1,787,494 results match your criteria Cancer Causes & Control[Journal]


Combination of Lorcaserin and GLP-1/glucagon Coagonist Improves Metabolic Dysfunction in Diet Induced-obese Mice.

Drug Res (Stuttg) 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Zydus Research Centre, Cadila Healthcare Limited, Moraiya, Ahmedabad, India.

Background: Obesity and diabetes are major metabolic disorders that progress to severe morbidity and mortality. Neuroendocrine mechanisms controlling energy balance indicate that combination therapies are needed to sustain weight loss. Lorcaserin was one of the approved therapies for the treatment of obesity, which is recently withdrawn because a safety clinical trial, shows an increased occurrence of cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1201-2700DOI Listing

Socio-economic inequalities in lung cancer incidence in Canada, 1992-2010: results from the Canadian Cancer Registry.

Public Health 2020 Jul 6;185:189-195. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dalhousie University, Canada.

Objectives: Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in Canada. This study aims to assess trends in income and education inequalities in the incidence of lung cancer in Canada.

Study Design: The study design is a time-trend analysis of nationally collected data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2020.04.023DOI Listing

Mechanisms and biomarkers of cancer-associated thrombosis: Cancer thrombosis mechanisms and biomarkers.

Transl Res 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH. Electronic address:

Cancer-associated thrombosis is a leading cause of non-cancer death in cancer patients and is comprised of both arterial and venous thromboembolism. There are multiple risk factors for developing VTE, including cancer type, stage, treatment, and other medical comorbidities, which suggests that the etiology of thrombosis is multifactorial. While cancer-associated thrombosis can be treated with anticoagulation, benefits of therapy must be balanced with the increased bleeding risks seen in patients with cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2020.06.012DOI Listing

Long-term survival following elective colon cancer surgery in the aged. A population-based cohort study.

Colorectal Dis 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Gastroenterology and Alimentary Tract Surgery, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.

Aim: The number of colorectal cancer patients increases with age. Long-term data supports personalized management due to heterogeneity within the older population. This registry- and population-based study aimed to analyse long-term survival, and causes of death, after elective colon cancer surgery in the aged, focusing on patients who survived more than three months postoperatively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15242DOI Listing

Cancer cells educate natural killer cells to a metastasis-promoting cell state.

J Cell Biol 2020 Sep;219(9)

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Natural killer (NK) cells have potent antitumor and antimetastatic activity. It is incompletely understood how cancer cells escape NK cell surveillance. Using ex vivo and in vivo models of metastasis, we establish that keratin-14+ breast cancer cells are vulnerable to NK cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202001134DOI Listing
September 2020

Collaborative, Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Cancer Variants Through Virtual Molecular Tumor Boards Informs Local Clinical Practices.

JCO Clin Cancer Inform 2020 Jul;4:602-613

Innovation Center for Biomedical Informatics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC.

Purpose: The cancer research community is constantly evolving to better understand tumor biology, disease etiology, risk stratification, and pathways to novel treatments. Yet the clinical cancer genomics field has been hindered by redundant efforts to meaningfully collect and interpret disparate data types from multiple high-throughput modalities and integrate into clinical care processes. Bespoke data models, knowledgebases, and one-off customized resources for data analysis often lack adequate governance and quality control needed for these resources to be clinical grade. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/CCI.19.00169DOI Listing

Disease assimilation: The mortality impacts of fine particulate matter on immigrants to Canada.

Health Rep 2020 Jun;31(3):14-26

School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: Immigrants make up 20% of the Canadian population; however, little is known about the mortality impacts of fine particulate matter (PM) air pollution on immigrants compared with non-immigrants, or about how impacts may change with duration in Canada.

Data And Methods: This study used the 2001 Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort, a longitudinal cohort of 3.5 million individuals, of which 764,000 were classified as immigrants (foreign-born). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25318/82-003-x202000300002-engDOI Listing

Re-focusing on Agnathia-Otocephaly complex.

Clin Oral Investig 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Service de Génétique Médicale, Hôpital Purpan, CHU Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Objectives: Agnathia-otocephaly complex is a rare condition characterized by mandibular hypoplasia or agnathia, ear anomalies (melotia/synotia) and microstomia with aglossia. This severe anomaly of the first branchial arch is most often lethal. The estimated incidence is less than 1 in 70. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03443-wDOI Listing

Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential and Cardiovascular Disease.

Curr Oncol Rep 2020 Jul 9;22(9):87. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this review article is to summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence supporting the notion of clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), highlight current knowledge gap, and provide future directions.

Recent Findings: Epidemiological studies show that advanced age is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the negative effect of aging on CVD is a reflection of cumulative exposure to various established traditional CVD risk factors, genetic sequencing of whole blood-derived DNA recently revealed that clonal mutations in myeloid stem cells are associated with higher risks of cardiovascular events and hematopoietic malignancies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11912-020-00955-2DOI Listing

Genetics of human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jul 28;2(Suppl 1):i50-i61. Epub 2019 Nov 28.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are heterogeneous, highly aggressive tumors with no widely effective treatment other than surgery. Genomic architecture of MPNST is similar to other soft tissue sarcomas, with a relatively modest burden of single nucleotide variants and an elevated frequency of copy-number alterations. Recent advances in genomic studies identified previously unrecognized critical involvement of polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) core components and in transition to malignancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdz049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317054PMC

Constitutive activation of the EGFR-STAT1 axis increases proliferation of meningioma tumor cells.

Neurooncol Adv 2020 Jan-Dec;2(1):vdaa008. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Faculty of Health: Medicine, Dentistry and Human Sciences, Institute of Translational and Stratified Medicine, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.

Background: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors of the central nervous system. The standard of treatment is surgery and radiotherapy, but effective pharmacological options are not available yet. The well-characterized genetic background stratifies these tumors in several subgroups, thus increasing diversification. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/noajnl/vdaa008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7212880PMC
January 2020

High level of natural ionizing radiation at a thermal bath in Dehloran, Iran.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 1;6(7):e04297. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Institute of Radiochemistry and Radioecology, University of Pannonia, Egyetem u. 10, Veszprém, Hungary.

It has been proven that more than half of the exposure to natural background radiation originates from radon isotopes and their decay products. The inhalation of radon and its decay products causes the irradiation of respiratory tracts, thus increasing the risk of lung cancer. In this study, the concentrations of radon and thoron in thermal baths at a spa in Dehloran (Iran) were investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334375PMC

Melanoma Epidemiology and Early Detection in Europe: Diversity and Disparities.

Authors:
Ana-Maria Forsea

Dermatol Pract Concept 2020 Jul 29;10(3):e2020033. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Oncologic Dermatology Department, Elias University Hospital; Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania.

Melanoma claims annually more than 20,000 lives in Europe and is an important public health burden through its continuously increasing incidence and with its high mortality, costs, and complexity of care in advanced stages. Epidemiological surveillance is indispensable for the research into its causes, new prognostic markers, and innovative therapies, as well as for the building of efficient cancer control plans. However, important differences in the sources and availability of accurate epidemiological data exist among European countries and regions, contributing to a heterogeneous picture with 20-fold differences in the reported national melanoma incidence rates, divergent mortality trends, and solid disparities in survival across the Continent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5826/dpc.1003a33DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7319793PMC

NNK-mediated upregulation of DEPDC1 stimulates the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting CYP27B1 expression.

Am J Cancer Res 2020 1;10(6):1745-1760. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Stomatology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University Chongqing 400037, China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a prevalent and malignant cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of OSCC progression is not fully understood. In this study, we observed that the DEP domain containing 1 (DEPDC1) protein was overexpressed in OSCC tissues and that the increased expression of DEPDC1 was closely associated with tumor size and poor clinical outcomes in OSCC patients. Read More

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7339267PMC

The synthesis of scientific shreds of evidence: a critical appraisal on systematic review and meta-analysis methodology.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3399-3403

Department of Thoracic Surgery, IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Synthesising results across studies to recognise the causes of variation in outcomes and to reach an overall understanding of a problem is a crucial part of the scientific method. Until in recent times, the results of scientific findings have been summarised in narrative reviews where the summary of transparent and objective results have become increasingly difficult. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses, conducted by subsequent strict protocols to guarantee reproducibility and decrease bias, have become more common in the synthesis of evidence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330768PMC

Navigational bronchoscopy: a guide through history, current use, and developing technology.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Jun;12(6):3263-3271

Division of Bronchoscopy, Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The peripheral pulmonary nodule offers unique challenges to the clinician, especially in regards to diagnostic approach. Quite often the etiology of the nodule is spurious, though the specter of malignancy drives accurate classification of the nodule. Diagnostic approaches range in degrees of invasiveness, accuracy, and morbidity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-2019-ndt-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330754PMC

Development of a predictive nomogram for cause-specific mortality in surgically resected early-stage oesophageal cancer: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) analysis.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2583-2594

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Background: The aim of this population-based study was to perform competing risk analysis and estimate cancer- and other cause-specific mortality in patients who underwent oesophagectomy with pT1N0M0 oesophageal cancer (EC). A competing risks nomogram was also developed to predict the proportional of death from each specific cause.

Methods: A total of 1,144 patients who received oesophagectomy for pT1N0M0 EC between 2010 and 2015 from SEER database were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330307PMC

A prognostic 11-DNA methylation signature for lung squamous cell carcinoma.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2569-2582

Affiliated Cancer Hospital & Institute of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095, China.

Background: Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), as the second frequent subtype of lung cancer, causes lots of mortalities primarily due to a lack of precise prognostic markers and timely treatment intervention. Previous studies have constructed several risk prognostic models based on DNA methylation sites in multiple tumors, whereas, DNA methylation signature of LUSC remains to be built, and its predictive value need to be evaluated.

Methods: The genome-wide DNA methylation data of LUSC samples was obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas dataset. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.03.31DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330303PMC

Silencing of CD276 suppresses lung cancer progression by regulating integrin signaling.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):2137-2145

Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one of the cancers with the highest morbidity and mortality among the world. Studies have shown that the invasion and metastasis of tumor are biological characteristics of lung cancer, and also the main cause of treatment failure and patient death. In-depth study of lung cancer invasion related genes will help to explore the etiology of lung cancer, molecular typing and individualized treatment of lung cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2020.04.41DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330387PMC

Identification key genes, key miRNAs and key transcription factors of lung adenocarcinoma.

J Thorac Dis 2020 May;12(5):1917-1933

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The etiology and pathophysiology of LUAD remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify the key genes, miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs) associated with the pathogenesis and prognosis of LUAD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-19-4168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330310PMC

Investigation on the Epoxidation of Piperitenone, and Structure-activity Relationships of Piperitenone Oxide for Differentiation-inducing Activity.

J Oleo Sci 2020 Jul 9. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Tokyo University of Science.

Piperitenone oxide, a major chemical constituent of the essential oil of spearmint, Mentha spicata, induces differentiation in human colon cancer RCM-1 cells. In this study, piperitenone oxide and trans-piperitenone dioxide were prepared as racemic forms by epoxidation of piperitenone. The relative configuration between two epoxides in piperitenone dioxide was determined to be trans by H NMR analysis and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) in conjunction with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5650/jos.ess19278DOI Listing

MYSM1 maintains ribosomal protein gene expression in hematopoietic stem cells to prevent hematopoietic dysfunction.

JCI Insight 2020 Jul 9;5(13). Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Department of Physiology.

Ribosomopathies are congenital disorders caused by mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal and other functionally related proteins. They are characterized by anemia, other hematopoietic and developmental abnormalities, and p53 activation. Ribosome assembly requires coordinated expression of many ribosomal protein (RP) genes; however, the regulation of RP gene expression, especially in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), remains poorly understood. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125690DOI Listing

Turning the tide: reducing mortality among Danish merchant seafarers.

Occup Environ Med 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objectives: While life at sea traditionally has presented a variety of potential hazards, rigorous measures have been taken in the past decades to ensure the safety and health of all aboard merchant ships. The aim of this study was to examine overall and cause-specific mortality among Danish seafarers in light of these changes.

Methods: A cohort of 44 555 male (75%) and female (25%) seafarers employed on Danish ships during 1986-1999 was established through records from the Danish Seafarer Registry. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2020-106427DOI Listing

Cellular senescence promotes skin carcinogenesis through p38MAPK and p44/p42MAPK signaling.

Cancer Res 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

none, Buck Institute For Research On Aging

Cellular senescence entails an irreversible growth arrest that evolved in part to prevent cancer. Paradoxically, senescent cells secrete pro-inflammatory and growth-stimulatory molecules, termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which is correlated with cancer cell proliferation in culture and xenograft models. However, at what tumor stage and how senescence and SASP act on endogenous tumor growth in vivo is unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0108DOI Listing

A Complex Systems Model of Breast Cancer Etiology: The Paradigm II Conceptual Model.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: The etiology of breast cancer is a complex system of interacting factors from multiple domains. New knowledge about breast cancer etiology continues to be produced by the research community, and the communication of this knowledge to other researchers, practitioners, decision makers, and the public is a challenge.

Methods: We updated the previously published Paradigm model (PMID: 25017248) to create a framework that describes breast cancer etiology in four overlapping domains of biologic, behavioral, environmental, and social determinants. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0016DOI Listing

Aflatoxin B exposure and liver cirrhosis in Guatemala: a case-control study.

BMJ Open Gastroenterol 2020 Jul;7(1)

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

Objective: In Guatemala, cirrhosis is among the 10 leading causes of death, and mortality rates have increased lately. The reasons for this heavy burden of disease are not clear as the prevalence of prominent risk factors, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and heavy alcohol consumption, appears to be low. Aflatoxin B (AFB) exposure, however, appears to be high, and thus could be associated with the high burden of cirrhosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgast-2020-000380DOI Listing

The NLRP1 Inflammasome in Human Skin and Beyond.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jul 6;21(13). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

Inflammasomes represent a group of protein complexes that contribute to host defense against pathogens and repair processes upon the induction of inflammation. However, aberrant and chronic inflammasome activation underlies the pathology of numerous common inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome assembly causes activation of the protease caspase-1 which in turn activates proinflammatory cytokines and induces a lytic type of cell death termed pyroptosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134788DOI Listing

Cancer Patients Have a Higher Risk Regarding COVID-19 - and Vice Versa?

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Pharmaceutical Biology, Department Pharmacy, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, 81377 Munich, Germany.

The world is currently suffering from a pandemic which has claimed the lives of over 230,000 people to date. The responsible virus is called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and causes the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is mainly characterized by fever, cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the disease can lead to respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock, which are mostly fatal for the patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph13070143DOI Listing

Aetiology of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 6;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Centre for Health Data Science, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3FX, UK.

Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have estimated annual incidence rates for polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis of 0.84, 1.03, and 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071810DOI Listing

Enteric Dysbiosis in Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review.

Transpl Int 2020 Jul 8. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Canada, Toronto.

Several factors mediate intestinal microbiome (IM) alterations in transplant recipients, including immunosuppressive (IS) and antimicrobial drugs. Studies on the structure and function of the IM in the post-transplant scenario and its role in the development of metabolic abnormalities, infection, and cancer is limited. We conducted a systematic review to study the taxonomic changes in kidney (KT) and liver transplantation (LT), and their potential contribution to post-transplant complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13696DOI Listing

Predictive factors for difficult endoscopic submucosal dissection for esophageal neoplasia including failure of en bloc resection or perforation.

Surg Endosc 2020 Jul 7. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Gastroenterology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3, Asahimachi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, 545-8585, Japan.

Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is accepted as the standard treatment for early-stage esophageal neoplasia. However, esophageal perforation may occur, leading to mediastinitis and pneumothorax, which occasionally require emergency surgery. Moreover, failure of en bloc resection causes local recurrence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07777-0DOI Listing

Hypomethylation Causes Overexpression in Tumors.

Mol Ther Oncolytics 2020 Sep 26;18:47-57. Epub 2020 May 26.

Fuzhou General Clinical College, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, China.

miR-21 is an oncogenic microRNA (miRNA) that is upregulated in many solid tumors. However, the effect of hypomethylation on miR-21 expression in tumors and the mechanism of miR-21 DNA demethylation remain unclear. In this study, we confirmed that the expression of miR-21 was significantly increased in multiple tumors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2020.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321816PMC
September 2020

A Novel Splice-Site Mutation in Is Associated With the Development of Lynch Syndrome.

Front Oncol 2020 19;10:983. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Department of Pharmacy, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes, including , and . This study aimed to analyze the molecular defects and clinical manifestations of an affected family and propose appropriate individual prevention strategies for all mutation carriers. A novel splicing mutation (c. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.00983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318799PMC

A novel Romani microdeletion variant in the promoter sequence of causes citrullinemia type I.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Sep 29;24:100619. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1, MIM #215700) is an autosomal recessive urea cycle disorder caused by deficiency of argininosuccinate synthase (ASS). CTLN1 is characterized by life-threatening hyperammonemia and risk for resulting neurocognitive impairments. The diagnosis of CTLN1 is confirmed by the identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in the gene. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7330059PMC
September 2020

Paracrine SPARC signaling dysregulates alveolar epithelial barrier integrity and function in lung fibrosis.

Cell Death Discov 2020 30;6:54. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD UK.

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic scarring disease in which aging, environmental exposure(s) and genetic susceptibility have been implicated in disease pathogenesis, however, the causes and mechanisms of the progressive fibrotic cascade are still poorly understood. As epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are essential for normal wound healing, through human 2D and 3D in vitro studies, we tested the hypothesis that IPF fibroblasts (IPFFs) dysregulate alveolar epithelial homeostasis. Conditioned media from IPFFs exaggerated the wound-healing response of primary human Type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41420-020-0289-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327077PMC

Bacteriome and mycobiome and bacteriome-mycobiome interactions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncotarget 2020 Jun 23;11(25):2375-2386. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Genomic Medicine Institute, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

The etiology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is not fully understood. While risk factors such as positive human papilloma virus (HPV) status, smoking and tobacco use have been identified, they do not account for all cases of the disease. We aimed to characterize the bacteriome, mycobiome and mycobiome-bacteriome interactions of oral wash in HNSCC patients and to determine if they are distinct from those of the oral wash of matched non-HNSCC patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321695PMC

Cancer ecosystem assessment in West Africa: health systems gaps to prevent and control cancers in three countries: Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 25;35:90. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Amref Health Africa, West Africa hub, 105 Sacre Coeur 3 Dakar, Senegal.

Introduction: Sub-Saharan Africa is experiencing a rapid epidemiological transition with the increasing incidence of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). Among these, cancer is one of the main causes of death in adults. This is a public health problem whose burden is unknown due to lack of statistical data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.35.90.18516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320762PMC

Phytochemicals: Potential Lead Molecules for MDR Reversal.

Front Pharmacol 2020 19;11:832. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main impediments in the treatment of cancers. MDR cancer cells are resistant to multiple anticancer drugs. One of the major mechanisms of MDR is the efflux of anticancer drugs by ABC transporters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317022PMC

Subspecies Niche Specialization in the Oral Microbiome Is Associated with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk.

mSystems 2020 Jul 7;5(4). Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Oral health and changes in the oral microbiome have been associated with both local and systemic cancer. Poor oral hygiene is a known risk factor for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a virally associated head and neck cancer endemic to southern China. We explored the relationship between NPC and the oral microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing in a study of 499 NPC patients and 495 population-based age and sex frequency-matched controls from an area of endemicity of Southern China. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSystems.00065-20DOI Listing

Measurement of tumor size in early cervical cancer: an ever-evolving paradigm.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 Jul 6. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

The major tenets in accurately assessing tumor size in patients with early stage cervical cancer currently include physical examination, imaging studies, and pathologic evaluation. It is estimated that when comparing clinical stage based on physical examination and final pathology, the concordance diminishes as stage increases: 85.4%, 77. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001436DOI Listing

Gastric metastases from primary breast cancers: rare causes of common gastrointestinal disorders.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Jul 6;13(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

We report two cases of gastric metastases from primary breast cancers. In case 1, a 31-year-old woman with right-sided ductal breast carcinoma presented with nausea, vomiting and frank haematemesis, 8 months after mastectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy. An esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed multiple ulcerated gastric lesions secondary to metastatic adenocarcinoma from primary breast tumour. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-231763DOI Listing

Outcome of Stroke Patients with Cancer and Nonbacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis.

J Stroke 2020 May 31;22(2):245-253. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background And Purpose: Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) is a cause of stroke in cancer. However, clinical characteristics and outcomes in stroke patients with cancer-associated NBTE are not well known.

Methods: We included consecutive patients with stroke and active cancer over a 9-year period who underwent echocardiography. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5853/jos.2020.00619DOI Listing

Physiopathology of the Permeability Transition Pore: Molecular Mechanisms in Human Pathology.

Biomolecules 2020 Jul 4;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Department of Medical Sciences, Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy.

Mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) is the sudden loss in the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) to low-molecular-weight solutes. Due to osmotic forces, MPT is paralleled by a massive influx of water into the mitochondrial matrix, eventually leading to the structural collapse of the organelle. Thus, MPT can initiate outer-mitochondrial-membrane permeabilization (MOMP), promoting the activation of the apoptotic caspase cascade and caspase-independent cell-death mechanisms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10070998DOI Listing

The Synergistic Effect of Piperlongumine and Sanguinarine on the Non-Small Lung Cancer.

Molecules 2020 Jul 3;25(13). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Karłowicza 24, 85-092 Bydgoszcz, Poland.

Background: Cancers are one of the leading causes of deaths nowadays. The development of new treatment schemes for oncological diseases is an interesting direction in experimental medicine. Therefore, the evaluation of the influence of two alkaloids-piperlongumine (PL), sanguinarine (SAN) and their combination-on the basic life processes of the A549 cell line was considered reasonable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25133045DOI Listing

Finding Time For Compassion In A Busy Emergency Department.

Authors:
Angela D Blood

Health Aff (Millwood) 2020 Jul;39(7):1263-1266

Angela D. Blood is the director of curricular resources at the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), in Washington, D.C.

A medical error in the emergency department causes emotional trauma for a patient, who seeks compassion in the aftermath. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.01315DOI Listing
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