120,458 results match your criteria Canadian journal of dietetic practice and research : a publication of Dietitians of Canada = Revue canadienne de la pratique et de la recherche en dietetique : une publication des Dietetistes du Canada[Journal]


Steady-state visual evoked potentials reveal enhanced neural responses to illusory surfaces during a concurrent visual attention task.

Cortex 2019 Mar 26;117:217-227. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

The University of Queensland, Queensland Brain Institute, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; The University of Queensland, School of Psychology, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Toronto, Canada.

Under natural viewing conditions, visual stimuli are often obscured by occluding surfaces. To aid object recognition, the visual system actively reconstructs the missing information, as exemplified in the classic Kanizsa illusion, a phenomenon termed "modal completion". Single-cell recordings in monkeys have shown that neurons in early visual cortex respond to illusory contours, but it has proven difficult to measure the neural correlates of modal completion in humans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2019.03.014DOI Listing

Porous iron material for TcO- and ReO- sequestration from groundwater under ambient oxic conditions.

J Hazard Mater 2019 Apr 9;374:177-185. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Hӧganäs Environmental Solutions LLC, Cary, NC, 27513, USA.

Technetium-99 (Tc) is a major contaminant at nuclear power plants and several US Department of Energy sites. Its most common aqueous species, pertechnetate (TcO), is very mobile in the environment, and currently there are no effective technologies for its sequestration. In this work, a porous iron (pFe) material was investigated for TcO and perrhenate (ReO) sequestration from artificial groundwater. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S03043894193045
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.04.030DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Barriers and facilitators of communication about off periods in Parkinson's disease: Qualitative analysis of patient, carepartner, and physician Interviews.

PLoS One 2019 18;14(4):e0215384. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Morton and Gloria Shulman Movement Disorders Centre and the Edmond J Safra Program in Parkinson's Research, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Successful patient-physician communication is critical for improving health outcomes, but research regarding optimal communication practices in Parkinson's disease is limited. The objective of the current study was to investigate barriers and facilitators of communication between persons with Parkinson's disease, carepartners, and physicians, specifically in the setting of off periods, with the goal of identifying ways to improve patient-carepartner-physician communication.

Method: We interviewed persons with Parkinson's, carepartners, and physicians (specialists and non-specialists) using a semi-structured questionnaire to identify and describe experiences, barriers, and facilitators relating to communication about off periods in Parkinson's disease. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215384PLOS
April 2019
1 Read

Perceptions on Use of the Subjective Global Assessment Before and After It Became Part of Regular Practice.

Nutr Clin Pract 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Nutrition & Aging Lab, Schlegel-UW Research Institute for Aging, Department of Kinesiology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Subjective global assessment (SGA) is a standardized diagnostic tool for malnutrition and identifies those who would benefit from nutrition treatment. SGA has been validated in several patient populations; however, implementation in clinical practice is inconsistent. The objective of this study was to understand and contrast the perceptions on use of SGA before and after it became a regular practice for hospital dietitians. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10270DOI Listing

Quantile regression and empirical likelihood for the analysis longitudinal data with monotone missing responses due to dropout, with applications to quality of life measurements from clinical trials.

Stat Med 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Canadian Cancer Trials Group, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada.

The analysis of quality of life (QoL) data can be challenging due to the skewness of responses and the presence of missing data. In this paper, we propose a new weighted quantile regression method for estimating the conditional quantiles of QoL data with responses missing at random. The proposed method makes use of the correlation information within the same subject from an auxiliary mean regression model to enhance the estimation efficiency and takes into account of missing data mechanism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sim.8152DOI Listing

Extraction of nucleic acids from blood: unveiling the potential of active pneumatic pumping in centrifugal microfluidics for integration and automation of sample preparation processes.

Lab Chip 2019 Apr 18. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Research Council of Canada, Life Sciences Division, 75 de Mortagne Boulevard, Boucherville, QC J4B 6Y4, Canada. and Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, 3775 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada.

This paper describes the development of an on-chip nucleic acid (NA) extraction assay from whole blood using a centrifugal microfluidic platform that allows for pneumatic actuation of liquids during rotation. The combination of pneumatic and centrifugal forces makes it possible to perform fluidic operations without the need for integrating active control elements on the microfluidic cartridge. The cartridge is fabricated from thermoplastic polymers (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9lc00276fDOI Listing

Care of acute conditions and chronic diseases in Canada and the United States: Rapid systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Public Health Res 2019 Mar 11;8(1):1479. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

School of Social Work.

This study tested the hypothesis that socioeconomically vulnerable Canadians with diverse acute conditions or chronic diseases have health care access and survival advantages over their counterparts in the USA. A rapid systematic review retrieved 25 studies (34 independent cohorts) published between 2003 and 2018. They were synthesized with a streamlined meta-analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2019.1479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444377PMC

Improving lung cancer diagnosis: the evolving role of patients and care providers.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Mar;11(Suppl 3):S422-S424

Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.11.68DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424746PMC

Angina and left ventricular dysfunction: can we 'reduce' it?

Eur Heart J Suppl 2019 Apr 10;21(Suppl C):C28-C31. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Department of Medical Sciences Ferrara University, Ferrara, Italy.

Despite the evolution in pharmacology and devices, recurrent and persistent angina still represent a frequent issue in clinical practice. A 69-year-old Caucasian female patient has history of surgical aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis for severe aortic stenosis with subsequent transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for bioprosthesis degeneration and single coronary artery bypass graft with left internal mammary artery on left anterior descending (LAD). After transcatheter aortic valve implantation, she started to complain angina [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Class III], effectively treated with bisoprolol uptitration and ivabradine 5 b. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suz045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456877PMC

Angina and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: facing the perfect storm.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2019 Apr 10;21(Suppl C):C17-C20. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Cardiovascular Centre of Ferrara University, Ferrara, Italy.

The association of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is challenging both in terms of prognosis and of pharmacological treatment. An 83-year-old Caucasian male patient has chronic kidney disease, COPD, previous myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass graft with left internal mammary artery (LIMA) on left anterior descending (LAD), saphenous vein graft (SVG) on obtuse marginal (OM)1 and on right coronary artery, and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on LAD (occlusion of LIMA) and on SVG for OM1 (SVG critical stenosis). Recently, the patient complained worsening angina [Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) III] and had residual ischaemia in the anterior wall after an unsuccessful attempt of PCI was performed on LAD for in-stent occlusion due to restenosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suz042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456878PMC

CPHLN recommendations for the laboratory detection of Shiga toxin-producing (O157 and non-O157).

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Nov 1;44(11):304-307. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

National Microbiology Laboratory, MB & ON.

Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) are important enteric pathogens responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of gastroenteritis. O157:H7/NM (STEC O157) are the most commonly known STEC serotypes but it is now increasingly apparent that non-O157 STEC serotypes have been underreported in the past because they were not part of routine screening in many front-line laboratories. The Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network (CPHLN) has identified the need for improved detection and surveillance of non-O157 STEC and has developed the following recommendations to assist in the decision-making process for clinical and reference microbiology laboratories. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i11a06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449107PMC
November 2018

Tuberculosis drug resistance in Canada: 2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Nov 1;44(11):290-296. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Centre for Communicable Disease and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health issue. To monitor this in Canada, surveillance systems have been in place for the last 20 years.

Objective: To describe drug resistance patterns among TB isolates in Canada in 2017 by type of resistance as well as geographic location, demographic data and origin and to compare current data to those of the previous 10 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i11a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449088PMC
November 2018

The National Advisory Committee on Infection Prevention and Control (NAC-IPC).

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Nov 1;44(11):283-289. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.

This paper describes the work of the National Advisory Committee on Infection Prevention and Control (NAC-IPC), previously Infection Prevention and Control Expert Working Group, a longstanding external advisory body that provides subject matter expertise and advice to the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) on the prevention and control of infectious diseases in Canadian health care settings. Originally established by Health Canada as the Infection Control Guidelines Steering Committee in 1992, this advisory board has been providing expert advice on infection prevention and control (IPC) guideline development for over 25 years. The NAC-IPC provides advice to inform the development of comprehensive or concise guidelines, quick reference guides and interim guidelines (usually for emerging pathogens), working closely with PHAC's national Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) surveillance programs for Canadian health care facilities. Read More

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https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/servic
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i11a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449104PMC
November 2018
1 Read

Looking ahead: The state and future of the .

Authors:
Sorge Justin

Can J Respir Ther 2018 1;54(1). Epub 2018 May 1.

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The p.P479L variant in CPT1A is associated with infectious disease in a BC First Nation.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 6;24(2):e111-e115. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: The hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I () p.P479L variant is common in Aboriginal populations across coastal British Columbia, Alaska, the Canadian North, and Greenland. While the high frequency of this variant suggests positive selection, other studies have shown an association with sudden unexpected death in infancy and infection. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/24/2/e111/5067175
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462176PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Nasal CPAP on paediatric air transport in the Canadian Arctic: A case series.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 13;24(2):e94-e97. Epub 2018 Jun 13.

Department of Anaesthesia, Qikiqtani General Hospital, Iqaluit, Nunavut.

Aims: Paediatric transport in remote regions of Canada represents a huge challenge given the acuity of the patients, immense distances, weather and lack of road infrastructure. Transport of patients in the Baffin region of Nunavut is completed entirely by air transport. Two very common paediatric transports are in regards to lower respiratory tract infections and premature deliveries in small rural communities north of Iqaluit. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462123PMC

Population-based study of early-onset neonatal sepsis in Canada.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 24;24(2):e66-e73. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.

Objective: To determine the incidence, types of organisms and resistance patterns involved in early-onset neonatal sepsis in Canada.

Study Design: Early-onset neonatal sepsis cases were identified through the Canadian Paediatric Surveillance Program. Neonates were excluded if they were asymptomatic or if intracranial procedures preceded a positive cerebrospinal fluid culture. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/24/2/e66/4983126
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462127PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Vaccine-preventable diseases: Uncommon disease primer for the front-line provider.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 13;24(2):130-131. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

This practice point provides quick information for front-line health care providers on vaccine-preventable diseases which, given the success of immunization programs in Canada, are now uncommon or rarely seen. These infections can still occur in children and youth from Canada and elsewhere, and their clinical identification has important public health implications. Knowledge of signs and symptoms, immunizing travellers and newcomers to Canada, awareness of outbreaks in-community and elsewhere, and early consultation with an expert in infectious diseases and public health authorities in suspected cases, are key preventive care measures. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/24/2/130/5453786
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxz044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462137PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Invasive group A streptococcal disease: Management and chemoprophylaxis.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 13;24(2):128-129. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Ottawa, Ontario.

Reporting of severe invasive group A streptococcal disease (IGAS) has increased in Canada over the past decade, highlighting the importance of optimal chemoprophylaxis and management strategies. Canadian guidelines have had variable uptake across Canada. This practice point updates relevant aspects of these guidelines, with a focus on chemoprophylaxis of contacts of IGAS cases and clinical management of IGAS. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/pch/article/24/2/128/5453785
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxz039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462117PMC
May 2019
1 Read

Acute encephalopathy associated with influenza infection: Case report and review of the literature.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 28;24(2):122-124. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Departments of Pediatrics and Community Health and Epidemiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Influenza has been associated with neurological complications. We describe the case of a toddler who presented with symptoms and signs of acute encephalopathy and hydrocephalus. Neuroimaging demonstrated cerebral edema and multifocal diffusion restriction in the thalamus and splenium of the corpus callosum. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462119PMC

Is physician dismissal of vaccine refusers an acceptable practice in Canada? A 2018 overview.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 1;24(2):92-97. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, IWK Health Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia.

Despite robust evidence that routine immunization is effective and safe, some parents refuse some or all vaccines for their children. In 2007, concern that Canadian paediatricians and family physicians might be considering dismissal of vaccine refusers from their practices prompted an ethical, legal, and public health analysis which concluded that dismissal was professionally problematic. We now reassess this important issue in the Canadian context updating ethical, legal, and public health considerations highlighting changes since 2007. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462121PMC

Scholarly training objectives and requirements for paediatric residents in Canada.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 May 8;24(2):76-80. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

In the absence of national standards for scholarly requirements, paediatric resident training varies significantly across Canadian programs. This variability may contribute to significant differences in trainee experiences and productivity. A panel of coordinators of paediatric resident research programs from across Canada met in 2014, to share experiences and identify barriers to successful resident scholarly activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6462126PMC

Maternal smoking and neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants <29 weeks gestation: a multicenter cohort study.

J Perinatol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Objective: To compare neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants at 18-21 months corrected age (CA) whose mothers smoked during pregnancy to those whose mothers did not smoke.

Study Design: Preterm infants born at <29 weeks of gestation and evaluated at 18-21 months CA were included. Primary outcome was a composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI). Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41372-019-0356-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41372-019-0356-3DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Canada finally opens up data on new drugs and devices.

BMJ 2019 04 17;365:l1825. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

University of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore MD, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.l1825DOI Listing

Caveolin-1 regulation of Sp1 controls production of the antifibrotic protein follistatin in kidney mesangial cells.

Cell Commun Signal 2019 Apr 17;17(1):37. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Background: We previously showed that caveolin-1 (cav-1), an integral membrane protein, is required for the synthesis of matrix proteins by glomerular mesangial cells (MC). In a previous study to understand how cav-1 is involved in regulating matrix production, we had identified significant upregulation of the antifibrotic protein follistatin in cav-1 knockout MC. Follistatin inhibits the profibrotic effects of several members of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, in particular the activins. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-019-0351-5DOI Listing

Considerations for the Use of Polyphenols as Therapies in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 16;20(8). Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Cellular Neurobiology, Department of Medical Biology, Université du Québec, Trois-Rivières, Québec, QC G9A5H7, Canada.

Over the last two decades, the increase in the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases due to the increasingly ageing population has resulted in a major social and economic burden. At present, a large body of literature supports the potential use of functional nutrients, which exhibit potential neuroprotective properties to mitigate these diseases. Among the most studied dietary molecules, polyphenols stand out because of their multiple and often overlapping reported modes of action. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081883DOI Listing

Botulism in Native Peoples - An Economic Study.

Authors:
Ewenc D Todd

J Food Prot 1988 Jul;51(7):581-587

Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Food Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, KIA 0L2, Canada.

Type E botulism occurs regularly in scattered locations in the Canadian Arctic and northern coastal British Columbia from the consumption of improperly fermented fish and marine mammal products by native peoples, with an average of eight cases and 1.5 deaths each year. Local treatment at nursing stations is often followed by the evacuation of the patients to the main northern hospitals, e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-51.7.581DOI Listing

An International Outbreak of Salmonella Nima from Imported Chocolate.

J Food Prot 1989 Jan;52(1):51-54

Field Operations Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Burnaby, B.C. V5G 4P2.

Twenty-nine confirmed cases of Salmonella nima enterocolitis in Canada and four cases in the United States were traced to gold-foil wrapped chocolate coins from Belgium. Illness in Canadian cases occurred between September 1985 and October 1986 where the primary case in each of 24 affected families was a child ≤ 14 years of age. A product recall was issued on October 3, 1986 in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-52.1.51DOI Listing
January 1989

Screen-time is associated with inattention problems in preschoolers: Results from the CHILD birth cohort study.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(4):e0213995. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Pre-school children spend an average of two-hours daily using screens. We examined associations between screen-time on pre-school behavior using data from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) study.

Methods: CHILD participant parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at five-years of age. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0213995PLOS

Lymphedema Impact and Prevalence International Study: The Canadian Data.

Lymphat Res Biol 2019 Apr;17(2):178-186

2 Parkwood Institute Research, St. Joseph's Health Care London, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Canada.

Chronic edema/lymphedema is defined as edema present for more than 3 months. It is underrecognized and undertreated. The International Lymphedema Framework developed an international study, Lymphedema Impact and Prevalence International (LIMPRINT), to estimate the prevalence and impact of chronic edema in heterogeneous populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2019.0014DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

mTORC1 is required for expression of LRPPRC and cytochrome c oxidase but not HIF-1α in Leigh Syndrome French Canadian Type Patient Fibroblasts.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Nutrition, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada. Department of Medicine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada.

Leigh syndrome French Canadian type (LSFC) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the LRPRRC gene leading to a reduction of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression reaching 50% in skin fibroblasts. We have shown that, under basal conditions, LSFC and control cells display similar ATP levels. We hypothesized that this occurs through upregulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated metabolic reprogramming. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00160.2017DOI Listing

Cost-Utility Analysis of Imaging for Surveillance and Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

AJR Am J Roentgenol 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

1 Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

The purpose of this study is to compare imaging-based surveillance and diagnostic strategies in patients at risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while taking into account technically inadequate examinations and patient compliance. A Markov model simulated seven strategies for HCC surveillance and diagnosis in patients with cirrhosis: strategy A, ultrasound (US) for surveillance and CT for diagnosis; strategy B, US for surveillance and complete MRI for diagnosis; strategy C, US for surveillance and CT for inadequate or positive surveillance; strategy D, US for surveillance and complete MRI for inadequate or positive surveillance; strategy E, surveillance and diagnosis with CT followed by complete MRI for inadequate surveillance; strategy F, surveillance and diagnosis with complete MRI followed by CT for inadequate surveillance; and strategy G, surveillance with abbreviated MRI followed by CT for inadequate surveillance or complete MRI for positive surveillance. Two compliance scenarios were evaluated: optimal and conservative. Read More

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https://www.ajronline.org/doi/10.2214/AJR.18.20341
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20341DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Identification of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Mouse Lung, Liver, Small Intestine, Bone Marrow, and Mediastinal and Mesenteric Lymph Nodes.

Curr Protoc Immunol 2019 Apr 17:e73. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are a heterogeneous family of lymphocytes that populate barrier and non-barrier tissues. ILCs regulate immune responses to pathogens and commensals but also sustain metabolic homeostasis, tissue remodeling after injury and establish dialogue with the nervous system. ILCs rapidly become activated in the absence of adaptive antigen receptors by responding to signaling molecules provided by hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic cells. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpim.73
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpim.73DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Recent trends in prostate cancer in Canada.

Health Rep 2019 Apr;30(4):12-17

Adult Chronic Diseases and Conditions Division, Centre for Surveillance and Applied Research, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Background: Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer in Canadian men. Screening recommendations have changed substantially over the last 25 years. Since 2011 (United States) and 2014 (Canada), taskforce guidelines have recommended against screening using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in low-risk men of all ages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25318/82-003-x201900400002-engDOI Listing

Healthy immigrant effect by immigrant category in Canada.

Health Rep 2019 Apr;30(4):3-11

Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.

Background: Medical screening plays a role in explaining the healthy immigrant effect (HIE) among immigrants newly landed in Canada. The 2002 Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA) modernized immigration selection by exempting certain immigrant categories (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.25318/82-003-x201900400001-engDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

A retrospective cohort study comparing non-fatal self-harm emergency department visits between Canadian veterans living in Ontario and matched civilians.

Int Rev Psychiatry 2019 Apr 17:1-9. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

d IC/ES , Toronto , Canada.

This was a retrospective cohort study linking provincial administrative databases to compare rates of non-fatal self-harm between CAF and RCMP veterans living in Ontario and age-matched civilians. This study included male veterans who registered for provincial health insurance between 2002 and 2013. A civilian comparator group was matched 4:1 on age and sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540261.2019.1580685DOI Listing

IL-2 modulates Th2 cell responses to glucocorticosteroid: A cause of persistent type 2 inflammation?

Immun Inflamm Dis 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Glucocorticosteroids (GCs) are the main treatment for asthma as they reduce type 2 cytokine expression and induce apoptosis. Asthma severity is associated with type 2 inflammation, circulating Th2 cells and higher GC requirements.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether ex vivo production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), a T-cell survival factor, associated with clinical features of asthma severity, the proportion of blood Th2 cells and Th2 cell responses to GC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iid3.249DOI Listing

Children under 10 years of age were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic in Canada: ‎possible cohort effect following the 2009 influenza pandemic.

Euro Surveill 2019 Apr;24(15)

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

IntroductionFindings from the community-based Canadian Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) suggest children were more affected by the 2018/19 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic.AimTo compare the age distribution of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases in 2018/19 to prior seasonal influenza epidemics in Canada.MethodsThe age distribution of unvaccinated influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 cases and test-negative controls were compared across A(H1N1)pdm09-dominant epidemics in 2018/19, 2015/16 and 2013/14 and with the general population of SPSN provinces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.15.1900104DOI Listing
April 2019
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Importance of Participant-Centricity and Trust for a Sustainable Medical Information Commons.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):12-20

Amy L. McGuire, J.D., Ph.D., is the Leon Jaworski Professor of Biomedical Ethics and Director of the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Dr. McGuire serves on the program committee for the Greenwall Foundation Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics and is immediate past president of the Association of Bioethics Program Directors. Mary A. Majumder, J.D., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Medicine at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy, Baylor College of Medicine. Angela G. Villanueva, M.P.H., is a Research Associate at the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at Baylor College of Medicine. Jessica Bardill, Ph.D., is an Assistant Professor of Indigenous Canadian Literatures and Cultures at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec. Juli M. Bollinger, M.S., is a Research Associate in the Center for Medical Ethics and Health Policy at the Baylor College of Medicine and a Research Associate and Associate Faculty at the Berman Institute of Bioethics at Johns Hopkins University. Eric Boerwinkle, Ph.D., is the Dean of the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, School of Public Health and the Associate Director, Human Genome Sequencing Center at Baylor College of Medicine. Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., is the Dean of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University and a Fellow of the Canadian Academy of Health Sciences. Patricia Deverka, M.D., M.S., M.B.E., is Director, Value Evidence and Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses Outcomes at Geisinger National Precision Health, where she focuses systems and policymakers. Barbara Evans, MS, Ph.D., J.D., LL.M., is the Mary Ann and Lawrence E. Faust Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Biotechnology & Law at the University of Houston Law Center and holds a joint appointment as Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the UH Cullen College of Engineering. Nanibaa' A. Garrison, Ph.D. (Navajo), is an Assistant Professor at the Treuman Katz Center for Pediatric Bioethics at Seattle Children's Hospital and Research Institute and at the Department of Pediatrics at the University of Washington School of Medicine. David Glazer is an engineering director at Verily Life Sciences, where he helps life science organizations use cloud computing to accelerate and scale their work with big data. Melissa M. Goldstein, J.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Milken Institute School of Public Health at the George Washington University. Henry T. Greely, J.D., is the Deane F. and Kate Edelman Johnson Professor of Law and a professor (by courtesy) of Genetics at Stanford University, where he directs the Center for Law and the Biosciences. He is President of the International Neuroethics Society, co-chair of the Neuroethics Work Group of the NIH BRAIN Initiative, and a member of the National Academies' Committee on Science, Technology, and Law. Scott D. Kahn, Ph.D., is the Chief Information Officer at LunaDNA where he is responsible for all informatics and data science strategy. Bartha M. Knoppers, Ph.D., (Comparative Medical Law), is a Full Professor, Canada Research Chair in Law and Medicine and Director of the Centre of Genomics and Policy of the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. Barbara A. Koenig, Ph.D., is Professor of Bioethics and Medical Anthropology, based at the Institute for Health & Aging, University of California, San Francisco. She also serve as Director of the UCSF Program in Bioethics. J. Mark Lambright, M.B.A., is the Chairman, Trident Advisors, LLC - CEO (Interim), Private Access, Inc. Mark Lambright has been a senior executive of a number of healthcare and technology companies ranging in size from startup to multi-billion in revenue. John Mattison, M.D., is Assistant Medical Director, KP, SCAL, Chief Health Information Officer. Founder of CDA/CCD (XML standard for healthcare interoperability). Co-Editor of Healthcare Information Technology (2017 McGraw Hill). Christopher J. O'Donnell, M.D., M.P.H., is Chief, Cardiology Section and Director, Center for Population Genomics, of the Boston VA Healthcare System and co-Principal Investigator (Chief Scientist) of the national VA Million Veteran Program; and is VA Contact Principal Investigator of the NIH All of Us Research Program. He is also a faculty member of the Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School. Arti K. Rai, J.D., is the Elvin R. Latty Professor of Law and co-Director of the Center for Innovation Policy at Duke Law. Laura L. Rodriguez, Ph.D., is the Director of the Division of Policy, Communications, and Education at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Tania Simoncelli, M.S., is the Director of Science Policy at the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative. Formerly Executive Director, Count Me In at the Broad Institute, Assistant Director of Forensic Science and Biomedical Innovation, White House Office of Science & Technology Policy, and Science Advisor to the American Civil Liberties Union. Sharon F. Terry, M.A., is the president and CEO of Genetic Alliance. Adrian Thorogood, B.C.L./LL.B., is a lawyer and Academic Associate at the Centre of Genomics and Policy at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. He manages the Regulatory and Ethics Work Stream of the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health. Michael S. Watson, M.S., Ph.D., is the Executive Director, American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and ACMG Foundation for Genetic and Genomic Medicine and an Adjunct Professor of Pediatrics at Washington University School of Medicine. John T. Wilbanks is the Chief Commons Officer at Sage Bionetworks, and co-PI on awards for AllofUs Research Program, ELSI Issues in Unregulated Mobile Research, CTSA Center for Data To Health. Robert Cook-Deegan, M.D., is a Professor in the School for the Future of Innovation in Society at Arizona State University.

Drawing on a landscape analysis of existing data-sharing initiatives, in-depth interviews with expert stakeholders, and public deliberations with community advisory panels across the U.S., we describe features of the evolving medical information commons (MIC). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840480DOI Listing

Medical Information Commons to Support Learning Healthcare Systems: Examples From Canada.

J Law Med Ethics 2019 Mar;47(1):97-105

Tania Bubela, Ph.D., J.D., F.C.A.H.S., is an expert in health and intellectual property law and policy, combining her training in genetics (Ph.D. Biology, University of Sydney) and law (Gold medalist, University of Alberta). She is the Dean of Faculty of Health Sciences at Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, British Columbia), developing sector-leading policies, processes, practices, and infrastructure to support excellence in interdisciplinary education, research, and engagement that will improve health, health equity, and well-being. Shelagh K. Genuis, Ph.D., is the project manager for the Genome Canada's Precision Medicine Policy Network, based in the Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry at the University of Alberta, Alberta. Naveed Z. Janjua, M.D., Ph.D., is a Senior Scientist at the BC Centre for Disease Control and Clinical Associate Professor at School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia. Mel Krajden, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., is the Director of BC's Public Health Laboratory and the Medical Head, Hepatitis at the British Columbia Centre for Disease Control. He is also a Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of British Columbia. He has extensive clinical trials expertise and is a Co-investigator/Mentor on the CIHR funded National Research Training Program (CanHepC). Nicole Mittmann, Ph.D., is the Chief Research Officer at CCO. She is an Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology and an Associate Scientist at Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre. Katerina Podolak is the Group Manager for Data Acquisition and Disclosure at Cancer Care Ontario, working with data partners to bring data into CCO, and health system partners who want access to CCO data. Katerina has extensive experience with information management in the hospital setting, as well as Ontario's Ministry of Health and Long-term Care. Larry Svenson, Ph.D., F.R.S.P.H., is the Provincial Health Analytics Officer and Executive Director for Analytics and Performance Reporting at Alberta Health. He is also an Associate Professor with the Division of Preventive Medicine at the University of Alberta and an Adjunct Professor with the School of Public Health at the University of Alberta and the Cumming School of Medicine at the University of Calgary.

We explore how principles predicting the success of a medical information commons (MIC) advantaged or disadvantaged three MIC initiatives in three Canadian provinces. Our MIC case examples demonstrate that practices and policies to promote access to and use of health information can help improve individual healthcare and inform a learning health system. MICs were constrained by heterogenous health information protection laws across jurisdictions and risk-averse institutional cultures. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073110519840488DOI Listing

A family systems perspective on supporting self-determination in young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Departments of Public Health Sciences and Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada.

Background: This study explored the way families support self-determination in young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) during life transitions.

Method: Qualitative case studies were conducted with two Canadian families who participated in semi-structured interviews and ethnographic observations every quarter for one year. Analyses were informed by family systems theory and self-determination theory. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jar.12601DOI Listing

Effects of macro-cracks on the load bearing capacity of articular cartilage.

Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, T2N 1N4, Canada.

Macro-cracks on the surface of articular cartilage are one of the hallmarks of early osteoarthritis and joint damage initiation. Macro-cracks negatively affect cartilage mechanobiology and load bearing capacity. The aim of this study was to quantify the changes in transient and steady-state force response of healthy cartilage in the presence of macro-cracks when compressed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10237-019-01149-xDOI Listing

Oleoyl glycine: interference with the aversive effects of acute naloxone-precipitated MWD, but not morphine reward, in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Apr 16. Epub 2019 Apr 16.

Department of Psychology and Collaborative, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1H 2GW, Canada.

Rationale: Oleoyl glycine (OlGly), a recently discovered fatty acid amide that is structurally similar to N- acylethanolamines, which include the endocannabinoid, anandamide (AEA), as well as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), has been shown to interfere with nicotine reward and dependence in mice.

Objectives And Methods: Behavioral and molecular techniques were used to investigate the ability of OlGly to interfere with the affective properties of morphine and morphine withdrawal (MWD) in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Results: Synthetic OlGly (1-30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [ip]) produced neither a place preference nor aversion on its own; however, at doses of 1 and 5 mg/kg, ip, it blocked the aversive effects of MWD in a place aversion paradigm. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05237-9DOI Listing
April 2019
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Prevalence and Demographics of CKD in Canadian Primary Care Practices: A Cross-sectional Study.

Kidney Int Rep 2019 Apr 21;4(4):561-570. Epub 2019 Jan 21.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Introduction: Surveillance systems enable optimal care delivery and appropriate resource allocation, yet Canada lacks a dedicated surveillance system for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network (CPCSSN), a national chronic disease surveillance system, this study describes the geographic, sociodemographic, and clinical variations in CKD prevalence in the Canadian primary care context.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 559,745 adults in primary care in 5 provinces across Canada from 2010 through 2015. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S24680249193001
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2019.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6451150PMC
April 2019
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