258,721 results match your criteria Cancer Biology & Therapy [Journal]


Circular RNA biogenesis is decreased in postmortem cortical gray matter in schizophrenia and may alter the bioavailability of associated miRNA.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, 2308, Australia.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a covalently closed subclass of lncRNA molecules formed by back splicing of linear precursor RNA. These molecules are relatively stable and particularly abundant in the mammalian brain and therefore may participate in neural development and function. With the emergence of circRNAs activity in gene regulation, these molecules have been implicated in several biological processes, including synaptic plasticity, and we therefore suspect they may have a role in neurobehavioral disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-019-0348-1DOI Listing
February 2019

Maspin binds to cardiolipin in mitochondria and triggers apoptosis.

FASEB J 2019 Feb 20:fj201802182R. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

A central question in cell biology is how cells respond to stress signals and biochemically regulate apoptosis. One critical pathway involves the change of mitochondrial function and release of cytochrome c to initiate apoptosis. In response to apoptotic stimuli, we found that maspin-a noninhibitory member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily-translocates from the cytosol to mitochondria and binds to cardiolipin in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201802182RDOI Listing
February 2019

Coordinating Tissue Regeneration through TGF-β Activated Kinase 1 (TAK1) In-activation and Re-activation.

Stem Cells 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Aberrant wound healing presents as inappropriate or insufficient tissue formation. Using a model of musculoskeletal injury, we demonstrate that loss of TGF-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1) signaling reduces inappropriate tissue formation (heterotopic ossification) through reduced cellular differentiation. Upon identifying increased proliferation with loss of TAK1 signaling, we considered a regenerative approach to address insufficient tissue production through coordinated inactivation of TAK1 to promote cellular proliferation, followed by re-activation to elicit differentiation and extracellular matrix (ECM) production. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.2991DOI Listing
February 2019

Multicenter randomized crossover trial evaluating the provox luna in laryngectomized subjects.

Laryngoscope 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, New Zealand.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the relative compliance and the dermatological and pulmonary outcomes when the Provox Luna system (Atos Medical, Malmö, Sweden) is added during the night to the usual tracheastoma care of laryngectomized subjects.

Methods: This was a multicenter randomized crossover trial conducted in the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Erasmus Medical Center, and Maastricht University Medical Center in The Netherlands. The study included 46 laryngectomized subjects with prior heat and moisture exchanger (HME) and adhesive experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.27839DOI Listing
February 2019

Machine learning analysis of gene expression data reveals novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and identifies therapeutic targets for soft tissue sarcomas.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 Feb 20;15(2):e1006826. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Pathology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Based on morphology it is often challenging to distinguish between the many different soft tissue sarcoma subtypes. Moreover, outcome of disease is highly variable even between patients with the same disease. Machine learning on transcriptome sequencing data could be a valuable new tool to understand differences between and within entities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006826DOI Listing
February 2019

Isoform-specific Ras signaling is growth factor dependent.

Mol Biol Cell 2019 Feb 20:mbcE18100676. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Cellular and Molecular Physiology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3BX, UK.

HRAS, NRAS and KRAS isoforms are almost identical proteins that are ubiquitously expressed and activate a common set of effectors. In vivo studies have revealed that they are not biologically redundant; however, the isoform-specificity of Ras signaling remains poorly understood. Using a novel panel of isogenic SW48 cell lines endogenously expressing wild type or G12V mutated activated Ras isoforms we have performed a detailed characterization of endogenous isoform-specific mutant Ras signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.E18-10-0676DOI Listing
February 2019

Patients-related factors associated with successful cannulation of trainees during hands-on ERCP training.

Dig Endosc 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

State key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, National Clinical Research Center for Digestive Diseases and Xijing Hospital of Digestive Diseases, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

Background And Aims: Hands-on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) training is an essential step for trainees to grasp the technique. Cannulation success rate (CSR) is considered one of main indicators of competency of trainees. This study aimed to investigate whether patient-related factors had an impact on the CSR of trainees. Read More

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/den.13377
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.13377DOI Listing
February 2019
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Interplay between miRNAs and host genes and their role in cancer.

Brief Funct Genomics 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Center for Quantitative Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous non-coding functional RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. They play essential roles in nearly all biological processes including cell development and differentiation, DNA damage repair, cell death as well as intercellular communication. They are highly involved in cancer, acting as tumor suppressors and/or promoters to modulate cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor invasion and metastasis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bfgp/elz002DOI Listing
February 2019

POTENTIAL PREVENTIVE EFFECT OF LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS AND LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM IN PATIENTS WITH POLYPS OR COLORECTAL CÂNCER.

Arq Gastroenterol 2018 Oct-Dec;55(4):407-411

Alborz University of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Colorectal cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Many studies have been done on the biology of its formation as well as its treatment in recent years. One of the factors involved in the formation or treatment of this malignancy can be attributed to the microbial flora in the intestine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-2803.201800000-87DOI Listing

Induction of Apoptosis in HeLa by Corn Small RNAs.

Nutr Cancer 2019 Feb 20:1-11. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

a Cancer and Translational Research Lab, Dr D. Y. Patil Biotechnology & Bioinformatics Institute, Dr D.Y. Patil Vidyapeeth , Pune , India.

Insights in RNA biology have opened up a plethora of opportunities to explore the small regulatory RNAs from various natural and artificial sources. These small RNAs have been suggested to play a role too in tumor progression by either as oncogenic or tumor suppressor small RNAs. In this study, authors have attempted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of small RNAs fractionated from corn (Zea mays) upon growth and survival of HeLa. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01635581.2018.1526307DOI Listing
February 2019

Exploration of N5-CAIR Mutase Novel Inhibitors from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3: A Computational Study.

J Comput Biol 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Structural Biology and Bio-Computing Lab, Department of Bioinformatics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, India.

In bacterial and archaeal purine biosynthetic pathways, sixth step involves utilization of enzyme PurE, catalyzing the translation of aminoimidazole ribonucleotide to 4-carboxy-5-aminoimidazole ribonucleotide (CAIR) with carbon dioxide. The formation of CAIR takes place through an unstable intermediate N5-CAIR, played by two enzymes-N5-CAIR synthetase (PurK) and N5-CAIR mutase (PurE) that further catalyzes the reaction of N5-CAIR to CAIR. In this study, N5-CAIR mutase (PH0320) from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3 (PurE) was considered. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cmb.2018.0248DOI Listing
February 2019

Inter-Modular Linkers play a crucial role in governing the biosynthesis of non-ribosomal peptides.

Bioinformatics 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Division of Chemical Biology and Medicinal Chemistry, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Motivation: Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are modular enzymatic machines that catalyze the ribosome-independent production of structurally complex small peptides, many of which have important clinical applications as antibiotics, antifungals, and anti-cancer agents. Several groups have tried to expand natural product diversity by intermixing different NRPS modules to create synthetic peptides. This approach has not been as successful as anticipated, suggesting that these modules are not fully interchangeable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz127DOI Listing
February 2019

Matter, energy and information network of a graphene-peptide-based fluorescent sensing system for molecular logic computing, detection and imaging of cancer stem cell marker CD133 in cells and tumor tissues.

Analyst 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

State Key Laboratory of Developmental Biology of Freshwater Fish, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Molecular Biology, College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, P. R. China.

Tumorigenesis, metastasis, and the recurrence of cancer, which may result from the abnormal presence or activation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), are involved in disorders of exchanged matter (biomarkers), energy and information in living organisms. Rapid and sensitive detection and imaging of CSC biomarkers (such as CD133) are helpful for early diagnosis and therapeutic evaluation of tumors. Recently, a preliminary exploration of a few affinity molecules (like peptide-based probes) has just begun for chemical measurements and imaging of CSC biomarker CD133. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8an02115eDOI Listing
February 2019

miR-125b suppresses oral oncogenicity by targeting the anti-oxidative gene PRXL2A.

Redox Biol 2019 Feb 13;22:101140. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a globally prevalent malignancy. The molecular mechanisms of this cancer are not well understood and acquire elucidation. Peroxiredoxin like 2A (PRXL2A) has been reported to be an antioxidant protein that protects cells from oxidative stress. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2019.101140DOI Listing
February 2019

Spatiotemporally Controlled Myosin Relocalization and Internal Pressure Generate Sibling Cell Size Asymmetry.

iScience 2019 Feb 6;13:9-19. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Life Science Building, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. Electronic address:

Metazoan cells can generate unequal-sized sibling cells during cell division. This form of asymmetric cell division depends on spindle geometry and Myosin distribution, but the underlying mechanics are unclear. Here, we use atomic force microscopy and live cell imaging to elucidate the biophysical forces involved in the establishment of physical asymmetry in Drosophila neural stem cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2019.02.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Resveratrol exerts dose-dependent anti-fibrotic or pro-fibrotic effects in kidneys: A potential risk to individuals with impaired kidney function.

Phytomedicine 2018 Dec 17;57:223-235. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, Regenerative Medicine Research Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China; Center for Metabolic and Vascular Biology, School for Nutrition and Health Promotion, College of Health Solutions, Arizona State University, Scottsdale, AZ, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Renal fibrosis is the pathological feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) which leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and renal failure. Resveratrol [3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene (RSV)] has shown benefits for metabolic diseases and anti-cancer therapy, but its potential risk on renal health has not been fully evaluated.

Purpose: To investigate the global effects of RSV on renal fibrosis in human tubular epithelial cell (TEC) line HK-2, and in mice with unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2018.12.024DOI Listing
December 2018

Morin has protective potential against ER stress induced apoptosis in renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 19;112:108659. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Division of Applied Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si 50612, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

ER stress is an early event of acute kidney injury and has been linked to accelerate the development of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, the compounds that can mimic ER stress inhibitor may confer regulatory effects on ER stress induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of flavonoid morin against ER stress induced apoptosis in human renal proximal tubular HK-2 cells. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S07533322183321
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108659DOI Listing
February 2019
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Network-pharmacology-based identification of caveolin-1 as a key target of Oldenlandia diffusa to suppress breast cancer metastasis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Feb 20;112:108607. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Integrative Research Laboratory of Breast Cancer, Discipline of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, the Research Center of Integrative Medicine, School of Basic Medical Sciences & the Second Clinical College of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, Guangdong Provincial Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China; Post-doctoral Research Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Breast cancer remains the most common female malignancy and metastasis is the leading cause of death in breast cancer patients. Oldenlandia diffusa has been empirically and extensively used as an adjuvant therapy for metastatic breast cancer patients in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with proven efficacy. However, its anti-metastasis mechanism has been poorly revealed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108607DOI Listing
February 2019

The role of cytokines in the regulation of NK cells in the tumor environment.

Cytokine 2019 Feb 18;117:30-40. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, P.BOX 124, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia. Electronic address:

Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that are important effectors in the first line of defense toward transformed cells. This is mediated both by direct cytotoxic mechanisms and by production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Recent evidence has shown that NK cells also display memory, similar to the cells of the adaptive immune system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2019.02.001DOI Listing
February 2019

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of truncated deguelin derivatives as Hsp90 inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Feb 12;167:485-498. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, PR China. Electronic address:

A series of novel B and C-rings truncated deguelin derivatives have been designed and synthesized in the present study as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors. The synthesized compounds exhibited micromolar antiproliferative potency toward a panel of human cancer cell lines. Their structure-activity relationships (SARs) were investigated in a systematic manner. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.02.014DOI Listing
February 2019

Uncovering genetic mechanisms of kidney aging through transcriptomics, genomics, and epigenomics.

Kidney Int 2019 Mar;95(3):624-635

Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Biology and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; Division of Medicine and Manchester Heart Centre, Manchester University National Health Service Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK. Electronic address:

Nephrons scar and involute during aging, increasing the risk of chronic kidney disease. Little is known, however, about genetic mechanisms of kidney aging. We sought to define the signatures of age on the renal transcriptome using 563 human kidneys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.10.029DOI Listing

Household contact investigation for the detection of tuberculosis in Vietnam: economic evaluation of a cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 Mar;7(3):e376-e384

Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia; Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Glebe, NSW, Australia.

Background: Active case finding is recommended as an important strategy to control tuberculosis, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries with a high prevalence of the disease. However, the costs and cost-effectiveness of active case finding are unclear due to the absence of evidence from randomised trials. We assessed the costs and cost-effectiveness of an active case finding strategy in Vietnam, where there is a high prevalence of tuberculosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30520-5DOI Listing

Whole-Organ Genomic Characterization of Mucosal Field Effects Initiating Bladder Carcinogenesis.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(8):2241-2256.e4

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

We used whole-organ mapping to study the locoregional molecular changes in a human bladder containing multifocal cancer. Widespread DNA methylation changes were identified in the entire mucosa, representing the initial field effect. The field effect was associated with subclonal low-allele frequency mutations and a small number of DNA copy alterations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.095DOI Listing
February 2019

NR4A Nuclear Receptors Target Poly-ADP-Ribosylated DNA-PKcs Protein to Promote DNA Repair.

Cell Rep 2019 Feb;26(8):2028-2036.e6

MRC Toxicology Unit, Leicester LE1 7HB, UK. Electronic address:

Although poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) of DNA repair factors had been well documented, its role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is poorly understood. NR4A nuclear orphan receptors were previously linked to DSB repair; however, their function in the process remains elusive. Classically, NR4As function as transcription factors using a specialized tandem zinc-finger DNA-binding domain (DBD) for target gene induction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.01.083DOI Listing
February 2019

Using natural language processing to extract clinically useful information from Chinese electronic medical records.

Int J Med Inform 2019 Apr 7;124:6-12. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Medical Genetic Institute of Henan Province, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan Key Laboratory of Genetic Diseases and Functional Genomics, Henan Provincial People's Hospital of Henan University, Zhengzhou, Henan Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: To develop a natural language processing (NLP)-based algorithm for extracting clinically useful information for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from Chinese electronic medical records (EMRs) and use these data for the assessment of HCC staging.

Materials And Methods: Clinical documents, including operation notes, radiology and pathology reports, of 92 HCC patients were collected from Chinese EMRs. We randomly grouped these patients into training (n = 60) and testing (n = 32) datasets. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2019.01.004DOI Listing

Novel contribution of epigenetic changes to nuclear dynamics.

Nucleus 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

b Department of Immunology Ophthalmology and ENT, Hospital 12 de Octubre Health Research Institute (imas12) , Complutense University, School of Medicine , Madrid , Spain .

Migrating cells have to cross many physical barriers and confined spaces during their movement in 3D environments. The surrounding environment promotes mechano- and biological signals that orchestrate cellular changes, such as cytoskeletal and adhesion rearrangements and proteolytic digestion. Many recent studies provide new insights into how the nucleus must alter its shape, localization and mechanical properties in order to promote nuclear deformability, chromatin compaction and gene reprogramming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19491034.2019.1580100DOI Listing
February 2019

Inhibition of the amino-acid transporter LAT1 demonstrates anti-neoplastic activity in medulloblastoma.

J Cell Mol Med 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Biomedical Department, Centre Scientifique de Monaco, Monaco, Principality of Monaco.

Most cases of medulloblastoma (MB) occur in young children. While the overall survival rate can be relatively high, current treatments combining surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy are very destructive for patient development and quality of life. Moreover, aggressive forms and recurrences of MB cannot be controlled by classical therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.14176DOI Listing
February 2019

CAR T cells for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Authors:
Noelle V Frey

Am J Hematol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) modified T cells targeted to CD19 have resulted in unprecedented remission rates for adult and pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). With regulatory approval for tisagenlecleucel and many other agents under active investigation, the use of CAR T cells for ALL continues to expand. While some remissions from anti-CD19 CAR T cells are durable without a consolidative allogeneic stem cell transplantation, CD19 positive and negative relapses remain a significant concern fueling investigations into the biology of CAR T cell persistence and the development of CARTs that target more than one antigen. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25442DOI Listing
February 2019

PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: Basic biology and role in cancer immunotherapy.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Over the course of past few years, cancer immunotherapy has been accompanied with promising results. However, preliminary investigations with respect to immunotherapy concentrated mostly on targeting the immune checkpoints, nowadays, emerge as the most efficient strategy to raise beneficial antitumor immune responses. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) plays an important role in subsiding immune responses and promoting self-tolerance through suppressing the activity of T cells and promoting differentiation of regulatory T cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28358DOI Listing
February 2019

Clinical and biological features of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with primary induction failure in the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study.

Br J Haematol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Human Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

The prognosis of paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with primary induction failure (PIF) is extremely poor, and effective treatment strategies have not been established. We investigated the clinical and biological features of paediatric AML patients with PIF registered to the Japanese Paediatric Leukaemia/Lymphoma Study Group AML-05 study. The 3-year overall survival rate of the 41 PIF patients was 19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15799DOI Listing
February 2019

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Beyond: An Overview of Immune-Based Therapies in Merkel Cell Carcinoma.

Authors:
Mahtab Samimi

Am J Clin Dermatol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Dermatology Department, University Hospital of Tours, Avenue de la République, 37170, Chambray-les-Tours, France.

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive skin cancer. Until 2017, patients with advanced disease were typically treated with conventional chemotherapies, with a median response duration of 3 months. Increased evidence of the role of the immune system in controlling this cancer has paved the way for immune-based therapies, with programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death protein ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors at the frontline. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40257-019-00427-9DOI Listing
February 2019

rAAV-Mediated Gene Delivery to Adipose Tissue.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1950:389-405

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors are attractive vehicles for gene therapy. Yet, it is challenging to genetically manipulate adipose tissue in adults due to the low transduction efficiency of naturally occurring AAV serotypes. We recently demonstrated that a novel engineered hybrid serotype Rec2 achieves high transduction of adipose tissue that is superior to naturally occurring serotypes via direct injection to adipose depots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9139-6_23DOI Listing
January 2019
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Towards understanding mRNA-binding protein specificity: lessons from post-transcriptional regulation of ATG mRNA during nitrogen starvation-induced autophagy.

Curr Genet 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

In this report, we discuss recent discoveries concerning the effects and specificity of different RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) as they pertain to macroautophagy/autophagy. Autophagy is a fundamental cellular degradation and recycling pathway, which has attracted substantial attention because defects in this process are associated with a wide range of human disorders including cancer, neurodegeneration, and metabolic diseases. Autophagy must be tightly controlled-either too much or too little can be deleterious. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-019-00943-5DOI Listing
February 2019

Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer biology: tempering a double-edged sword.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Chemistry, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias Street, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects an estimated 4.4 billion people globally. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00018-019-03044-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-019-03044-1DOI Listing
February 2019
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Formation of precisely composed cancer cell clusters using a cell assembly generator (CAGE) for studying paracrine signaling at single-cell resolution.

Lab Chip 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The function and behaviour of any given cell in a healthy tissue, or in a tumor, is affected by interactions with its neighboring cells. It is therefore important to create methods that allow for reconstruction of tissue niches in vitro for studies of cell-cell signaling and associated cell behaviour. To this end we created the cell assembly generator (CAGE), a microfluidic device which enables the organization of different cell types into precise cell clusters in a flow chamber compatible with high-resolution microscopy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8lc01153bDOI Listing
February 2019

Immune checkpoint inhibitors: Advances and impact in neuro-oncology.

Surg Neurol Int 2019 25;10. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Research Center, Faculty of Medical Science, Lebanese University, Beirut, Lebanon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sni.sni_366_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6367947PMC
January 2019

Transforming growth factor β-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal signature predicts metastasis-free survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

Oncotarget 2019 Jan 25;10(8):810-824. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Tumor Biology Program, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) plays a key role in regulating epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). A gene expression signature () associated with TGFβ-induced EMT activities was developed using human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) cells treated with TGFβ-1 and subjected to Affymetrix microarray analysis. The final 105-probeset signature covers 77 genes, and a NanoString assay utilized a subset of 60 of these genes (TGFβ-EMTN signature). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.26574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6368226PMC
January 2019

Cytosine-Based TET Enzyme Inhibitors.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2019 Feb 31;10(2):180-185. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Bates College, 2 Andrews Road, Lewiston, Maine 04240, United States.

DNA methylation is known as the epigenetic mark for its critical role in regulating local gene transcription. Changes in the landscape of DNA methylation across the genome occur during cellular transition, such as differentiation and altered neuronal plasticity, and become dysregulated in disease states such as cancer. The TET family of enzymes is known to be responsible for catalyzing the reverse process that is DNA demethylation by recognizing 5-methylcytosine and oxidizing the methyl group via an Fe(II)/alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.8b00474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6378777PMC
February 2019

Publisher Correction: Noninvasive monitoring of single-cell mechanics by acoustic scattering.

Nat Methods 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA.

The version of this paper originally published online contained an error in the x-axis of Fig. 2c: the LatB concentrations should be 0.4 and 1 μM, but during typesetting, the 1 μM label was incorrectly changed to 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-019-0354-6DOI Listing
February 2019

The prognostic relevance of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in the blood of patients with metastatic breast cancer.

Sci Rep 2019 Feb 19;9(1):2318. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Gynecology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

In breast cancer (BC), elevated levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in tumor tissue have been confirmed as a strong prognostic factor in level-of-evidence-1 studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of uPA levels in serum of metastatic BC patients and to compare uPA with other blood-based biomarkers. 252 patients were enrolled in this prospective, multicentre study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37259-2DOI Listing
February 2019

The flavonoid 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone promotes autophagy-dependent longevity across species.

Nat Commun 2019 Feb 19;10(1):651. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institute of Molecular Biosciences, NAWI Graz, University of Graz, Graz, 8010, Austria.

Ageing constitutes the most important risk factor for all major chronic ailments, including malignant, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. However, behavioural and pharmacological interventions with feasible potential to promote health upon ageing remain rare. Here we report the identification of the flavonoid 4,4'-dimethoxychalcone (DMC) as a natural compound with anti-ageing properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08555-wDOI Listing
February 2019

Single gold-bridged nanoprobes for identification of single point DNA mutations.

Nat Commun 2019 Feb 19;10(1):836. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, 136713, Republic of Korea.

Consensus ranking of protein affinity to identify point mutations has not been established. Therefore, analytical techniques that can detect subtle variations without interfering with native biomolecular interactions are required. Here we report a rapid method to identify point mutations by a single nanoparticle sensing system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08769-yDOI Listing
February 2019

An FBXW7-ZEB2 axis links EMT and tumour microenvironment to promote colorectal cancer stem cells and chemoresistance.

Oncogenesis 2019 Feb 19;8(3):13. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Cancer Genetics and Stem Cell Group, Cancer Biology, Division of Cancer and Stem Cells, School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients develop recurrence after chemotherapy owing to the survival of stem cell-like cells referred to as cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). The origin of CSCs is linked to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. Currently, it remains poorly understood how EMT programmes enable CSCs residing in the tumour microenvironment to escape the effects of chemotherapy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-019-0125-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Expanding the repertoire of miRNAs and miRNA-offset RNAs expressed in multiple myeloma by small RNA deep sequencing.

Blood Cancer J 2019 Feb 19;9(3):21. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Microarray analysis of the multiple myeloma (MM) miRNome has unraveled the differential expression of miRNAs in cytogenetic subgroups, their involvement in the tumor biology and their effectiveness in prognostic models. Herein, the small RNA transcriptional landscape in MM has been investigated exploiting the possibilities offered by small RNA-seq, including accurate quantification of known mature species, discovery and characterization of isomiRs, and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs). Matched small RNA-seq and miRNA GeneChip microarray expression profiles were obtained in a representative panel of 30 primary MM tumors, fully characterized for genomic aberrations and mutations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-019-0184-xDOI Listing
February 2019

Dihydroartemisinin inhibits prostate cancer via JARID2/miR-7/miR-34a-dependent downregulation of Axl.

Oncogenesis 2019 Feb 19;8(3):14. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB), Cape Town, South Africa.

Axl expression is deregulated in several cancer types, predicts poor overall patient survival and is linked to resistance to drug therapy. Here, we evaluated a library of natural compounds for inhibitors of Axl and identified dihydroartemisinin, the active principle of the anti-malarial drug artemisinin, as an Axl-inhibitor in prostate cancer. Dihydroartemisinin blocks Axl expression leading to apoptosis, decrease in cell proliferation, migration, and tumor development of prostate cancer cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-019-0122-6DOI Listing
February 2019

Gut microbiota regulates lacteal integrity by inducing VEGF-C in intestinal villus macrophages.

EMBO Rep 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Center for Vascular Research, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon, Korea

A lacteal is a blunt-ended, long, tube-like lymphatic vessel located in the center of each intestinal villus that provides a unique route for drainage of absorbed lipids from the small intestine. However, key regulators for maintaining lacteal integrity are poorly understood. Here, we explore whether and how the gut microbiota regulates lacteal integrity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.201846927DOI Listing
February 2019

Design of split superantigen fusion proteins for cancer immunotherapy.

J Biol Chem 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Synthetic Biology and Immunolog, National Institute of Chemistry, Slovenia.

Several antibody-targeting cancer immunotherapies have been developed based on T cell activation at the target cells. One of the most potent activators of T cells are bacterial superantigens, which bind to MHC class II on antigen presenting cells and activate T cells through T cell receptor. Strong T cell activation is also one of the main weaknesses of this strategy as it may lead to systemic T cell activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006742DOI Listing
February 2019

The regulatory protein GADD34 inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis via TRAF6/ERK-dependent stabilization of myeloid cell leukemia 1 in liver cancer cells.

J Biol Chem 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Sichuan University, China.

Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 34 (GADD34) plays a critical role in responses to DNA damage and endoplasmic reticulum stress. GADD34 has opposing effects on different stimuli-induced cell apoptosis events, but the reason for this is unclear. Here, using immunoblotting analyses and various molecular genetic approaches in HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, we report that GADD34 protect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells from TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis by stabilizing a BCL-2 family member, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL-1). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.006029DOI Listing
February 2019

Evolution of the multi-tRNA synthetase complex and its role in cancer.

J Biol Chem 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Medicinal Bioconvergence Research Center, Seoul National University, Korea, Republic of.

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) are enzymes that ligate their cognate amino acids to tRNAs for protein synthesis. However, recent studies have shown that their functions are expanded beyond protein synthesis through the interactions with diverse cellular factors. In this review, we discuss how ARSs have evolved to expand and control their functions by forming protein assemblies. Read More

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http://www.jbc.org/lookup/doi/10.1074/jbc.REV118.002958
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.REV118.002958DOI Listing
February 2019
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Loss of BOP1 confers resistance to BRAF kinase inhibitors in melanoma by activating MAP kinase pathway.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605;

Acquired resistance to BRAF kinase inhibitors (BRAFi) is the primary cause for their limited clinical benefit. Although several mechanisms of acquired BRAFi resistance have been identified, the basis for acquired resistance remains unknown in over 40% of melanomas. We performed a large-scale short-hairpin RNA screen, targeting 363 epigenetic regulators and identified Block of Proliferation 1 (BOP1) as a factor the loss of which results in resistance to BRAFi both in cell culture and in mice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821889116DOI Listing
February 2019