Background: St. Joseph's Health System has implemented an integrated comprehensive care bundle care (ICC) program with the hopes that it would improve patients' care while reducing overall costs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the performance of the ICC program within patients admitted with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Read More
Can Respir J 2017 26;2017:8761404. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
Department of Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia.
Influence of bronchial asthma (BA) severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys) with atopic BA were evaluated. Read More
Background: Recent studies have reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients present alterations in right ventricular (RV) structure and function. However, large randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of OSA on the right ventricle are lacking.
Methods: A comprehensive electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and reference search up to October 30, 2016, was performed. Read More
Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem, requiring expensive in-lab polysomnography for proper diagnosis. Home monitoring can provide an alternative to in-lab testing for a subset of OSA patients. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of incorporating home testing into an OSA program at a large, tertiary sleep disorders centre. Read More
Background: Screening decreases non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) deaths and is recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. We investigated risk factor prevalence and NSCLC incidence at a small region level to inform resource allocation for lung cancer screening.
Methods: NSCLC diagnoses were obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry, then geocoded to 283 small geographic areas (SGAs) in Manitoba. Read More
Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU) in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Read More
Background: In the era of endobronchial/esophageal ultrasound (EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA), many centers forgo conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in favour of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA despite no conclusive evidence showing better yields with EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA.
Objectives: Assess the feasibility of an algorithmic approach for mediastinal sampling beginning with C-TBNA utilizing rapid onsite cytologic evaluation.
Methods: Descriptive analysis of 92 consecutive patients referred for adenopathy that underwent C-TBNA and subsequent EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA if C-TBNA was negative or nondiagnostic. Read More
Background And Objective: We aimed to assess the validity of using the Global Lung Function Initiative's (GLI) 2012 equations to interpret lung function data in a healthy workforce of South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) personnel.
Methods: Spirometry data from 212 healthy, nonsmoking SAMFS firefighters were collected and predicted normal values were calculated using both the GLI and local population derived (Gore) equations for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Two-tailed paired sample Student's t-tests, Bland-Altman assessments of agreement, and z-scores were used to compare the two prediction methods. Read More
We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients) and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients). Read More
Background: Two disease-specific questionnaires have been developed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory failure: the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) Questionnaire and the Maugeri Respiratory Failure (MRF) Questionnaire. We aimed to compare the characteristics of the SRI, MRF-26, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for use in patients with home noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Read More
Background: Although approximately 82 percent of the US population was covered by some form of law that restricted smoking in public establishments as of 2014, most research examining the relationship between smoke-free laws and health has been focused at the state level.
Purpose: To examine the effect of county workplace smoke-free laws over and above the effect of other (restaurant or bar) smoke-free laws on adult asthma.
Methods: The study estimated the effect of rates of adult asthma discharges before and after the implementation of county nonhospitality workplace smoke-free laws and county restaurant and bar smoke-free laws. Read More
Objective. Asthma education programs have been shown to decrease healthcare utilization and improve disease control and management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of an outpatient adult asthma education program in an inner city hospital caring for patients with low socioeconomic and educational status. Read More
With rising altitude the partial pressure of oxygen falls. This phenomenon leads to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Since more than 140 million people permanently live at heights above 2500 m and more than 35 million travel to these heights each year, understanding the mechanisms resulting in acute or chronic maladaptation of the human body to these circumstances is crucial. Read More
For cooled newborn infants, humidifier settings for normothermic condition provide excessive gas humidity because absolute humidity at saturation is temperature-dependent. To assess humidification of respiratory gases in patients who underwent moderate therapeutic hypothermia at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit, 6 patients were studied over 9 times. Three humidifier settings, 37-default (chamber-outlet, 37°C; Y-piece, 40°C), 33. Read More
The aim of this pilot study was to determine Clara cell protein (CC16) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) fluid from full-term and preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age) neonates requiring respiratory support, having symptoms of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that CC16 may be predictive of BPD diagnosis regardless of gestational age. BAL fluid CC16 was measured by ELISA at birth and at day 7 of life. Read More
Introduction. Management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) consists of immediate resolution of pleural air, or observation, and prevention of recurrence. The risk factors for recurrence remain debated. Read More
Background. Optimal treatment practices and factors associated with in-hospital mortality in spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) are not fully understood. We evaluated prevalence, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital mortality among Japanese patients with primary or secondary SP (PSP/SSP). Read More
Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Read More
Introduction. Failure of the vascular pulmonary remodeling at birth often manifests as pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and is associated with a variety of neonatal lung disorders including a uniformly fatal developmental disorder known as alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV). Serum serotonin regulation has been linked to pulmonary vascular function and disease, and serotonin transporter (SERT) is thought to be one of the key regulators in these processes. Read More
Objective. To investigate whether high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is superior to conventional oxygen therapy for reducing hypoxemia and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) in patients with thoracoscopic lobectomy after extubation. Methods. Read More
Can Respir J 2017 14;2017:6736239. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
University Health Network Pulmonary Hypertension Programme, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Scleroderma Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Medicine, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Background. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a potential biomarker to distinguish systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). We evaluated the discriminative validity, feasibility, methods of eNO measurement, and magnitude of differences across lung diseases, disease-subsets (SSc, systemic lupus erythematosus), and healthy-controls. Read More
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly present in patients with chronic lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) or Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) where it is classified as Group III PH by the World Health Organization (WHO). PH has been identified to be present in as much as 40% of patients with COPD or IPF and it is considered as one of the principal predictors of mortality in patients with COPD or IPF. However, despite the prevalence and fatal consequences of PH in the setting of chronic lung diseases, there are limited therapies available for patients with Group III PH, with lung transplantation remaining as the most viable option. Read More
Introduction. Octogenarians are at increased risk for complications after lung resection. With alternatives such as radiation, understanding the risks of surgery and associated survival are valuable. Read More
Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Read More
Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. Read More
Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. Read More
The beneficial effects of oxygen are widely known, but the potentially harmful effects of high oxygenation concentrations in blood and tissues have been less widely discussed. Providing supplementary oxygen can increase oxygen delivery in hypoxaemic patients, thus supporting cell function and metabolism and limiting organ dysfunction, but, in patients who are not hypoxaemic, supplemental oxygen will increase oxygen concentrations into nonphysiological hyperoxaemic ranges and may be associated with harmful effects. Here, we discuss the potentially harmful effects of hyperoxaemia in various groups of critically ill patients, including postcardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury or stroke, and sepsis. Read More
Introduction. The evidence about the association between asthma and outdoor environmental factors has been inadequate for certain allergens. Even less is known about how these associations vary across seasons and climate regions. Read More
Background. Noninvasive respiratory support is considered the optimal method of providing assistance to preterm babies with breathing problems, including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC). The evidence of the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC used as the primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is insufficient in low- and middle-income countries. Read More
Can Respir J 2017 3;2017:6913564. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections can be quite similar to tuberculosis, both clinically and radiologically. However, the treatment protocol is not similar. Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of NTM pulmonary infection. Read More
Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV) to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. Read More
Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. Read More
A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. Read More
Background. We performed prospective validation of the cancer ratio (serum LDH : pleural ADA ratio), previously reported as predictive of malignant effusion retrospectively, and assessed the effect of combining it with "pleural lymphocyte count" in diagnosing malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods. Read More
Background. Asthma is a disease with a core abnormality in airway smooth muscle function, and the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) plays a pivotal role in asthma airway remodeling. Our previous study showed that S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A9; 400 and 800 ng/mL) significantly inhibited rat ASMCs proliferation at 48 h, and 50-800 ng/mL S100A9 (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ng/mL) also induced a lasting effect by significantly inhibiting rat ASMCs proliferation at 72 h in a dose-dependent manner. Read More
Background. Blunt chest wall trauma accounts for over 10% of all trauma patients presenting to emergency departments worldwide. When the injury is not as severe, deciding which blunt chest wall trauma patients require a higher level of clinical input can be difficult. Read More
The objective of the study was to determine the effects of tobacco use on selected markers of health and lung function in professional athletes. A total of 108 male professional athletes participated in the study from ten ball game teams in the same sport league in Qatar (age = 26.4 ± 5. Read More
Introduction. We sought to identify possible risk factors associated with mortality in patients with high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) after intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients and Methods. Read More
Purpose. We aimed to determine the value of lung function measurement for predicting cardiovascular (CV) disease by evaluating the association between FEV1 (%) and CV risk factors in general population. Materials and Methods. Read More
Purpose. Topotecan and belotecan are camptothecin derivatives that are used to treat small cell lung cancer (SCLC). This study compared the toxicities and efficacies of belotecan and topotecan monotherapies in patients with SCLC. Read More
Objectives. To assess whether noninvasive ventilation with Heliox reduces the need for endotracheal ventilation and subsequent complications in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Methods. Read More
Background. Mild obstructive sleep apnea is common in pregnancy and may have an exacerbating role in gestational hypertension, although currently the interaction between these two diseases is uncertain. Methods. Read More
Instruction and Objectives. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) alleviates sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and it may improve cardiac function in SDB patients. Because large randomized controlled trials directly evaluating the impact of NPPV on cardiac function are lacking, we conducted a meta-analysis of published data on effectiveness of NPPV in improving cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure regardless of SDB presence. Read More