225-248

Department of Hematology/Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Duarte, USA.

Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the most common subtypes of all primary cutaneous lymphomas and represent complex diseases that require a multidisciplinary assessment by dermatologists, oncologists, and pathologists. Staging and work-up are critical to guarantee an optimal treatment plan that includes skin-directed and/or systemic regimens depending on the clinical stage, tumor burden, drug-related side effect profile, and patient comorbidities. However, there is no cure and patients frequently relapse, requiring repeated treatment courses for disease control. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_11DOI Listing
July 2019
33 Reads

Rare T-Cell Subtypes.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:195-224

Department of Haematology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Australia.

There are a number of rare T-cell lymphoma subtypes that may be encountered in clinical practice. In recent years, improved immunohistochemical techniques and molecular tumor profiling have permitted refinement of some of the diagnostic categories in this group, as well as the recognition of distinct conditions not previously well elucidated. In this chapter, we cover the diagnostic and clinical features of some of the more common of these conditions, including subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma, enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, CD4-positive small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, and acral CD8-positive T-cell lymphoma. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_10DOI Listing
July 2019
19 Reads

Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphomas.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:185-193

Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare variant of extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), associated with aggressive disease course and a relentless track record for lethal outcomes. HSTL presents commonly in young men in their third or fourth decade. Of the known causes, immune dysregulation and immunosuppression are the key players in the pathogenesis of HSTL. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_9DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

NK-Cell Lymphomas.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:163-184

Department of Lymphoma/Myeloma, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

NK-cell malignancies are rare aggressive diseases associated with poor clinical outcome. There is a significant geographic variation in their incidence. At least a part of the reason for that is the fact that Epstein-Barr virus plays an important role in pathogenesis, and importantly, the plasma viral titer reflects disease burden and response to therapy. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_8
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_8DOI Listing
July 2019
5 Reads

Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:145-161

Department of Hematology, National Cancer Center Hospital, 5-1-1Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-lymphocyte malignancy caused by an RNA retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. ATL is clinically classified into four disease subtypes. The acute, lymphoma type, and cases of the chronic type involving unfavorable prognostic factors are regarded as aggressive ATL subtypes that require immediate treatment. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_7DOI Listing
July 2019
3 Reads

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: Contemporary Concepts and Optimal Management.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:127-144

Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, 825 Eastlake Ave. East, P.O. Box G7-800, Seattle, WA, 98109, USA.

Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL) are clinically aggressive and pathologically distinct lymphoid neoplasms that originate from a mature post-thymic T-cell. The contemporary World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Haematologic Malignancies recognizes two distinct subtypes of systemic ALCL: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-negative, and ALK-positive. An additional unique subtype of ALCL is known to arise after prolonged exposure to breast implants, known as Breast Implant Associated ALCL (BIALCL). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_6DOI Listing
July 2019
1 Read

Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:99-126

Lymphoma Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York City, USA.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common types of T-cell lymphoma, representing about 15-20% of cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). It is characterized by a unique clinical presentation and distinct pathologic and molecular features. Classes of drugs particularly active in AITL are emerging; however, treatment of relapsed and refractory disease remains a challenge. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_5DOI Listing
July 2019
48 Reads

Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, not Otherwise Specified (PTCL-NOS).

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:83-98

Division of Hematology, University of Colorado, Denver, USA.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is a World Health Organization (WHO)-defined diagnostic category within the highly heterogeneous group of mature post-thymic T-cell neoplasms. It is the most common subtype of mature post-thymic T-cell neoplasms globally, accounting for up to 35% of PTCL cases in Europe and North America. PTCL-NOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, comprising several disease entities that differ in biology, clinical presentation, and outcome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_4
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_4DOI Listing
July 2019
16 Reads

Tumor Microenvironment in T-Cell Lymphomas.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:69-82

Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphomas that often have an aggressive clinical course. Patients typically have limited treatment options upon relapse and a dismal prognosis after progression despite newly approved therapies. New therapeutic approaches for these orphan diseases are very much needed and a greater understanding of the role of nonmalignant immune cells in the tumor microenvironment may allow for an improved antitumor immune response. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_3
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_3DOI Listing
July 2019
23 Reads

Molecular and Genomic Landscape of Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:31-68

Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA, USA.

Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is an uncommon group of lymphoma covering a diverse spectrum of entities. Little was known regarding the molecular and genomic landscapes of these diseases until recently but the knowledge is still quite spotty with many rarer types of PTCL remain largely unexplored. In this chapter, the recent findings from gene expression profiling (GEP) studies, including profiling data on microRNA, where available, will be presented with emphasis on the implication on molecular diagnosis, prognostication, and the identification of new entities (PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21) in the PTCL-NOS group. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_2DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

Epidemiology and Pathology of T- and NK-Cell Lymphomas.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;176:1-29

Department of Pathology, City of Hope National Medical Center, 1500 East Duarte Road, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.

Purpose: This review will describe and update readers on the recent changes in the 2017 WHO classification regarding peripheral T-cell lymphomas.

Recent Findings: Signficant advances in molecular studies have resulted in revisions to the classification as well as introduction to provisional entities such as breast implant-associated ALCL and nodal PTCL with T-follicular helper phenotype.

Summary: Major advances in molecular and gene expression profiling has expanded our knowledge of these rare and aggressive diseases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_1
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-99716-2_1DOI Listing
July 2019
8 Reads

Moonshot to Cancer Cure: Recruiting Policy to Break Down Silos.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;171:119-128

Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Survivorship Institute, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Funded by the 21 Century Cures Act, The Beau Biden Cancer Moonshot Initiative is broad, deep, integrative, and intended to expediently address cancer's most vexing problems. Launched in 2015, it is an effort to accelerate the pace of cancer research with a focus on breaking down silos through cross-pollination of research, recruitment of multidisciplinary clinical and basic science research teams, sharing of complex scientific databases, and the creation of public-private research partnerships. This audacious approach to cancer treatment is intended to alleviate the current burden of cancer within countries and across borders. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-43896-2_9
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43896-2_9DOI Listing
June 2019
19 Reads

Cancer Drug Toxicity: Moving from Patient to Survivor.

Cancer Treat Res 2019;171:107-118

Cancer Survivorship Institute, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Millions of individuals worldwide are living with cancer and have remained disease-free for more than 5 years. These individuals are considered to be cancer survivors. The advent of new targeted therapies and personalized treatment modalities have contributed to this increased survivorship. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-43896-2_8DOI Listing
June 2019
3 Reads