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    Relapse and survival after transplantation for complex karyotype acute myeloid leukemia: A report from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Acute Leukemia Working Party, European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Paris Study Office/European Center for Biostatistical and Epidemiological Evaluation in Hematopoietic Cell Therapy, Paris, France.
    Background: Despite recent advances in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT), the outcome of patients who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with a complex karyotype (CK) remains poor. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors associated with post-transplantation survival in a large cohort of patients with CK AML.

    Methods: In total, data on 1342 consecutively patients who underwent transplantation for CK (≥3 chromosomal abnormalities) AML were provided by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and from the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database were included in the analysis. Read More

    The minimal clinically important difference of the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale in patients with cancer with agitated delirium.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Palliative Care, Rehabilitation and Integrative Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Background: The Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) is commonly used to assess psychomotor activity; however, to the authors' knowledge, its minimal clinically important difference (MCID) has not been determined to date. The objective of the current study was to identify the MCID for RASS using 2 anchor-based approaches.

    Methods: The current study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of lorazepam versus placebo as an adjuvant to haloperidol for persistent agitation in patients with delirium. Read More

    Safety profile of avelumab in patients with advanced solid tumors: A pooled analysis of data from the phase 1 JAVELIN solid tumor and phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 clinical trials.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
    Background: Antibodies targeting the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) checkpoint may cause adverse events (AEs) that are linked to the mechanism of action of this therapeutic class and unique from those observed with conventional chemotherapy.

    Methods: Patients with advanced solid tumors who were enrolled in the phase 1 JAVELIN Solid Tumor (1650 patients) and phase 2 JAVELIN Merkel 200 (88 patients) trials received avelumab, a human anti-PD-L1 IgG1 antibody at a dose of 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Treatment-related AEs (TRAEs) were graded using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4. Read More

    High control rates of proton- and carbon ion-beam treatment with intensity-modulated active raster scanning in 101 patients with skull base chondrosarcoma at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Background: The current study compares the results of irradiation with protons and irradiation with carbon ions via a raster scan technique in patients with G1 and G2 skull base chondrosarcomas.

    Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 101 patients (40 men and 61 women) with a median age of 44 years (range, 19-77 years) were irradiated with carbon ions (79 patients) or protons (22 patients) via a raster scan technique at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center. The median total dose was 60 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) at 3 Gy per fraction for carbon ions and 70 Gy (RBE) at 2 Gy per fraction for protons. Read More

    T-cell-depleted haploidentical stem cell transplantation results improve with time in adults with acute leukemia: A study from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation Paris Office, St. Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.
    Background: T-cell-depleted, haploidentical transplantations (haplos) are commonly offered to patients who have high-risk, acute leukemia in the absence of a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) full-matched donor.

    Methods: To determine the effect of transplantation period, the authors divided 308 adults with de novo, acute leukemia who underwent T-cell-depleted haplo from 2005 to 2015 into 2 groups, according the year in which they underwent transplantation (2005-2011 [n = 191] and 2012-2015 [n = 117]).

    Results: The median age was 41 years in patients who underwent transplantation before 2012 and 46 years in those who underwent transplantation after 2012 (P = . Read More

    Adverse mental health outcomes in a population-based cohort of survivors of childhood cancer.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 22. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
    Division of Hematology/Oncology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
    Background: The elevated risk for physical late effects in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) is well documented, but their risk for mental health problems is less well described.

    Methods: The authors assembled a cohort of all 5-year CCS who were diagnosed before age 18 years and treated in an Ontario pediatric cancer center between 1987 and 2008. Patients were matched to population controls and linked to health administration databases. Read More

    Structural and advanced imaging in predicting MGMT promoter methylation of primary glioblastoma: a region of interest based analysis.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):215. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Radiology & Functional and Molecular Imaging Key Lab of Shaanxi Province, Tangdu Hospital, the Military Medical University of PLA Airforce (Fourth Military Medical University), 569 Xinsi Road, Xi'an, 710038, China.
    Background: The methylation status of oxygen 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter has been associated with treatment response in glioblastoma(GBM). Using pre-operative MRI techniques to predict MGMT promoter methylation status remains inconclusive. In this study, we investigated the value of features from structural and advanced imagings in predicting the methylation of MGMT promoter in primary glioblastoma patients. Read More

    Occurrence of colorectal aberrant crypt foci depending on age and dietary patterns of patients.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):213. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Histology and Embryology with Unit of Experimental Cytology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland.
    Background: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are commonly considered the early pre-cancerous lesions that can progress to colorectal cancer (CRC). The available literature data reveal that age, dietary factors and lifestyle can affect the development of several dozen percentages of malignant tumours, including CRC. In the present study, an attempt was made to assess the incidence and growth dynamics of ACF and to determine whether the type of diet affected the development and number of AFC. Read More

    A novel combined systemic inflammation-based score can predict survival of intermediate-to-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing transarterial chemoembolization.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):216. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Liver Surgery and Liver Transplantation Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.
    Background: There is currently limited information regarding the prognostic ability of the dNLR-PNI (the combination of the derived neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio [dNLR] and prognostic nutritional index [PNI]) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of the dNLR-PNI in patients with intermediate-to-advanced HCC after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).

    Methods: A total of 761 HCC patients were enrolled in the study. Read More

    Real life patterns of care and progression free survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients: retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):214. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    INSERM, ECEVE, UMR 1123, Paris, France.
    Background: Patient characteristics and survival outcomes in randomized trials may be different from those in real-life clinical practice. The objective of this study was to describe treatment pathways, safety, drug costs and survival in patients with metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) in a real world setting.

    Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed using IQVIA real world oncology cross-sectional survey data, a retrospective treatment database collecting anonymized patient-level data in Europe. Read More

    Successful treatment with pazopanib plus PD-1 inhibitor and RAK cells for advanced primary hepatic angiosarcoma: a case report.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):212. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department of Geriatric, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.
    Background: Primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA) is a rare and aggressive solid tumor, with high rates of local recurrence and distant metastasis, and poor prognosis. There are no established treatment guidelines for PHA.

    Case Presentation: A 78-year-old asymptomatic man with PHA that was successfully treated with pazopanib plus PD-1 inhibitor and RetroNectin-activated killer cells (RAK cells). Read More

    The long non-coding RNA MYCNOS-01 regulates MYCN protein levels and affects growth of MYCN-amplified rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroblastoma cells.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):217. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Sarcoma Molecular Pathology Team, Divisions of Molecular Pathology and Cancer Therapeutics, Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey, Sutton, SM2 5NG, UK.
    Background: MYCN is amplified in small cell lung cancers and several pediatric tumors, including alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas. MYCN protein is known to play a key oncogenic role in both alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas and neuroblastomas. MYCN opposite strand (MYCNOS) is a gene located on the antisense strand to MYCN that encodes alternatively spliced transcripts, two of which (MYCNOS-01 and MYCNOS-02) are known to be expressed in neuroblastoma and small cell lung cancer with reciprocal regulation between MYCNOS-02 and MYCN reported for neuroblastomas. Read More

    A randomised trial to compare cognitive outcome after gamma knife radiosurgery versus whole brain radiation therapy in patients with multiple brain metastases: research protocol CAR-study B.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 21;18(1):218. Epub 2018 Feb 21.
    Department Neurosurgery, Elisabeth-TweeSteden Hospital, Hilvarenbeekseweg 60, 5022, GC, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
    Background: Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is increasingly applied in patients with multiple brain metastases and is expected to have less adverse effects in cognitive functioning than whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Effective treatment with the least negative cognitive side effects is increasingly becoming important, as more patients with brain metastases live longer due to more and better systemic treatment options. There are no published randomized trials yet directly comparing GKRS to WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases that include objective neuropsychological testing. Read More

    Inhibition of autophagy sensitizes cancer cells to Photofrin-based photodynamic therapy.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):210. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Immunology, Medical University of Warsaw, 1A Banacha Str., F building, 02-097, Warsaw, Poland.
    Background: Accumulating evidence suggest that autophagy plays a pivotal role in various anticancer therapies, including photodynamic therapy (PDT), acting as a pro-death or pro-survival mechanism in a context-dependent manner. Therefore, we aimed to determine the role of autophagy in Photofrin-based PDT.

    Methods: In vitro cytotoxic/cytostatic effects of PDT were evaluated with crystal violet cell viability assay. Read More

    Rapid symptomatic relief of HER2-positive gastric cancer leptomeningeal carcinomatosis with lapatinib, trastuzumab and capecitabine: a case report.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):206. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Zhejiang, China.
    Background: Gastric cancer patients with widespread metastasis, especially meningeal metastases, have an extremely prognosis and limited therapeutic choices.

    Case Presentation: We reported the case of a 39-year-old male patient with HER2-positive gastric cancer with bone and meningeal metastases. He presented with multiple bone metastases and received 3 cycles of docetaxel plus S1. Read More

    Glucose, lipids and gamma-glutamyl transferase measured before prostate cancer diagnosis and secondly diagnosed primary tumours: a prospective study in the Swedish AMORIS cohort.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):205. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    King's College London, Translational Oncology & Urology Research (TOUR) Division of Cancer Studies King's College London Research Oncology, 3rd Floor, Bermondsey Wing, Guy's Hospital, London, SE1 9RT, UK.
    Background: Improvements in detection and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) translate into more men living with PCa, who are therefore potentially at risk of a secondly diagnosed primary tumour (SDPTs). Little is known about potential biochemical mechanisms linking PCa with the occurrence of SDPTs. The current study aims to investigate serum biomarkers of glucose and lipid metabolism and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) measured prior to PCa diagnosis and their association with the occurrence of SDPTS. Read More

    Metastatic cardiac tumors: from clinical presentation through diagnosis to treatment.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):202. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Talpiot Medical Leadership Program, Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.
    Background: To evaluate the prevalence of metastatic tumors involving the myocardium and study their presentation in order to increase awareness to their existence.

    Methods: Pathological reports from Sheba Medical Center (Israel, January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2015) and medical records from The Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Vojvodina, Sremska Kamenica (Serbia, 23 years period) were screened for cases of metastatic cardiac tumors. Medical, radiological and pathological data of identified cases was retrieved and reviewed. Read More

    Preliminary qualification of a novel, hypoxic-based radiologic signature for trans-arterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):211. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London, W120HS, UK.
    Background: Survival advantage following trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is variable in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We combined pre-TACE radiologic features to derive a novel prognostic signature in HCC.

    Methods: A multi-institutional dataset of 98 patients was generated from two retrospective cohorts from United Kingdom (65%) and Italy (36%). Read More

    Evaluating different breast tumor progression models using screening data.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):209. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Center of Cancer Biomedicine, Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, Norway, P.O. Box 1080 Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway.
    Background: Mammography screening is used to detect breast cancer at an early treatable stage, reducing breast cancer mortality. Traditionally, breast cancer has been seen as a disease with only progressive lesions, and here we examine the validity of this assumption by testing if incidence levels after introducing mammography screening can be reproduced assuming only progressive tumors.

    Methods: Breast cancer incidence data 1990-2009 obtained from the initially screened Norwegian counties (Akershus, Oslo, Rogaland and Hordaland) was included, covering the time-period before, during and after the introduction of mammography screening. Read More

    Glycolysis is essential for chemoresistance induced by transient receptor potential channel C5 in colorectal cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):207. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Oncology, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu, 214062, China.
    Background: Elevated intracellular Ca([Ca]) level could lead to [Ca]overload and promote apoptosis via different pathways. In our previously study, up-regulated expression of transient receptor potential canonical channel (TRPC5) was proven to increase [Ca]level, and resulted in chemoresistance whereas not apoptosis in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The ATP-dependent homeostatic maintenance of resting [Ca]should be important in this process. Read More

    Breast cancer subtype discordance: impact on post-recurrence survival and potential treatment options.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):203. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Discipline of Surgery, Lambe Institute for Translational Research, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway, Ireland.
    Background: Recent studies have shown that breast cancer subtype can change from the primary tumour to the recurrence. Discordance between primary and recurrent breast cancer has implications for further treatment and ultimately prognosis. The aim of the study was to determine the rate of change between primary and recurrence of breast cancer and to assess the impact of these changes on survival and potential treatment options. Read More

    Filtration based assessment of CTCs and CellSearch® based assessment are both powerful predictors of prognosis for metastatic breast cancer patients.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):204. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-EMN, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Universitaetsstraße 21-23, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
    Background: The assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been shown to enable monitoring of treatment response and early detection of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) recurrence. The aim of this study was to compare a well-established CTC detection method based on immunomagnetic isolation with a new, filtration-based platform.

    Methods: In this prospective study, two 7. Read More

    Association of differential miRNA expression with hepatic vs. peritoneal metastatic spread in colorectal cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):201. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of General, Visceral, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital LMU Munich, Marachioninistrasse 15, 81377, Munich, Germany.
    Background: Though peritoneal carcinomatosis reflects a late stage of colorectal cancer (CRC), only few patients present with synchronous or metachronous liver metastases alongside their peritoneal carcinomatosis. It is hypothesized that this phenomenon may be causally linked to molecular characteristics of the primary CRC. This study used miRNA profiling of primary CRC tissue either metastasized to the liver, to the peritoneum or not metastasized at all thus to identify miRNAs potentially associated with defining the site of metastatic spread in CRC. Read More

    MCM family in HCC: MCM6 indicates adverse tumor features and poor outcomes and promotes S/G2 cell cycle progression.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 20;18(1):200. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.
    Background: Minichromosome Maintenance family (MCMs), as replication licensing factors, is involved in the pathogenesis of tumors. Here, we investigated the expression of MCMs and their values in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Methods: MCMs were analyzed in 105 samples including normal livers (n = 15), cirrhotic livers (n = 40), HCC (n = 50) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (Cohort 1). Read More

    Impact of the affordability of novel agents in patients with multiple myeloma: Real-world data of current clinical practice in Mexico.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Department of Hematology, University Hospital of the School of Medicine of the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, Mexico.
    Background: The treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) has become costly and difficult to access for patients living in low-income to middle-income countries.

    Methods: The current retrospective study included 148 patients in Mexico with newly diagnosed MM, and was performed to compare the outcomes of patients with and without access to novel agents. The records of 77 patients admitted to a public hospital (PubC) and 71 patients cared for within private health systems (PrivC) from November 2007 to July 2016 were reviewed. Read More

    Clinical and mutational spectrum of highly differentiated, paired box 3:forkhead box protein o1 fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Division of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Background: Pediatric paired box 3:forkhead box protein O1 fusion-negative (PF-) rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) represents a diverse spectrum of tumors with marked differences in histology, myogenic differentiation, and clinical behavior.

    Methods: This study sought to evaluate the clinical and mutational spectrum of 24 pediatric PF- human RMS tumors with high levels of myogenic differentiation. Tumors were sequenced with OncoPanel v. Read More

    Beyond symptomatic relief for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: Targeting the source.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 20. Epub 2018 Feb 20.
    Neuroimmunology Laboratory, Department of Symptom Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious adverse side effect of many chemotherapeutic agents, affecting >60% of patients with cancer. Moreover, CIPN persists long into survivorship in approximately 20% to 30% of these patients. To the authors' knowledge, no drugs have been approved to date by the US Food and Drug Administration to effectively manage chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain. Read More

    Safety and efficacy of temsirolimus as second line treatment for patients with recurrent bladder cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):194. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    INSERM U1194, Montpellier Cancer Research Institute, Montpellier, France.
    Background: Bladder cancer is the 7th cause of death from cancer in men and 10th in women. Metastatic patients have a poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 14 months. Until recently, vinflunine was the only second-line chemotherapy available for patients who relapse. Read More

    Treatment of upper tract urothelial carcinoma with ureteroscopy and thulium laser: a retrospective single center study.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):196. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Urology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, China.
    Background: Treatment with the combination of ureteroscopy and thulium laser ablation may provide an alternative to radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of this technique.

    Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the data for patients who were treated surgically for upper tract urothelial carcinoma in a single center. Read More

    Oxidative damage and response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin in bladder cancer cells expressing sialyltransferase ST3GAL1.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):198. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Sede di Patologia Generale, Università di Bologna, Via S. Giacomo 14, 40126, Bologna, Italy.
    Background: Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard adjuvant immunotherapy of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), although it fails in one third of the patients. NMIBC expresses two tumor-associated O-linked carbohydrates: the disaccharide (Galβ1,3GalNAc) Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigen, and its sialylated counterpart (Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc) sialyl-T (sT), synthesized by sialyltransferase ST3GAL1, whose roles in BCG response are unknown.

    Methods: The human bladder cancer (BC) cell line HT1376 strongly expressing the T antigen, was retrovirally transduced with the ST3GAL1 cDNA or with an empty vector, yielding the cell lines HT1376and HT1376, that express, respectively, either the sT or the T antigens. Read More

    A prospective study to investigate the role of serial serum mesothelin in monitoring mesothelioma.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):199. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Academic Respiratory Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Learning and Research Centre, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol, BS10 5NB, UK.
    Background: Radiological monitoring of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using modified RECIST criteria is limited by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Serial serum mesothelin measurement has shown utility in the assessment of treatment response during chemotherapy but has never been assessed in the longer term follow up of patients.

    Methods: This is a single centre study of consecutive patients diagnosed with MPM who received chemotherapy or best supportive care (BSC). Read More

    Radiotherapy related skin toxicity (RAREST-01): Mepitel® film versus standard care in patients with locally advanced head-and-neck cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):197. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Lübeck, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23562, Lübeck, Germany.
    Background: The aim of the present trial is to investigate a new option of skin protection in order to reduce the rate of grade ≥ 2 skin toxicity in patients receiving radiotherapy alone or radiochemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head-and-neck (SCCHN).

    Methods / Design: This is a randomized, active-controlled, parallel-group multi-center trial that compares the following treatments of radiation dermatitis in patients with head-and-neck cancer: Mepitel® Film (Arm A) vs. standard care (Arm B). Read More

    In vitro and in silico validation of CA3 and FHL1 downregulation in oral cancer.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):193. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Department of Head and Neck Surgery, A. C. Camargo Cancer Hospital, São Paulo, Brazil.
    Background: Aberrant methylation is a frequent event in oral cancer.

    Methods: In order to better characterize these alterations, a search for genes downregulated by aberrant methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was conducted through the mining of ORESTES dataset. Findings were further validated in OSCC cell lines and patients' samples and confirmed using TCGA data. Read More

    RECORD-4 multicenter phase 2 trial of second-line everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Asian versus non-Asian population subanalysis.
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):195. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY, 10065, USA.
    Background: RECORD-4 assessed everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed after 1 prior anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or cytokine and reinforced the clinical benefit of second-line everolimus. Because of the high percentage of patients from China enrolled in RECORD-4 (41%) and some reported differences in responses to certain targeted agents between Chinese and Western patients, this subanalysis evaluated outcomes in Asian versus non-Asian patients.

    Methods: RECORD-4 enrolled patients with clear cell mRCC into 3 cohorts based on prior first-line therapy: sunitinib, other anti-VEGF (sorafenib, bevacizumab, pazopanib, other), or cytokines. Read More

    Fertility preservation healthcare circuit and networks in cancer patients worldwide: what are the issues?
    BMC Cancer 2018 Feb 17;18(1):192. Epub 2018 Feb 17.
    Laboratory CELTEC Cancer and Environment EA4546, University of the French West-Indies, Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe.
    Background: Fertility preservation (FP) is a major determinant of quality of life after cancer remission for women who may not have achieved their ideal family size. This article describes the FP services and strategy currently available, highlighting issues of oncofertility worldwide. For these patients in complex situations, health networks are essential to improve coordination of care, and the strengthening of this coordination is a major challenge to improve the performance of the health system. Read More

    Phase 1b study of pasireotide, everolimus, and selective internal radioembolization therapy for unresectable neuroendocrine tumors with hepatic metastases.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Hematology and Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.
    Background: Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) metastasize to the liver. Everolimus and selective internal radioembolization (SIRT) are approved treatments. Pasireotide is a somatostatin analogue with an affinity for somatostatin receptors 1, 2, 3, and 5. Read More

    Randomized phase 2 trial of pemetrexed, pemetrexed/bevacizumab, and pemetrexed/carboplatin/bevacizumab in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.
    Background: The best treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and a poor performance status is not well defined. In this phase 2 trial, patients were randomized to receive treatment with either single-agent pemetrexed or 1 of 2 combination regimens.

    Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed nonsquamous NSCLC and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 were stratified by age and serum albumin level and were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 regimens: pemetrexed (arm 1), pemetrexed and bevacizumab (arm 2), or pemetrexed, carboplatin, and bevacizumab (arm 3). Read More

    Decreased early mortality associated with the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in California.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Center for Oncology Hematology Outcomes Research and Training (COHORT), Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California at Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, California.
    Background: To the authors' knowledge, few population-based studies to date have evaluated the association between location of care, complications with induction therapy, and early mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

    Methods: Using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and Patient Discharge Dataset (1999-2014), the authors identified adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with AML who received inpatient treatment within 30 days of diagnosis. A propensity score was created for treatment at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCI-CC). Read More

    Barriers to accessing palliative care for pediatric patients with cancer: A review of the literature.
    Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    End-of-Life, Hospice, and Palliative Care Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
    Although many of the 16,000 children in the United States diagnosed who are with cancer each year could benefit from pediatric palliative care, these services remain underused. Evidence regarding the barriers impeding access to comprehensive palliative care is dispersed in the literature, and evidence specific to pediatric oncology remains particularly sparse. The purpose of the current review was to synthesize the existing literature regarding these barriers and the strategies offered to address them. Read More

    Gut microbiota injury in allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
    Nat Rev Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Immunology, Sloan Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.
    Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is considered to be the strongest curative immunotherapy for various malignancies (primarily, but not limited to, haematologic malignancies). However, application of allo-HSCT is limited owing to its life-threatening major complications, such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), relapse and infections. Recent advances in large-scale DNA sequencing technology have facilitated rapid identification of the microorganisms that make up the microbiota and evaluation of their interactions with host immunity in various diseases, including cancer. Read More

    Using immunotherapy to boost the abscopal effect.
    Nat Rev Cancer 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, 1300 York Avenue, Box 169, New York, NY, USA.
    More than 60 years ago, the effect whereby radiotherapy at one site may lead to regression of metastatic cancer at distant sites that are not irradiated was described and called the abscopal effect (from 'ab scopus', that is, away from the target). The abscopal effect has been connected to mechanisms involving the immune system. However, the effect is rare because at the time of treatment, established immune-tolerance mechanisms may hamper the development of sufficiently robust abscopal responses. Read More

    The T790M resistance mutation in EGFR is only found in cfDNA from erlotinib-treated NSCLC patients that harbored an activating EGFR mutation before treatment.
    BMC Cancer 2018 02 15;18(1):191. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
    Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.
    Background: Lung cancer patients with an activating mutation in the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) can develop resistance to erlotinib treatment, which is often mediated by the T790M resistance mutation in EGFR. The difficulties in obtaining biopsies at progression make it challenging to investigate the appearance of the T790M mutation at progression in large patient cohorts. We have used cell free DNA (cfDNA) from patients treated with erlotinib to investigate if the development of a T790M mutation coincides with the presence of an activating EGFR mutation in the pre-treatment blood sample. Read More

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using mitomycin and lipiodol with or without degradable starch microspheres for hepatocellular carcinoma: comparative study.
    BMC Cancer 2018 02 14;18(1):188. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Background: To evaluate survival data and local tumor control after transarterial chemoembolization in two groups with different embolization protocols for the treatment of HCC patients.

    Methods: Ninty-nine patients (mean age: 63.6 years), 78 male (78. Read More

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