1,711 results match your criteria Cancer Prevention Research[Journal]


The Gut Microbiota Impacts Cancer Etiology through "Phase IV Metabolism" of Drugs and Endobiotics.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Chemistry, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA AT CHAPEL H

The human gut microbiome intimately complements the human genome and gut microbial factors directly influence health and disease. Here we outline how the gut microbiota uniquely contributes to cancer etiology by processing products of human drug and endobiotic metabolism. We formally propose that the reactions performed by the gut microbiota should be classified as "Phase IV xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism". Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0155DOI Listing

HIST1H2BB and MAGI2 methylation and somatic mutations as precision medicine biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine

Molecular alterations that contribute to long-term (LT) and short-term (ST) survival in ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma (HGSC) may be used as precision medicine biomarkers. DNA promoter methylation is an early event in tumorigenesis, which can be detected in blood and urine, making it a feasible companion biomarker to somatic mutations for early detection and targeted treatment workflows. We compared the methylation profile in 12 high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) tissue samples to 30 fallopian tube epithelium samples, using the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Array. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0412DOI Listing

Use of Aspirin and Statins in Relation to Inflammation in Benign Prostate Tissue in the Placebo Arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Aspirin and statin use may lower risk of advanced/fatal prostate cancer, possibly by reducing intraprostatic inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the association of aspirin and statin use with the presence and extent of intraprostatic inflammation, and the abundance of specific immune cell types, in benign prostate tissue from a subset of men from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Men were classified as aspirin or statin users if they reported use at baseline or during the seven-year trial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0450DOI Listing

Endoscopic history and provider characteristics influence gastric cancer survival in Asian Americans.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Medicine, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.

Gastric carcinoma (GC) disproportionately affects Asian Americans. We examined whether history of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was associated with lower stage at GC diagnosis among Asian Americans and whether origin of providers influenced referral for endoscopy. We employed SEER-Medicare data on Asian Americans diagnosed with GC in 2004-2013 (n=1,554). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0058DOI Listing

Stress-induced Norepinephrine Downregulates CCL2 in Macrophages to Suppress Tumor Growth in a Model of Malignant Melanoma.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 9. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology, West Virginia University

Psychological stressors have been implicated in the progression of various tumor types. We investigated a role for stress in tumor immune cell chemotaxis in the B16F10 mouse model of malignant melanoma. We exposed female mice to six-hour periods of restraint stress (RST) for seven days then implanted B16F10 malignant melanoma tumor cells and continued the RST paradigm for 14 additional days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0370DOI Listing

BIOMARKER MODULATION STUDY OF CELECOXIB FOR CHEMOPREVENTION IN WOMEN AT INCREASED RISK FOR BREAST CANCER: A Phase II Pilot Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Breast Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

In preclinical studies, celecoxib has been associated with reduced risk of breast cancer. In this study, the aim was to assess the biomodulatory effect of celecoxib on blood and benign breast tissue biomarkers in women at increased risk for breast cancer. Women at increased risk for breast cancer (5-year Gail risk score of >1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0095DOI Listing

HER2-Overexpressing Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Associated with Increased Risk of Ipsilateral Invasive Recurrence, Receptor Discordance with Recurrence.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Breast Surgery And The Comprehensive Breast Health Center, University of California San Diego Medical Center.

The impact of HER2 status in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on the risk of progression to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) has been debated. We aim to use a national database to identify patients with known HER2 status to elucidate the effect of HER2 overexpression on ipsilateral IDC (iIDC) development. We performed survival analysis on patient-level data using the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0024DOI Listing

A Proposal to Improve the Early Diagnosis of Symptomatic Cancers in the US.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Washington.

Many people are diagnosed with cancer after presenting with signs and symptoms of their disease to a healthcare provider. Research from developed countries suggests that, in addition to indicating later-stage disease, symptoms can also indicate earlier-stage disease, leading to investment in research and quality improvement efforts in the early detection of symptomatic cancers. This approach, labelled early diagnosis of symptomatic cancers, focuses on identifying cancer at the earliest possible stage in patients with potential signs and symptoms of cancer, and subsequently diagnosing and treating the cancer without delay. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0115DOI Listing

Immuno-Interception for Patients with High-Risk Cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun;13(6):493-496

Cancer Prevention Fellowship, & Gastrointestinal & Other Cancers Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI, Bethesda, Maryland.

Cancer immune-interception for prevention of recurrence in patients with high-risk familial cancer like Muir-Torre syndrome or Lynch syndrome using immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors is a promising approach. Albeit, as described in a case report by Pollak and colleagues in the April 2020 issue of , it has the potential to be used as immune-interceptive with alternative dosing regimens for cancers with microsatellite instability. The combination of additional cancer preventive and immunopreventive approaches, such as vaccines and minimal dose of immune checkpoint blockade inhibitors, is another unexplored modality for cancer interception in high-risk individuals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0136DOI Listing

Analysis of the Transcriptome: Regulation of Cancer Stemness in Breast Ductal Carcinoma In Situ by Vitamin D Compounds.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Chemical Biology, Rutgers University

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), which accounts for one out of every five new breast cancer diagnoses, will progress to potentially lethal invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) in about 50% of cases. Vitamin D compounds have been shown to inhibit progression to IDC in the MCF10DCIS model. This inhibition appears to involve a reduction in the cancer stem cell-like population in MCF10DCIS tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0566DOI Listing

The Role of Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 2 in Prostate Cancer Chemopreventive Mechanisms of Sulforaphane.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Pharmacology & Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Prostate cancer chemoprevention by sulforaphane (SFN), which is a metabolic by-product of glucoraphanin found in broccoli, in preclinical models is associated with induction of both apoptosis and autophagy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying SFN-mediated autophagy, which is protective against apoptotic cell death by this phytochemical, is still poorly understood. The present study demonstrates a role for lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (LAMP2) in SFN-mediated autophagy and apoptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0054DOI Listing

An integrated approach for preventing oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers: two etiologies with distinct and shared mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Public Health Sciences, Penn State College of Medicine.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) was the 7th most common malignancy worldwide in 2018 and despite therapeutic advances, the overall survival rate for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) (~50%) has remained unchanged for decades. The most common types are OSCC and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC, survival rate ~85%). Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor of HNSCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0096DOI Listing

Population-based Genetic Testing for Precision Prevention.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Gynaecological Oncology, Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary University of Londond

Global interest in genetic-testing for Cancer-Susceptibility-Genes (CSG) has surged with falling costs, increasing awareness and celebrity endorsement. Current access to genetic-testing is based on clinical-criteria/risk-model assessment which uses family-history (FH) as a surrogate. However, this approach is fraught with inequality, massive underutilisation, and misses 50% CSG carriers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0002DOI Listing

Utilizing Cultural and Ethnic Variables in Screening Models to Identify Individuals at High Risk for Gastric Cancer: A Pilot Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 14. Epub 2020 May 14.

Montefiore Medical Center.

Identifying persons at high risk for gastric cancer (GC) is needed for targeted interventions for prevention and control in low-incidence regions. Combining ethnic/cultural factors with conventional GC-risk factors may enhance identification of high-risk persons. Data from a prior case-control study (40 GC cases, 100 controls) were used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0490DOI Listing

Inhibition of miR-21 Regulates Mutant KRAS Effector Pathways and Intercepts Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Development.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 14;13(7):569-582. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Oncology, Skip Viragh Center for Pancreas Cancer, Bloomberg Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, and the Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Almost all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDA) develop following KRAS activation, which triggers epithelial transformation and recruitment of desmoplastic stroma through additional transcriptional and epigenetic regulation, but only a few of these regulatory mechanisms have been described. We profiled dysregulated miRNAs starting with the earliest premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) in genetically engineered mutated KRAS and P53 (KPC) mice programmed to recapitulate human PDA tumorigenesis. We identified miR-21 and miR-224 as cell-specific and compartment-specific regulators in PanINs and PDA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0053DOI Listing

Reasons for Not Attending Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors in Rural Ethiopia.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 5;13(7):593-600. Epub 2020 May 5.

Institute for Medical Epidemiology, Biometrics and Informatics, Martin-Luther-University, Halle-Wittenberg, Germany.

Social, economic, and cultural factors have been associated with the level of participation in cervical cancer screening programs. This study identified factors associated with nonparticipation in cervical cancer screening, as well as reasons for not attending, in the context of a population-based, cluster-randomized trial in Ethiopia. A total of 2,356 women aged 30 to 49 years in 22 clusters were invited to receive one of two screening approaches, namely human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling or visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0485DOI Listing

Randomized Phase IIB Trial of the Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside in Premenopausal Women at Increased Risk for Development of Breast Cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 20;13(7):623-634. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

We conducted a multiinstitutional, placebo-controlled phase IIB trial of the lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) found in flaxseed. Benign breast tissue was acquired by random periareolar fine needle aspiration (RPFNA) from premenopausal women at increased risk for breast cancer. Those with hyperplasia and ≥2% Ki-67 positive cells were eligible for randomization 2:1 to 50 mg SDG/day (Brevail) versus placebo for 12 months with repeat bio-specimen acquisition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335358PMC

Physical Activity and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among U.S. Men and Women.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 20. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Mounting evidence indicates a potential beneficial effect of vigorous-intensity physical activity on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the association between moderate-intensity physical activity, such as brisk walking, and the risk of HCC remains largely unknown. Two prospective cohorts of 77,535 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 44,540 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0447DOI Listing

Physical Activity and Long-term Quality of Life among Colorectal Cancer Survivors-A Population-based Prospective Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 6;13(7):611-622. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Unit of Cancer Survivorship, Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is positively associated with (health-related) quality of life (QOL) in colorectal cancer survivors. However, little is known regarding long-term effects of PA on QOL and if prediagnosis PA is associated with QOL in the years after diagnosis. Our study aimed to investigate the association of prediagnosis and postdiagnosis PA with long-term QOL in colorectal cancer survivors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0377DOI Listing

Epigallocatechin Gallate Induces Hepatic Stellate Cell Senescence and Attenuates Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 6;13(6):497-508. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly morbid condition with lack of effective treatment options. HCC arises from chronically inflamed and damaged liver tissue; therefore, chemoprevention may be a useful strategy to reduce HCC incidence. Several reports suggest that epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), extracted from green tea, can suppress liver inflammation and fibrosis in animal models, but its role in HCC chemoprevention is not well established. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0383DOI Listing

Cancer Immunoprevention: A Case Report Raising the Possibility of "Immuno-interception".

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 04;13(4):351-356

Cancer Prevention Centre, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Immune checkpoint blockade therapy provides substantial benefits for subsets of patients with advanced cancer, but its utility for cancer prevention is unknown. Lynch syndrome (MIM 120435) is characterized by defective DNA mismatch repair and predisposition to multiple cancers. A variant of Lynch syndrome, Muir-Torre syndrome (MIM 158320), is characterized by frequent gastrointestinal tumors and hyperplastic or neoplastic skin tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0528DOI Listing

Participatory Design of a Personalized Genetic Risk Tool to Promote Behavioral Health.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 24;13(7):583-592. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Despite major advancements in genomic medicine, research to optimize the design and communication of genetically informed interventions in behavioral health has lagged. The goal of this study was to engage potential end users in participatory codesign of a personalized genetically informed risk tool to intervene on high-risk health behaviors. We used structured interviews to examine end-user attitudes and interest in personalized genetics, qualitative interviews to guide iterative design of a genetically informed tool, and questionnaires to assess acceptability and potential utility of the tool. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335332PMC

Maternal Epigenetic Regulation Contributes to Prevention of Estrogen Receptor-negative Mammary Cancer with Broccoli Sprout Consumption.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 17;13(5):449-462. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Department of Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.

Cruciferous vegetables have been of special interest due to the rich presence of bioactive compounds such as sulforaphane which show promising potential on cancer prevention and therapy as an epigenetic dietary strategy. Abnormal epigenetic alteration as one of the primary contributors to tumor development is closely related to breast cancer initiation and progression. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dietary broccoli sprouts (BSp), a common cruciferous vegetable, on prevention of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative mammary tumors at three different temporal exposure windows using a spontaneous breast cancer mouse model. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203003PMC

Dietary Advanced Glycation End-products (AGE) and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO).

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 13;13(7):601-610. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina.

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases including cancer. AGEs are produced endogenously but can also be consumed from foods. AGE formation in food is accelerated during cooking at high temperatures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7335328PMC

Epigenome, Transcriptome, and Protection by Sulforaphane at Different Stages of UVB-Induced Skin Carcinogenesis.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 11;13(6):551-562. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey.

Sulforaphane (SFN), a potent antioxidant and antiinflammatory agent, has been shown to protect against cancers especially at early stages. However, how SFN affects UVB-mediated epigenome/DNA methylome and transcriptome changes in skin photodamage has not been fully assessed. Herein, we investigated the transcriptomic and DNA methylomic changes during tumor initiation, promotion, and progression and its impact and reversal by SFN using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272261PMC

Age at Initiation and Frequency of Screening to Prevent Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in High-risk Regions: an Economic Evaluation.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 9;13(6):543-550. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Oncology, Putuo Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The aim of this study was to identify the economic screening strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in high-risk regions. We used a validated ESCC health policy model for comparing different screening strategies for ESCC. Strategies varied in terms of age at initiation and frequency of screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0477DOI Listing

The Use of the Nicotine Metabolite Ratio as a Biomarker to Personalize Smoking Cessation Treatment: Current Evidence and Future Directions.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):261-272

Department of Psychiatry and Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a genetically informed biomarker of rate of nicotine metabolism, has been validated as a tool to select the optimal treatment for individual smokers, thereby improving treatment outcomes. This review summarizes the evidence supporting the development of the NMR as a biomarker of individual differences in nicotine metabolism, the relationship between the NMR and smoking behavior, the clinical utility of using the NMR to personalize treatments for smoking cessation, and the potential mechanisms that underlie the relationship between NMR and smoking cessation. We conclude with a call for additional research necessary to determine the ultimate benefits of using the NMR to personalize treatments for smoking cessation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080293PMC

Addressing Disparities in Cancer Screening among U.S. Immigrants: Progress and Opportunities.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):253-260

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The United States is home to 47 million foreign-born individuals, which currently represents over 14% of the U.S. population. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080302PMC

Reducing Ovarian Cancer Mortality Through Early Detection: Approaches Using Circulating Biomarkers.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):241-252

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas.

More than two-thirds of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) will die from the disease (>14,000 deaths annually), a fact that has not changed considerably in the last three decades. Although the 5-year survival rates for most other solid tumors have improved steadily, ovarian cancer remains an exception, making it the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers and five times deadlier than breast cancer. When diagnosed early, treatment is more effective, with a 5-year survival rate of up to 90%. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080297PMC

Dysplastic Aberrant Crypt Foci: Biomarkers of Early Colorectal Neoplasia and Response to Preventive Intervention.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):229-240

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The discovery of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) more than three decades ago not only enhanced our understanding of how colorectal tumors form, but provided new opportunities to detect lesions prior to adenoma development and intervene in the colorectal carcinogenesis process even earlier. Because not all ACF progress to neoplasia, it is important to stratify these lesions based on the presence of dysplasia and establish early detection methods and interventions that specifically target dysplastic ACF (microadenomas). Significant progress has been made in characterizing the morphology and genetics of dysplastic ACF in both preclinical models and humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080315PMC

A Multi-level Model to Understand Cervical Cancer Disparities in Appalachia.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):223-228

Division of Health Behavior and Health Promotion, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

The Appalachian region experiences higher incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer compared with other regions of the United States. The goal of the Ohio State University Center for Population Health and Health Disparities (CPHHD), called the Community Awareness Resources and Education (CARE) project, was to understand reasons for this disparity. The first wave (2003-2008) of funding included three projects focusing on the known risk factors for cervical cancer, lack of screening, smoking, and infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080299PMC

Navigating the Intersection between Genomic Research and Clinical Practice.

Authors:
Mary B Daly

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):219-222

Department of Clinical Genetics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The Risk Assessment Program (RAP) at Fox Chase Cancer Center (Philadelphia, PA) is a multi-generational prospective cohort, enhanced for personal and family history of cancer, consisting of over 10,000 individuals for whom data on personal and family history of cancer, risk factors, genetic and genomic data, health behaviors, and biospecimens are available. The RAP has a broad research agenda including the characterization of genes with known or potential relevance to cancer, gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, and their contribution to clinically useful risk assessment and risk reduction strategies. Increasingly, this body of research is identifying genetic changes which may have clinical significance for RAP research participants, leading us to confront the issue of whether to return genetic results emerging from research laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080295PMC

Honoring Paul F. Engstrom, MD: A Pioneer of Cancer Prevention.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar;13(3):215-218

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0041DOI Listing

Impact of Social Support on Colorectal Cancer Screening among Adult Hispanics/Latinos: A Randomized Community-based Study in Central Pennsylvania.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 3;13(6):531-542. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania.

In the United States, the five-year survival rate of colorectal cancer for Latinos is lower than it is for White, non-Latinos. Differences in survival are due, in part, to Latinos being diagnosed at a later stage. An ethnic gap in the use of colorectal cancer screening contributes to the difference in survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0333DOI Listing

The Impact of One-week Dietary Supplementation with Kava on Biomarkers of Tobacco Use and Nitrosamine-based Carcinogenesis Risk among Active Smokers.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 26;13(5):483-492. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Tobacco smoking is the primary risk factor for lung cancer, driven by the addictive nature of nicotine and the indisputable carcinogenicity of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as well as other compounds. The integration of lung cancer chemoprevention with smoking cessation is one potential approach to reduce this risk and mitigate lung cancer mortality. Experimental data from our group suggest that kava, commonly consumed in the South Pacific Islands as a beverage to promote relaxation, may reduce lung cancer risk by enhancing NNK detoxification and reducing NNK-derived DNA damage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0501DOI Listing

Adiposity Change Over the Life Course and Mammographic Breast Density in Postmenopausal Women.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 26;13(5):475-482. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Division of Public Health Sciences, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.

Mammographic breast density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. We comprehensively investigated the associations of body mass index (BMI) change from ages 10, 18, and 30 to age at mammogram with mammographic breast density in postmenopausal women. We used multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for confounders, to investigate the associations of BMI change with volumetric percent density, dense volume, and nondense volume, assessed using Volpara in 367 women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0549DOI Listing

Vitamin D Pathway and Other Related Polymorphisms and Risk of Prostate Cancer: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 26;13(6):521-530. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Cancer Prevention Program, Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Vitamin D may influence prostate cancer risk, but evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a nested case-control study in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Cases ( = 1,128) and controls ( = 1,205) were frequency matched on age, first-degree relative with prostate cancer, and PCPT treatment arm (finasteride/placebo); African-Americans were oversampled and case/control status was biopsy confirmed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0413DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272271PMC

External Validation of Risk Prediction Models Incorporating Common Genetic Variants for Incident Colorectal Cancer Using UK Biobank.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 18;13(6):509-520. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

The Primary Care Unit, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to compare and externally validate risk scores developed to predict incident colorectal cancer that include common genetic variants (SNPs), with or without established lifestyle/environmental (questionnaire-based/classical/phenotypic) risk factors. We externally validated 23 risk models from a previous systematic review in 443,888 participants ages 37 to 73 from the UK Biobank cohort who had 6-year prospective follow-up, no prior history of colorectal cancer, and data for incidence of colorectal cancer through linkage to national cancer registries. There were 2,679 (0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0521DOI Listing

Oral Microbiome Profiling in Smokers with and without Head and Neck Cancer Reveals Variations Between Health and Disease.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 18;13(5):463-474. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

While smoking is inextricably linked to oral/head and neck cancer (HNSCC), only a small fraction of smokers develop HNSCC. Thus, we have sought to identify other factors, which may influence the development of HNSCC in smokers including microbiology. To determine microbial associations with HNSCC among tobacco users, we characterized oral microbiome composition in smokers with and without HNSCC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0459DOI Listing

A Systematic Review on Cost-effectiveness Studies Evaluating Ovarian Cancer Early Detection and Prevention Strategies.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 18;13(5):429-442. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Institute of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT - University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall i.T., Austria.

Ovarian cancer imposes a substantial health and economic burden. We systematically reviewed current health-economic evidence for ovarian cancer early detection or prevention strategies. Accordingly, we searched relevant databases for cost-effectiveness studies evaluating ovarian cancer early detection or prevention strategies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0506DOI Listing

Epidemiologic Risk Factors in a Comparison of a Barrett Esophagus Registry (BarrettNET) and a Case-Control Population in Germany.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 17;13(4):377-384. Epub 2020 Feb 17.

Department of Medicine II, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich (TUM), München, Germany.

Endoscopic screening for Barrett's esophagus as the major precursor lesion for esophageal adenocarcinoma is mostly offered to patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). However, other epidemiologic risk factors might affect the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Therefore, efforts to improve the efficiency of screening to find the Barrett's esophagus population "at risk" compared with the normal population are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0474DOI Listing

A Multi-Institutional Cohort of Therapy-Associated Polyposis in Childhood and Young Adulthood Cancer Survivors.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Mar 12;13(3):291-298. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Prior small reports have postulated a link between gastrointestinal polyposis and childhood and young adulthood cancer (CYAC) treatment (therapy-associated polyposis; TAP), but this remains a poorly understood phenomenon. The aim of this study was to describe the phenotypic spectrum of TAP in a multi-institutional cohort. TAP cases were identified from eight high-risk cancer centers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060102PMC

Intercepting Endometrial Cancer: Opportunities to Expand Access Using New Technology.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jul 11;13(7):563-568. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Although endometrial cancer is often diagnosed at an early curable stage, the incidence and mortality from endometrial cancer is rising and minority women are particularly at risk. We hypothesize that delays in clinical presentation contribute to racial disparities in endometrial cancer mortality and treatment-related morbidity. Improved methods for endometrial cancer risk assessment and distinguishing abnormal uterine bleeding and postmenopausal bleeding from physiologic variation are needed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0556DOI Listing

Estimating the Screening-Eligible Population Size, Ages 45-74, at Average Risk to Develop Colorectal Cancer in the United States.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 6;13(5):443-448. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Exact Sciences Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin.

Colorectal cancer is a growing burden in adults less than 50 years old. In 2018, the American Cancer Society published a guideline update recommending a reduction in the colorectal cancer screening start age for average-risk individuals from 50 to 45. Implementing these recommendations would have important implications for public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0527DOI Listing

Risk Factors for Recurrence in Patients with Atypical Endometrial Hyperplasia and Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma after Fertility-Sparing Treatments.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 3;13(4):403-410. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence in young patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and early-stage endometrioid adenocarcinoma after fertility-sparing treatments (FST). A retrospective case-control study was designed. Patients with atypical endometrial hyperplasia and early-stage endometrioid adenocarcinoma who received FSTs from January 2010 to December 2017 were reviewed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0399DOI Listing

Low Colorectal Cancer Screening Uptake and Persistent Disparities in an Underserved Urban Population.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 3;13(4):395-402. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, NYU Langone Health, New York, New York.

Colorectal cancer screening has increased substantially in New York City in recent years. However, screening uptake measured by telephone surveys may not fully capture rates among underserved populations. We measured screening completion within 1 year of a primary care visit among previously unscreened patients in a large urban safety-net hospital and identified sociodemographic and health-related predictors of screening. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0440DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7127936PMC

Risk of Prostate Cancer-related Death Following a Low PSA Level in the PLCO Trial.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 29;13(4):367-376. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, Bethesda, Maryland.

Longer-than-annual screening intervals have been suggested to improve the balance of benefits and harms in prostate cancer screening. Many researchers, societies, and guideline committees have suggested that screening intervals could depend on the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) result. We analyzed data from men ( = 33,897) ages 55-74 years with a baseline PSA test in the intervention arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial (United States, 1993-2001). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339970PMC

Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 and the Incidence of Malignant Neoplasms in a Nested Case-Control Study.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 29;13(4):385-394. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University, Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan.

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 is a potent mitogen, but IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-3 inhibits IGF1. To elucidate the relationship between both IGF1 and IGFBP and the risk of tumorigenesis, the association between IGF1 and IGFBP3 serum levels and of malignant tumor incidence was investigated in a prospective case-control study nested in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study. A baseline survey was started in 1988-1990, 110,585 subjects were enrolled, and 35% of participants donated blood samples. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0375DOI Listing

TRPV6 as a Putative Genomic Susceptibility Locus Influencing Racial Disparities in Cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 May 29;13(5):423-428. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Friends of the Congo, Chief Technology Officer, Washington, District of Columbia.

It is well established that African Americans exhibit higher incidence, higher mortality, and more aggressive forms of some cancers, including those of breast, prostate, colon, stomach, and cervix. Here we examine the ancestral haplotype of the TRPV6 calcium channel as a putative genomic factor in this racial divide. The minor (ancestral) allele frequency is 60% in people of African ancestry, but between 1% and 11% in all other populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0351DOI Listing

Knowledge of Potential Harms and Benefits of Tamoxifen among Women Considering Breast Cancer Preventive Therapy.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Apr 27;13(4):411-422. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Tamoxifen reduces breast cancer incidence in women at increased risk, but may cause side effects. We examined women's knowledge of tamoxifen's potential harms and benefits, and the extent to which knowledge reflects subjective judgments of awareness and decision quality. After a hospital appointment, 408 (55. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0424DOI Listing