BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 20;17(1):657. Epub 2017 Sep 20.
Department of Pathology, CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Background: There is evidence that some ovarian tumours evoke an immune response, which can be assessed by tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). To facilitate adoption of TILs as a clinical biomarker, a standardised method for their H&E visual evaluation has been validated in breast cancer.
Methods: We sought to investigate the prognostic significance of TILs in a study of 953 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer tumour samples, both primary and metastatic, from 707 patients from the prospective population-based SEARCH study. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 19;17(1):656. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK.
Background: As more men survive a diagnosis of prostate cancer, alternative models of follow-up care that address men's enduring unmet needs and are economical to deliver are needed. This paper describes the protocol for an ongoing evaluation of a nurse-led supported self-management and remote surveillance programme implemented within the secondary care setting.
Methods/design: The evaluation is taking place within a real clinical setting, comparing the outcomes of men enrolled in the Programme with the outcomes of a pre-service change cohort of men, using a repeated measures design. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 19;17(1):655. Epub 2017 Sep 19.
Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, 6 Shuangyong Road, Nanning, 530021, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.
Background: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the highest cancer-related mortality for decades. To enhance the efficiency of early diagnosis and therapy, more efforts are urgently needed to reveal the origins of NSCLC. In this study, we explored the effect of miR-542-5p in NSCLC with clinical samples and in vivo models and further explored the prospective function of miR-542-5p though bioinformatics methods. Read More
Background: Increasing physical activity can improve cognition in healthy and cognitively impaired adults; however, the benefits for cancer survivors are unknown. The current study examined a 12-week physical activity intervention, compared with a control condition, on objective and self-reported cognition among breast cancer survivors.
Methods: Sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to an exercise arm (n = 43) or a control arm (n = 44). Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):651. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Medical oncology Unit, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland (IOSI), 6500, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
Background: Five-year survival in patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) is nearly 100%, but metastatic disease still remains incurable. Clinical management of metastatic patients has become increasingly complex as novel therapeutic strategies have emerged. This study aims at evaluating the impact of the first metastatic progression on the outcome of PCa patients treated with curative intent. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):652. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Respiratory Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, 188 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006, China.
Background: The increasing incidence and poor outcome associated with malignant pleural effusion (MPE) requires finding an effective treatment for this disease. Inhibitory B7-H4 is expressed in many different human cancers but its role in malignant pleural tissue has yet to be established.
Methods: Here, patients with metastatic pleural adenocarcinoma (MPA) or with early-stage lung adenocarcinoma were clinically and statistically analyzed. Read More
Background: Clinical trials are necessary for the advancement of cancer treatment and care, however low rates of participation in such trials limit the generalisability of findings. The objective of this study was to examine the proportion of medical oncology outpatients in Australia who are invited and consent to participate in clinical trials and the factors associated with this.
Methods: A sample of adult medical oncology patients was recruited from three Australian cancer treatment centres. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 18;17(1):654. Epub 2017 Sep 18.
Department of Oncology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yongan Raod, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100050, China.
Background: Thyroid carcinoma (TC) is more likely to occur in young women. The aim of this study was to compare the aesthetic effect of different thyroidectomies.
Methods: One hundred twenty female patients who underwent thyroidectomy were evenly distributed into three groups: conventional access (CA), aesthetic principles access (APA) and minimally invasive access (MIA). Read More
Background: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor. Current therapeutic options only marginally improve survival. Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a dominant mediator of immunosuppression, binding to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1). Read More
Background: Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP/ACP5), a metalloenzyme that is characteristic for its expression in activated osteoclasts and in macrophages, has recently gained considerable focus as a driver of metastasis and was associated with clinically relevant parameters of cancer progression and cancer aggressiveness.
Methods: MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with different TRAP expression levels (overexpression and knockdown) were generated and characterized for protein expression and activity levels. Functional cell experiments, such as proliferation, migration and invasion assays were performed as well as global phosphoproteomic and proteomic analysis was conducted to connect molecular perturbations to the phenotypic changes. Read More
Background: In patients with BRAFV600 mutated unresectable stage IIIc or metastatic melanoma, molecular targeted therapy with combined BRAF/MEK-inhibitor vemurafenib plus cobimetinib has shown a significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival compared to treatment with vemurafenib alone. Nevertheless, the majority of BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma patients will eventually develop resistance to treatment. Molecular imaging with (18)F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET has been used to monitor response to vemurafenib in some BRAFV600 mutated metastatic melanoma patients, showing a rapid decline of (18)F-FDG uptake within 2 weeks following treatment. Read More
Background: Children with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) undergo treatment with central nervous system-directed therapy, the potentially neurotoxic effects of which have not been reported in NHL survivors.
Methods: NHL survivors (n = 187) participating in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort who were 10 or more years from their diagnosis and were 18 years old or older underwent neurocognitive, emotional distress (Brief Symptom Inventory 18), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessments (36-Item Short Form Health Survey). Read More
Background: Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness.
Methods: Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit. Read More
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Background: The term "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP) has replaced a subset of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the indolent behavior of such tumors. NIFTPs are most often classified in an "indeterminate" diagnostic category. In the current study, the authors sought to identify cytologic features helpful in distinguishing NIFTP from other entities in these categories, particularly benign nodules. Read More
Background: Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are rare mesenchymal tumors commonly located in the pleura, soft tissues, or meninges and are characterized by the NGFI-A-binding protein 2 (NAB2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) fusion gene. Recent studies have indicated that nuclear STAT6 immunohistochemistry is a specific marker for SFTs.
Methods: The authors reviewed fine-needle aspiration (FNA) specimens from extracranial SFTs diagnosed at their institution between 1993 and 2017. Read More
The high metabolic demand of cancer cells leads to an accumulation of H(+) ions in the tumour microenvironment. The disorganized tumour vasculature prevents an efficient wash-out of H(+) ions released into the extracellular medium but also favours the development of tumour hypoxic regions associated with a shift towards glycolytic metabolism. Under hypoxia, the final balance of glycolysis, including breakdown of generated ATP, is the production of lactate and a stoichiometric amount of H(+) ions. Read More
Neoplasms change over time through a process of cell-level evolution, driven by genetic and epigenetic alterations. However, the ecology of the microenvironment of a neoplastic cell determines which changes provide adaptive benefits. There is widespread recognition of the importance of these evolutionary and ecological processes in cancer, but to date, no system has been proposed for drawing clinically relevant distinctions between how different tumours are evolving. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 13;17(1):647. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
Community Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, S113-750 Bannatyne Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0W3, Canada.
Background: The belief that early detection is the best protection against cancer underlies cancer screening. Emerging research now suggests harms associated with early detection may sometimes outweigh the benefits. Governments, cancer agencies, and organizations that publish screening guidelines have found it is difficult to "un-ring the bell" on the message that "early detection is your best protection" because of its widespread communication and enduring resonance. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 13;17(1):648. Epub 2017 Sep 13.
Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, and Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion (Ministry of Education), Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, People's Republic of China.
Background: FOXP3 has been discovered to be expressed in tumor cells and participate in the regulation of tumor behavior. Herein, we investigated the clinical relevance and biological significance of FOXP3 expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Methods: Expression profile of FOXP3 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunofluorescence on HCC cell lines, and immunostaing of a tissue microarray containing of 240 primary HCC samples. Read More
Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon, Portugal.
Background: Lipoblastomas are rare, benign adipocytic tumors that present mostly during infancy. In about 70% of cases, these tumors carry abnormalities in chromosome 8, mainly leading to rearrangements of the PLAG1 gene.
Methods: We report a series of histologically proven lipoblastomas with previous fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology from 9 patients (n = 10 samples) and describe their clinical, cytological, and molecular features. Read More
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Background: The reclassification of noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) has created diagnostic and management issues for thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA). In response to these challenges, the authors' laboratory adopted a NIFTP policy including 1) stringent criteria (requiring pseudo-inclusions, papillae, and/or psammoma bodies) for a malignant diagnosis of papillary carcinoma to limit false-positive results due to NIFTP and 2) the use of explanatory notes in cases with cytomorphologic features suggestive of possible NIFTP to encourage lobectomy over thyroidectomy. This study examined the effects of this policy on FNA classification and subsequent surgical management. Read More
Background: To the authors' knowledge, limited data exist regarding long-term quality of life (QOL) for patients diagnosed with intracranial meningioma.
Methods: The data in the current study concerned 1722 meningioma cases diagnosed among residents of Connecticut, Massachusetts, California, Texas, and North Carolina from May 1, 2006 through March 14, 2013, and 1622 controls who were frequency matched to the cases by age, sex, and geography. These individuals were participants in a large, population-based, case-control study. Read More
Background: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone is an increasingly accepted treatment for brain metastases, but it requires adherence to frequently scheduled follow-up neuroimaging because of the risk of distant brain metastasis. The effect of disparities in access to follow-up care on outcomes after SRS alone is unknown.
Methods: This retrospective study included 153 brain metastasis patients treated consecutively with SRS alone from 2010 through 2016 at an academic medical center and a safety-net hospital (SNH) located in Los Angeles, California. Read More
Division of Urological Surgery, Center for Surgery and Public Health, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Background: This study assessed the use of active surveillance in men with low-risk prostate cancer and evaluated institutional factors associated with the receipt of active surveillance.
Methods: A retrospective, hospital-based cohort of 115,208 men with low-risk prostate cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 was used. Multivariate and mixed effects models were used to examine variation and factors associated with active surveillance. Read More
Psychosocial Department, Emma Children's Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Background: This study was aimed at assessing fathers' and mothers' distress 6 months after a pediatric cancer diagnosis and at determining whether this is related to the level of family psychosocial risk 1 month after the diagnosis.
Methods: A sample of 192 families completed the electronic Psychosocial Assessment Tool (ePAT) 1 month after the diagnosis. At 6 months after the diagnosis, 119 mothers and 98 fathers completed the Distress Thermometer for Parents (DT-P; of which n=132 had also completed the ePAT at baseline). Read More
Background: There is no clear consensus between pediatric and adult providers about the treatment of adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).
Methods: Failure-free survival (FFS) and overall survival (OS) were compared between 114 patients ages 17 to 21 years with HL who were treated on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-American College of Radiology Imaging Network Intergroup adult E2496 study and 391 similarly patients ages 17 to 21 years with HL who were treated on the pediatric Children's Oncology Group (COG) AHOD0031 study.
Results: Comparing AYAs from the COG and E2496 studies, there were no significant differences in extralymphatic disease, anemia, or hypoalbuminemia. Read More
Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) is important in maintaining epidermal growth factor receptor-driven cancers and mediating resistance to targeted therapy. A phase I study of anti-HER3 monoclonal antibody LJM716 was conducted with the primary objective to identify the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and/or recommended dose for expansion (RDE), and dosing schedule. Secondary objectives were to characterize safety/tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and preliminary antitumor activity. Read More
Background: Integrator complex subunit 6 (INTS6) was found to play a tumour suppressing role in certain types of solid tumours. In this study, we wanted to determine the expression level of INTS6 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate its clinical characteristics and mechanisms in HCC patients (Lui and Lu, European Journal of Cancer, 51:S94, 2015).
Methods: First, we used a microarray analysis to explore the mRNA expression levels in HCC and paired normal liver tissues; second, we used qRT-PCR to measure the INTS6 mRNA levels in a cohort of 50 HCC tissues and adjacent normal liver tissues; third, we used Western blot analyses to detect the INTS6 protein levels in 20 paired HCC and normal liver tissues; fourth, we used immunohistochemistry to determine the INTS6 expression levels in 70 archived paraffin-embedded HCC samples. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 12;17(1):645. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, He Di Rd #71, Nanning, 530021, People's Republic of China.
Background: Sorafenib and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) are recommended therapies for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their combined efficacy remains unclear.
Methods: Between August 2004 and November 2014, 104 patients with BCLC stage B/C HCC were enrolled at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, China. Forty-eight patients were treated with sorafenib alone (sorafenib group) and 56 with TACE plus sorafenib (TACE + sorafenib group). Read More
Background: Because of the current epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), a screening strategy is urgently needed. The presence of serum antibodies to HPV-16 early (E) antigens is associated with an increased risk for OPC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of antibodies to a panel of HPV-16 E antigens in screening for OPC. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):643. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH-8091, Zürich, Switzerland.
Background: Volumetric tumor staging has been shown as superior prognostic tool compared to the conventional TNM system in patients undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Recently, clinical immunoscores such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) have been investigated as prognostic markers in several tumor entities. The aim of this study was to assess the combined prognostic value of NLR and tumor volume in patients treated with IMRT for oropharyngeal cancer (OC). Read More
Background: A fusion gene is a hybrid gene consisting of parts from two previously independent genes. Chromosomal rearrangements leading to gene breakage are frequent in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas and have been reported as a common mechanism for inactivating tumor suppressor genes. However, no fusion genes have been repeatedly reported to be recurrent driver events in ovarian carcinogenesis. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):640. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Cancer, MBC#98-16, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh, 11211, Saudi Arabia.
Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females and is ranked second in cancer-related deaths all over the world in women. Despite improvement in diagnosis, the survival rate of this disease has still not improved. X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) has been shown to be over-expressed in various cancers leading to poor overall survival. Read More
Background: Male breast cancer (MBC) represents a poorly characterised group of tumours, the management of which is largely based on practices established for female breast cancer. However, recent studies demonstrate biological and molecular differences likely to impact on tumour behaviour and therefore patient outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate methylation of a panel of commonly methylated breast cancer genes in familial MBCs. Read More
BMC Cancer 2017 Sep 11;17(1):639. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Joint National Laboratory for Antibody Drug Engineering, Institute of Biomedical Informatics, Medical School, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China.
Background: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood.
Methods: Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Read More
Background: The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival has not been well studied. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, this study was designed to assess the association between health insurance status and childhood cancer survival.
Methods: Data on cancers diagnosed among children less than 15 years old from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from the SEER 18 registries. Read More
Background: Phosphatase and Tensin homolog (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene. Loss of its function is the most frequent genetic alteration in endometrioid endometrial cancers (70-80%) and high grade tumors (90%). We assessed the sensitivity of endometrial cancer cell lines to PARP inhibitors (olaparib and BMN-673) and a PI3K inhibitor (BKM-120), alone or in combination, in the context of their PTEN mutation status. Read More
Background: Cervical cancer screening in China is largely limited to occasional opportunistic screening in urban centers. The current study reports histopathologic follow-up and human papillomavirus (HPV) results in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) Papanicolaou (Pap) tests reported at the largest academic women's hospital in China and compares these findings with those of published Western studies among frequently screened women.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study documented HSIL Pap tests, patient age, HPV results, and histopathologic follow-up from 2011 through 2015 in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University (OGHFU) in Shanghai, China. Read More
Department of Pathology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York.
Background: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is an accurate method for the diagnosis of solid pancreatic masses. However, a significant number of cases still pose a diagnostic challenge. The authors have attempted to design a computer model to aid in the diagnosis of these biopsies. Read More
Background: Reports are limited regarding clinical and pretreatment features that might predict a pathological complete response (pathCR) after treatment in patients with esophageal cancer (EC). This might allow patient selection for different strategies. This study examines the association of a pathCR with pretreatment variables, overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and patterns of recurrence in a large cohort from a single institution. Read More
Background: Measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is becoming an integral component of quality improvement initiatives, clinical care, and research studies in cancer, including comparative effectiveness research. However, the number of PROs limits comparability across studies. Herein, the authors attempted to link the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General Physical Well-Being (FACT-G PWB) subscale with the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) calibrated item bank. Read More
Background: Early-phase trials in patients with recurrent neuroblastoma historically used an objective "response" of measureable disease (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors [RECIST], without bone/bone marrow assessment) to select agents for further study. Historical cohorts may be small and potentially biased; to the authors' knowledge, disease recurrence studies from international registries are outdated. Using a large recent cohort of patients with recurrent/refractory neuroblastoma from Children's Oncology Group (COG) modern-era early-phase trials, the authors determined outcome and quantified parameters for designing future studies. Read More
Department of Radiation Oncology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Background: Nearly 1 in 5 Americans will develop skin cancer, and as a result, survivors of skin cancer compose one of the largest groups of cancer survivors. Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are an important tool for improving patient outcomes and provide critical information to both survivors and health care professionals. Recent efforts have been made to expand SCP utilization; however, which patients currently receive SCPs is poorly understood. Read More