21,068 results match your criteria Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention[Journal]


From human genome epidemiology to systems epidemiology: current progress and future perspective.

J Biomed Res 2020 Jun 29:1-5. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China;Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Personalized Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166,

The recent progress in human genome epidemiology (HuGE) is already having a profound impact on the practice of medicine and public health. First, the success of genome-wide association studies has greatly expanded the direction and content of epidemiological researches, including revealing new genetic mechanisms of complex diseases, identifying new targets for therapeutic interventions, and improving application in early screening of high-risk populations. At the same time, large-scale genomic studies make it possible to efficiently explore the gene-environment interactions, which will help better understand the biological pathways of complex diseases and identify individuals who may be more susceptible to diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7555/JBR.34.20200027DOI Listing

Is there a role for menopausal hormone therapy in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis?

Osteoporos Int 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK.

We provide an evidence base and guidance for the use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) for the maintenance of skeletal health and prevention of future fractures in recently menopausal women. Despite controversy over associated side effects, which has limited its use in recent decades, the potential role for MHT soon after menopause in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis is increasingly recognized. We present a narrative review of the benefits versus risks of using MHT in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00198-020-05497-8DOI Listing

Multicenter phase II study of Cabazitaxel in advanced gastroesophageal cancer: Association of HER2 Expression and M2-like Tumor Associated Macrophages with Patient Outcome.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Medical Oncology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California.

Purpose: Purpose: We examined cabazitaxel, a novel next generation taxoid, in patients with metastatic gastric cancer in a multicenter phase II study.

Experimental Design: Patients that have progressed on 1 or more prior therapies for locally advanced, unresectable or metastatic disease, were eligible and prior taxane therapy was allowed. Taxane-naïve and pretreated cohorts were analyzed independently for efficacy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-3920DOI Listing

Association of plasma biomarkers of fruit and vegetable intake with incident type 2 diabetes: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study in eight European countries.

BMJ 2020 07 8;370:m2194. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Institute of Metabolic Science, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Objective: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

Design: Prospective case-cohort study.

Setting: Populations from eight European countries. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7341350PMC

A Complex Systems Model of Breast Cancer Etiology: The Paradigm II Conceptual Model.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: The etiology of breast cancer is a complex system of interacting factors from multiple domains. New knowledge about breast cancer etiology continues to be produced by the research community, and the communication of this knowledge to other researchers, practitioners, decision makers, and the public is a challenge.

Methods: We updated the previously published Paradigm model (PMID: 25017248) to create a framework that describes breast cancer etiology in four overlapping domains of biologic, behavioral, environmental, and social determinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0016DOI Listing

A prospective study of erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of colorectal serrated polyps and conventional adenomas.

Int J Cancer 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

The influence of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on risk of colorectal cancer precursors remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of erythrocyte PUFAs, including n-3 and n-6 PUFAs, with risk of colorectal conventional adenomas and serrated polyps in 4517 participants from three U.S. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33190DOI Listing

A Functional Variant of the miR-15 Family Is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

DNA Cell Biol 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Beijing Municipal Key Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs)-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be implicated in the susceptibility to different types of cancer, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Identification of miRNA-related SNPs may provide candidate biomarkers for early diagnosis of ESCC. We performed a genome-wide microarray assay to identify differentially expressed miRNAs, which indicated that the miR-15 family may play an important role in ESCC biology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/dna.2020.5606DOI Listing

Merkel Cell Polyomavirus and Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 3;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Molecular Inflammation Research Group, Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø-The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.

Viruses are the cause of approximately 15% of all human cancers. Both RNA and DNA human tumor viruses have been identified, with Merkel cell polyomavirus being the most recent one to be linked to cancer. This virus is associated with about 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas, a rare, but aggressive cutaneous malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071774DOI Listing

Genetic and clinical predictors of arthralgia during letrozole or anastrozole therapy in breast cancer patients.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Female patients with breast cancer frequently develop arthralgia when treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI). Although the mechanism of AI-induced arthralgia is unknown, potential biomarkers have been identified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and genetic predictors of AI-induced arthralgia in a prospective cohort of patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05777-1DOI Listing

Dietary phytoestrogens and biomarkers of their intake in relation to cancer survival and recurrence: a comprehensive systematic review with meta-analysis.

Nutr Rev 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Context: Recent studies have outlined the potential role of dietary factors in patients who have survived cancer.

Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence of the relation between dietary intake of phytoestrogens and their blood biomarkers and, overall, cancer-specific mortality and recurrence in patients with cancer.

Data Sources: A systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases of studies published up to September 2019 was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuaa043DOI Listing

ProstaTrend-A Multivariable Prognostic RNA Expression Score for Aggressive Prostate Cancer.

Eur Urol 2020 Jul 3. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Diagnostics, Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Clinical Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most prevalent solid cancer among men in Western Countries. The clinical behavior of localized PCa is highly variable. Some cancers are aggressive leading to death, while others can even be monitored safely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2020.06.001DOI Listing

Identification of let-7f-5p as a novel biomarker of recurrence in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

Cancer Biomark 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, USA.

Background: Among patients diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), 30% to 70% experience recurrences within 6 to 12 years of diagnosis. The need to screen for these events every 3 to 6 months and ultimately annually by cystoscopy makes bladder cancer one of the most expensive malignancies to manage.

Objective: The of this study was to identify reproducible prognostic microRNAs in resected non-muscle invasive bladder tumor tissue that are predictive of the recurrent tumor phenotype as potential biomarkers and molecular therapeutic targets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CBM-191322DOI Listing

Vitamin D status and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a large cohort: results from the UK Biobank.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 Jul 4. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, International Joint Research Center on Environment and Human Health, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

Context: Although an inverse association between vitamin D status and mortality has been reported in observational studies, the precise association shape and optimal vitamin D status remain undetermined.

Objective: To investigate the association between vitamin D status and risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and estimate optimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations.

Design: Prospective cohort study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa432DOI Listing

ICON: a randomized phase IIb study evaluating immunogenic chemotherapy combined with ipilimumab and nivolumab in patients with metastatic hormone receptor positive breast cancer.

J Transl Med 2020 Jul 3;18(1):269. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) targeting PD-1 or CTLA-4 has emerged as an important treatment modality for several cancer forms. In hormone receptor positive breast cancer (HR + BC), this therapeutic approach is largely unexplored. We have started a clinical trial, ICON (CA209-9FN), evaluating CPI combined with selected chemotherapy in patients with metastatic HR + BC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02421-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333428PMC

Mitochondrial DNA copy number in cervical exfoliated cells and risk of cervical cancer among HPV-positive women.

BMC Womens Health 2020 Jul 2;20(1):139. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, No. 101 Longmian Ave, Jiangning District, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Background: Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been regarded as the cause of cervical cancer in over 99% of cases, only a small fraction of HPV-infected women develop this malignancy. Emerging evidence suggests that alterations of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtCN) may contribute to carcinogenesis. However, the relationship between mtCN and cervical cancer remains undetermined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-01001-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7331179PMC

The interplay of GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) expression and M2 macrophages during prostate carcinogenesis.

Carcinogenesis 2020 Jul 2. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI.

M2 (tumor-supportive) macrophages may upregulate GDF15 (growth/differentiation factor 15), which is highly expressed in prostate tumors, but the combined utility of these markers as prognostic biomarkers are unclear. We retrospectively studied 90 prostate cancer cases that underwent radical prostatectomy as their primary treatment and were followed for biochemical recurrence (BCR). These cases also had a benign prostate biopsy at least one year or more before their prostate cancer surgery. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgaa065DOI Listing

Differential Metabolic Alterations and Biomarkers Between Gastric Cancer and Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Onco Targets Ther 2020 25;13:6093-6108. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

National Key Disciplines of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Numerous metabolomics studies have been conducted to detect the metabolic mechanisms and biomarkers related to gastric cancer and colorectal cancer. Because of the common metabolic features between gastric cancer and colorectal cancer, a differential diagnosis is difficult. Here, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify differential metabolic biomarkers between these two types of cancers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S247393DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7323803PMC

A Prospective Analysis of Intake of Red and Processed Meat in Relation to Pancreatic Cancer among African American Women.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University.

Background: African Americans have the highest incidence of pancreatic cancer of any racial/ethnic group in the US. There is evidence that consumption of red or processed meat and foods containing saturated fats may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, but there is limited evidence in African Americans.

Methods: Utilizing the Black Women's Health Study (1995-2018), we prospectively investigated the associations of red and processed meat and saturated fats with incidence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=168). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0048DOI Listing

The association of MUC16 mutation with tumor mutation burden and its prognostic implications in cutaneous melanoma.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Immunology, Moffitt Cancer Center.

Background: MUC16 is a mucin marker that is frequently mutated in melanoma; but whether MUC16 mutations could be useful as a surrogate biomarker for tumor mutation burden (TMB) remains unclear.

Methods: This study rigorously evaluates the MUC16 mutation as a clinical biomarker in cutaneous melanoma by utilizing genomic and clinical data from patient samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and two independent validation cohorts. We further extended the analysis to studies with patients treated with immunotherapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0307DOI Listing

Association between selenium intake and breast cancer risk: results from the Women's Health Initiative.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2020 Jun 30. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University Bloomington, 1025 E 7th street, Bloomington, IN, 47405, USA.

Purpose: It has been hypothesized that selenium (Se) can prevent cancer, and that Se deficiency may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. However, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to assess the association between Se intake and risk of breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05764-6DOI Listing

Development and validation of a genomic mutation signature to predict response to PD-1 inhibitors in non-squamous NSCLC: a multicohort stud.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 Jun;8(1)

Department of Radiation Oncology, Southern Medical University Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

Background: Genetic variations of some driver genes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) had shown potential impact on immune microenvironment and associated with response or resistance to programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blockade immunotherapy. We therefore undertook an exploratory analysis to develop a genomic mutation signature (GMS) and predict the response to anti-PD-(L)1 therapy.

Methods: In this multicohort analysis, 316 patients with non-squamous NSCLC treated with anti-PD-(L)1 from three independent cohorts were included in our study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2019-000381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328897PMC

Association of Allostatic Load with All-Cause andCancer Mortality by Race and Body Mass Index in theREGARDS Cohort.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 26;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35233, USA.

Among 29,701 Black and White participants aged 45 years and older in the Reasons forGeographic and Racial Difference in Stroke (REGARDS) study, allostatic load (AL) was defined asthe sum score of established baseline risk-associated biomarkers for which participants exceeded aset cutoff point. Cox proportional hazard regression was utilized to determine the association of ALscore with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality, with analyses stratified by body-mass index, agegroup, and race. At baseline, Blacks had a higher AL score compared with Whites (Black mean ALscore: 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061695DOI Listing

Epidemiology, Risk Assessment, and Biomarkers for Patients with Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Urol Clin North Am 2020 Aug 10;47(3):293-303. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 353 East 68th Street, 5th Floor, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

In the preceding two decades, several milestones have been reached in the management of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), including the development of novel targeted agents paralleling an increased understanding of the molecular biology of this disease process. Recently, a renewed enthusiasm for immunotherapy in the form of immune checkpoint blockade has resulted in significant strides in the treatment of mRCC. Despite these advances, treatment remains challenging for clinicians, and only modest survival benefits are observed with current treatment paradigms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ucl.2020.04.002DOI Listing

Identifying epigenetic biomarkers of established prognostic factors and survival in a clinical cohort of individuals with oropharyngeal cancer.

Clin Epigenetics 2020 Jun 29;12(1):95. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at the University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Smoking status, alcohol consumption and HPV infection (acquired through sexual activity) are the predominant risk factors for oropharyngeal cancer and are thought to alter the prognosis of the disease. Here, we conducted single-site and differentially methylated region (DMR) epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) of these factors, in addition to ∼ 3-year survival, using Illumina Methylation EPIC DNA methylation profiles from whole blood in 409 individuals as part of the Head and Neck 5000 (HN5000) study. Overlapping sites between each factor and survival were then assessed using two-step Mendelian randomization to assess whether methylation at these positions causally affected survival. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-020-00870-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322918PMC

Relationships between race, gender, and spot urine levels of biomarkers of tobacco exposure vary based on how creatinine is handled in analyses.

Nicotine Tob Res 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, MN, USA.

Introduction: We illustrate the differential impact of common analysis approaches to handling urinary creatinine, a measure for urine dilution, on relationships between race, gender, and biomarkers of exposure (BOE) measured in spot urine.

Methods: In smokers, spot urine levels of total nicotine equivalents (TNE, sum of total nicotine, total cotinine and total 3'-hydroxycotinine) and total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) overall and per cigarette were examined. Relationships between race (African Americans[AA] n=373,Whites n=758) or gender (males n=629,females n=502) and TNE or NNAL were examined using the following approaches to handling creatinine: 1) unadjusted/unstandarized; 2) standardization; 3) adjustment as a covariate. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntaa117DOI Listing

The YTH Domain Family of N6-Methyladenosine "Readers" in the Diagnosis and Prognosis of Colonic Adenocarcinoma.

Biomed Res Int 2020 30;2020:9502560. Epub 2020 May 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Center for Global Health, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 211166, China.

To profile the landscape of methylation N adenosine (mA) RNA regulators in colonic adenocarcinoma (COAD) and to explore potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, we assessed the differential expression patterns of mA RNA methylation regulators between 418 COAD patients and 41 controls based on profiling from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. We plotted the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and calculated the area under the curve (AUC) values to estimate the discrimination ability. The relationship between the expression of mA RNA methylation regulators and clinicopathological characteristics was explored. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9502560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277069PMC

M2 macrophage-derived exosomes facilitate hepatocarcinoma metastasis by transferring α β integrin to tumor cells.

Hepatology 2020 Jun 28. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Hepatobiliary Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University; Key Laboratory of Liver Transplantation, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; NHC Key Laboratory of Living Donor Liver Transplantation (Nanjing Medical University) Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China.

The development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is dependent on its local microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are deemed as a key factor for the tumor microenvironment and attribute to contribute to tumor aggressiveness. However, the detailed mechanism underlying the pro-metastatic effect of TAMs on HCC remains undefined. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31432DOI Listing

Impact of a natural disaster on access to care and biopsychosocial outcomes among Hispanic/Latino cancer survivors.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 25;10(1):10376. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Division of Cancer Biology, Ponce Research Institute, Ponce, Puerto Rico.

Cancer is the leading cause of death in Puerto Rico (PR). Hurricane Maria (HM) and its aftermath lead to widespread devastation on the island, including the collapse of the healthcare system. Medically fragile populations, such as cancer survivors, were significantly affected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66628-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7316979PMC

Telomere maintenance variants and survival after colorectal cancer: Smoking- and sex-specific associations.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

Background: Telomeres play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Variation in telomere maintenance genes may be associated with survival after CRC diagnosis but evidence is limited. In addition, possible interactions between telomere maintenance genes and prognostic factors such as smoking and sex also remain to be investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1507DOI Listing

The ProBio trial: molecular biomarkers for advancing personalized treatment decision in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Trials 2020 Jun 26;21(1):579. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Multiple therapies exist for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, their improvement on progression-free survival (PFS) remains modest, potentially explained by tumor molecular heterogeneity. Several prognostic molecular biomarkers have been identified for mCRPC that may have predictive potential to guide treatment selection and prolong PFS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04515-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318749PMC

Serum Phospholipid Fatty Acids and Mammographic Density in Premenopausal Women.

J Nutr 2020 Jun 25. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, Department of Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid, Spain.

Background: The role of fatty acids (FAs) on mammographic density (MD) is unclear, and available studies are based on self-reported dietary intake.

Objectives: This study assessed the association between specific serum phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and MD in premenopausal women.

Methods: The cross-sectional study DDM-Madrid recruited 1392 Spanish premenopausal women, aged 39-50 y, who attended a screening in a breast radiodiagnosis unit of Madrid City Council. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxaa168DOI Listing

Association of sex hormones with risk of cancers of the pancreas, kidney and brain in the UK Biobank cohort study.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

Background: There is some evidence to suggest that endogenous levels of sex hormones might influence the etiology of cancers of the pancreas, kidney, and brain, but epidemiological data are lacking.

Methods: We evaluated the association of circulating levels of total and free testosterone, and of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), with the risk of cancers of the pancreas, kidney, and brain, and of total and free estradiol with the risk of kidney cancer, in the UK Biobank cohort study (n=425,793; 225 pancreatic cancers, 749 kidney cancers, 467 brain cancers). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0246DOI Listing

A genetic risk score to personalize prostate cancer screening, applied to population data.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California, San Diego

Background: A polygenic hazard score (PHS)-the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes-was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening.

Methods: UK population incidence data (Cancer Research UK) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1527DOI Listing

HIST1H2BB and MAGI2 methylation and somatic mutations as precision medicine biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 Jun 24. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine

Molecular alterations that contribute to long-term (LT) and short-term (ST) survival in ovarian High-Grade Serous Carcinoma (HGSC) may be used as precision medicine biomarkers. DNA promoter methylation is an early event in tumorigenesis, which can be detected in blood and urine, making it a feasible companion biomarker to somatic mutations for early detection and targeted treatment workflows. We compared the methylation profile in 12 high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC) tissue samples to 30 fallopian tube epithelium samples, using the Infinium Human Methylation 450K Array. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-19-0412DOI Listing

Evaluation of Biomarkers for the Prediction of Venous Thromboembolism in Ambulatory Cancer Patients.

Oncol Res Treat 2020 Jun 24:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

University Cancer Center Leipzig (UCCL), University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate immature platelet fraction (IPF), mean platelet volume (MPV), P-selectin, D-dimer, and thrombin generation (TG) as predictive biomarkers for VTE and further the improvement of existing risk assessment models (RAMs).

Methods: A prospective, observational, exploratory study was conducted on ambulatory cancer patients with indication for systemic chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508271DOI Listing

Association of Cardiac Biomarkers With the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Heart Failure.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 Jul 24;9(13):e014385. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Kidney Research Institute University of Washington Seattle WA.

Background The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) is a measure of heart failure (HF) health status. Worse KCCQ scores are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), even without diagnosed heart failure (HF). Elevations in the cardiac biomarkers GDF-15 (growth differentiation factor-15), galectin-3, sST2 (soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2), hsTnT (high-sensitivity troponin T), and NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) likely reflect subclinical HF in CKD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014385DOI Listing

Contrasting DCIS and invasive breast cancer by subtype suggests basal-like DCIS as distinct lesions.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 17;6:26. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a non-invasive type of breast cancer with highly variable potential of becoming invasive and affecting mortality. Currently, many patients with DCIS are overtreated due to the lack of specific biomarkers that distinguish low risk lesions from those with a higher risk of progression. In this study, we analyzed 57 pure DCIS and 313 invasive breast cancers (IBC) from different patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-0167-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7299965PMC

Profiling the circulating mRNA transcriptome in human liver disease.

Oncotarget 2020 Jun 9;11(23):2216-2232. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Baruch S. Blumberg Institute, Doylestown, PA, USA.

The human circulation contains cell-free DNA and non-coding microRNA (miRNA). Less is known about the presence of messenger RNA (mRNA). This report profiles the human circulating mRNA transcriptome in people with liver cirrhosis (LC) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to determine whether mRNA analytes can be used as biomarkers of liver disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289528PMC

Impact of BMI on the outcome of metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus: a retrospective exploratory analysis of the BALLET study.

Oncotarget 2020 Jun 9;11(23):2172-2181. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste, Italy.

Introduction: Reliable biomarkers of response to mTOR inhibition are yet to be identified. As mTOR is heavily implicated in cell-metabolism, we investigated the relation between BMI variation and outcomes in metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients treated with everolimus.

Results: we found a linear correlation between everolimus exposure duration and BMI/weight decrease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7289535PMC

ALICE: a randomized placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating atezolizumab combined with immunogenic chemotherapy in patients with metastatic triple-negative breast cancer.

J Transl Med 2020 Jun 23;18(1):252. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Oncology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Immunotherapy with checkpoint inhibitors (CI) represents an important novel development in cancer treatment. Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer (mTNBC) is incurable, with a median survival of only ~ 13 months. We have initiated the randomized placebo-controlled phase IIb study ALICE, evaluating PD-L1 blockade combined with immunogenic chemotherapy in mTNBC patients (n = 75). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02424-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310523PMC

Pro-Oxidant Enzymes, Redox Balance and Oxidative Damage to Proteins, Lipids and DNA in Colorectal Cancer Tissue. Is Oxidative Stress Dependent on Tumour Budding and Inflammatory Infiltration?

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 20;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of General Pathomorphology, Medical University of Bialystok, Waszyngtona 13, 15-269 Białystok, Poland.

This study is the first to assess redox homeostasis in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in respect to histopathological parameters associated with the tumour microenvironment such as tumour budding and inflammatory infiltration. Pro-oxidant enzymes (NADPH oxidase (NOX), xanthine oxidase (XO)), antioxidant barrier (Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), reduced glutathione (GSH)), redox status (total antioxidant (TAC)/oxidant status (TOS)) and oxidative damage products (advanced glycation end products (AGE), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) were determined in both the normal and cancerous tissue of 29 CRC patients. The activity of NOX ( < 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061636DOI Listing

Transcriptome wide association study for persistent hepatitis B virus infection and related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Liver Int 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 211166, China.

Background & Aims: Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple susceptible variants associated with persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, most of these variants are located in the noncoding regions, which make it difficult to determine the effective genes underlying these associations. We performed a two-stage study, in the first stage we integrated RNA sequencing data of liver tissues and high-density genotyping data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project with our previous GWAS data to conduct a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) on HBV infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.14577DOI Listing

Alterations in driver genes are predictive of survival in patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Cancer 2020 Jun 23. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Gastrointestinal Oncology Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4 are established driver genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study was aimed at determining whether the mutational status of driver genes and those involved in DNA repair pathways are associated with clinical outcomes for individuals who undergo resection.

Methods: Eligible individuals were those who underwent resection of PDAC and consented to targeted sequencing of their primary tumor via Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets (MSK-IMPACT). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33038DOI Listing

Predictive Value of CD8 Expression and FoxP3 Methylation in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients Treated with Chemoradiotherapy in a Non-endemic Area.

Pathol Oncol Res 2020 Jun 21. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Centro di Riferimento Oncologico di Aviano (CRO) IRCCS, Aviano, PN, Italy.

Undifferentiated Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (UNPC) is associated with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and characterized by an abundant immune infiltrate potentially influencing the prognosis. Thus, we retrospectively assessed the significance of immunosuppression in the UNPC microenvironment as prognostic biomarker of treatment failure in a non-endemic area, and monitored the variation of systemic EBV-specific immunity before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT). DNA and RNA were extracted from diagnostic biopsies obtained by tumor and adjacent mucosa from 63 consecutive EBV+ UNPC patients who underwent radical CRT. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12253-020-00859-3DOI Listing

Validation and adaptation of the empirical dietary inflammatory pattern across nations: A test case.

Nutrition 2020 Apr 29;79-80:110843. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objective: The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) assesses the inflammatory potential of diet in the US population. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of the EDIP to a Brazilian population.

Methods: Data from 19- to 75-y-old participants of two editions of the cross-sectional population-based Health Survey of Sao Paulo (HS-SP) were used to validate the EDIP (n = 269; HS-SP 2008), develop an EDIP adapted to a Sao Paulo population, the EDIP-SP (n = 441; HS-SP 2008), and replicate EDIP-SP results in an independent sample (n = 501; HS-SP 2015). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.110843DOI Listing

Integrative Systems Praxis for Implementation Research (INSPIRE): An implementation methodology to facilitate the global elimination of cervical cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jun 19. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for a systems thinking approach to health systems strengthening to increase adoption of evidence-based interventions (EBIs). The Integrative Systems Praxis for Implementation Research (INSPIRE) methodology operationalizes the WHO systems thinking framework to meet cervical cancer elimination early detection and treatment (CC-EDT) goals.

Methods: Using a systems thinking approach and grounded in the consolidated framework for implementation research, INSPIRE integrates multiple research methodologies and evaluation frameworks into a multilevel implementation strategy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0501DOI Listing
June 2020
4.125 Impact Factor

Semiparametric regression calibration for general hazard models in survival analysis with covariate measurement error; surprising performance under linear hazard.

Biometrics 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

Observational epidemiological studies often confront the problem of estimating exposure-disease relationships when the exposure is not measured exactly. Regression calibration (RC) is a common approach to correct for bias in regression analysis with covariate measurement error. In survival analysis with covariate measurement error, it is well known that the RC estimator may be biased when the hazard is an exponential function of the covariates. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.13318DOI Listing

Improved survival after treatments of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 18;10(1):9902. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Pfleger Liver Institute, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Worldwide, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has reached epidemic proportions and in parallel, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has become one of the fastest growing cancers. Despite the rise in these disease entities, detailed long-term outcomes of large NAFLD-associated HCC cohorts are lacking. In this report, we compared the overall and recurrence-free survival rates of NAFLD HCC cases to patients with HBV and HCV-associated HCC cases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66507-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303220PMC

Tocilizumab Treatment for Cytokine Release Syndrome in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients: Survival and Clinical Outcomes.

Chest 2020 Jun 15. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

Background: Tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, can be used to treat cytokine release syndrome (CRS), with observed improvements in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case series.

Research Question: The goal of this study was to determine if tocilizumab benefits patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

Study Design And Methods: This observational study of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2020, and followed up through April 21, 2020, was conducted by chart review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.006DOI Listing