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    1265 results match your criteria Canadian Respiratory Journal[Journal]

    1 OF 26

    The Effect of Mechanical Ventilation on TASK-1 Expression in the Brain in a Rat Model.
    Can Respir J 2017 28;2017:8530352. Epub 2017 Sep 28.
    Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing 100035, China.
    Background And Objective: TWIK-related acid-sensitive potassium channel 1 (TASK-1) is closely related to respiratory central control and neuronal injury. We investigated the effect of MV on TASK-1's functions and explored the mechanism using a rat model.

    Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to three groups: (1) high tidal volume (HVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 10 mL/kg; (2) low Vt (LVt): MV for four hours with Vt at 5 mL/kg; (3) basal (BAS): anesthetized and unventilated animals. Read More

    Rainfall-Associated Bronchospasm Epidemics: The Epidemiological Effects of Air Pollutants and Weather Variables.
    Can Respir J 2017 27;2017:9252069. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Nursing and Emergency Department, Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran.
    Background: This study compares different risk factors in patients visiting a hospital during five rainfall-associated bronchospasm epidemics in Ahvaz and those visiting on other occasions.

    Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 5307 patients with bronchospasm admitted to the Emergency Department of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ahvaz (Iran) from late October to December (as the epidemic) and 916 patients admitted from late January to March (as the nonepidemic) in 2011 to 2015.

    Results: A total of the 41. Read More

    Impaired Hemorheology in Exacerbations of COPD.
    Can Respir J 2017 27;2017:1286263. Epub 2017 Sep 27.
    Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by progressive airflow limitation. Cardiovascular-related comorbidities are established to contribute to morbidity and mortality especially during exacerbations. The aim of the current study was to determine alterations in hemorheology (erythrocyte aggregation, deformability) in newly diagnosed COPD patients and their response to medical treatment and to compare with values of COPD patients with exacerbations. Read More

    Occupational Exposure to Talc Increases the Risk of Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Occupational Cohort Studies.
    Can Respir J 2017 31;2017:1270608. Epub 2017 Aug 31.
    Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Objective: Talc is widely used in industrial applications. Previous meta-analyses of carcinogenic effects associated with inhaled talc included publications before 2004, with a lack of data in China, the largest talc-producing country. The safety of workers exposed to talc was unclear due to limited evidence. Read More

    Safety and Performance Characteristics of Outpatient Medical Thoracoscopy and Indwelling Pleural Catheter Insertion for Evaluation and Diagnosis of Pleural Disease at a Tertiary Center in Canada.
    Can Respir J 2017 30;2017:9345324. Epub 2017 Aug 30.
    Department of Medicine, Division of Respirology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Background: Many centers performing medical thoracoscopy (MT) to diagnose pleural disease will insert a chest tube and admit patients to hospital after the procedure, which is inconvenient for patients and contributes to healthcare costs. We report the data on the safety, outcomes, and performance characteristics of outpatient MT with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) insertion in a large Canadian cohort.

    Methods: This retrospective cohort study reviewed patients who underwent outpatient MT and IPC insertion under conscious sedation. Read More

    Mechanical Circulatory Support as a Bridge to Lung Transplantation: A Single Canadian Institution Review.
    Can Respir J 2017 29;2017:5947978. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    Department of Surgery, Division of Cardiac Surgery, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
    Background: Lung transplant (LTx) waitlists continue to grow internationally. Consequently, more patients are progressing to require mechanical circulatory support (MCS) as a bridge to transplantation (BTT). MCS strategies include interventional lung assist (iLA) and venovenous (VV) and venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Read More

    Readability and Suitability of COPD Consumer Information.
    Can Respir J 2017 29;2017:2945282. Epub 2017 Aug 29.
    College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Background: Information leaflets have been shown to positively or negatively impact adherence, depending on their content. The objective of this study was to perform an appraisal of the consumer information provided in COPD inhaler monographs.

    Methods: COPD inhalers were identified from the Health Canada Drug Product Database. Read More

    Preliminary Results of the Adoption and Application of the Integrated Comprehensive Care Bundle Care Program When Treating Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
    Can Respir J 2017 7;2017:7049483. Epub 2017 Aug 7.
    Programs for Assessment of Technology in Health, The Research Institute of St. Joe's Hamilton, St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
    Background: St. Joseph's Health System has implemented an integrated comprehensive care bundle care (ICC) program with the hopes that it would improve patients' care while reducing overall costs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the performance of the ICC program within patients admitted with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD). Read More

    Body Height of Children with Bronchial Asthma of Various Severities.
    Can Respir J 2017 26;2017:8761404. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Prospekt Gagarina, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia.
    Influence of bronchial asthma (BA) severity on physical development in children patients was evaluated in comparison with healthy population. Materials and Methods. 1042 children and adolescents (768 boys) with atopic BA were evaluated. Read More

    Right Ventricular Remodeling and Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Meta-Analysis.
    Can Respir J 2017 26;2017:1587865. Epub 2017 Jul 26.
    Department of Mountain and Sleep Medicine and Pulmonary Hypertension, National Center of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
    Background: Recent studies have reported that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients present alterations in right ventricular (RV) structure and function. However, large randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of OSA on the right ventricle are lacking.

    Methods: A comprehensive electronic database (PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) and reference search up to October 30, 2016, was performed. Read More

    Investigating Cost Implications of Incorporating Level III At-Home Testing into a Polysomnography Based Sleep Medicine Program Using Administrative Data.
    Can Respir J 2017 16;2017:8939461. Epub 2017 Jul 16.
    Division of Respirology, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea is a common problem, requiring expensive in-lab polysomnography for proper diagnosis. Home monitoring can provide an alternative to in-lab testing for a subset of OSA patients. The objective of this project was to investigate the effect of incorporating home testing into an OSA program at a large, tertiary sleep disorders centre. Read More

    Geographical Variation and Factors Associated with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in Manitoba.
    Can Respir J 2017 21;2017:7915905. Epub 2017 Jun 21.
    Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Background: Screening decreases non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) deaths and is recommended by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. We investigated risk factor prevalence and NSCLC incidence at a small region level to inform resource allocation for lung cancer screening.

    Methods: NSCLC diagnoses were obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry, then geocoded to 283 small geographic areas (SGAs) in Manitoba. Read More

    The Burden of Illness Related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations in Québec, Canada.
    Can Respir J 2017 20;2017:8184915. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
    JSS Medical Research Inc., Saint Laurent, QC, Canada.
    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence in Canada has risen over time. COPD-related exacerbations contribute to the increased health care utilization (HCU) in this population. This study investigated the impact of exacerbations on COPD-related HCU. Read More

    An Algorithmic Approach for Assessment of Mediastinal Lesions Using Conventional Transbronchial Needle Aspiration and Endoscopic Ultrasonography in a Single Procedure.
    Can Respir J 2017 14;2017:1971629. Epub 2017 Jun 14.
    Division of Respiratory Medicine, The Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Background: In the era of endobronchial/esophageal ultrasound (EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA), many centers forgo conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (C-TBNA) in favour of EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA despite no conclusive evidence showing better yields with EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA.

    Objectives: Assess the feasibility of an algorithmic approach for mediastinal sampling beginning with C-TBNA utilizing rapid onsite cytologic evaluation.

    Methods: Descriptive analysis of 92 consecutive patients referred for adenopathy that underwent C-TBNA and subsequent EBUS-TBNA/EUS-FNA if C-TBNA was negative or nondiagnostic. Read More

    Risk Factors of Mortality from All Asbestos-Related Diseases: A Competing Risk Analysis.
    Can Respir J 2017 7;2017:9015914. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
    Department of Public Health, University of Barcelona (UB), Barcelona, Spain.
    Background: The mortality from all malignant and nonmalignant asbestos-related diseases remains unknown. The authors assessed the incidence and risk factors for all asbestos-related deaths.

    Methods: The sample included 544 patients from an asbestos-exposed community in the area of Barcelona (Spain), between Jan 1, 1970, and Dec 31, 2006. Read More

    The Global Lung Function Initiative 2012 Equations Are as Well-Suited as Local Population Derived Equations to a Sample of Healthy Professional Firefighters.
    Can Respir J 2017 25;2017:6327180. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
    Background And Objective: We aimed to assess the validity of using the Global Lung Function Initiative's (GLI) 2012 equations to interpret lung function data in a healthy workforce of South Australian Metropolitan Fire Service (SAMFS) personnel.

    Methods: Spirometry data from 212 healthy, nonsmoking SAMFS firefighters were collected and predicted normal values were calculated using both the GLI and local population derived (Gore) equations for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC. Two-tailed paired sample Student's t-tests, Bland-Altman assessments of agreement, and z-scores were used to compare the two prediction methods. Read More

    Efficacy of Various Scoring Systems for Predicting the 28-Day Survival Rate among Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Requiring Emergency Intensive Care.
    Can Respir J 2017 25;2017:3063510. Epub 2017 May 25.
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.
    We aimed to investigate the efficacy of four severity-of-disease scoring systems in predicting the 28-day survival rate among patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) requiring emergency care. Clinical data of patients with AECOPD who required emergency care were recorded over 2 years. APACHE II, SAPS II, SOFA, and MEDS scores were calculated from severity-of-disease indicators recorded at admission and compared between patients who died within 28 days of admission (death group; 46 patients) and those who did not (survival group; 336 patients). Read More

    Comparison of Different Disease-Specific Health-Related Quality of Life Measurements in Patients with Long-Term Noninvasive Ventilation.
    Can Respir J 2017 15;2017:8295079. Epub 2017 May 15.
    Department of Respiratory Care and Sleep Control Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
    Background: Two disease-specific questionnaires have been developed to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with chronic respiratory failure: the Severe Respiratory Insufficiency (SRI) Questionnaire and the Maugeri Respiratory Failure (MRF) Questionnaire. We aimed to compare the characteristics of the SRI, MRF-26, and St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for use in patients with home noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Read More

    County Smoke-Free Laws and Asthma Discharges: Evidence from 17 US States.
    Can Respir J 2017 14;2017:6321258. Epub 2017 May 14.
    Department of Global Health Systems Development, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.
    Background: Although approximately 82 percent of the US population was covered by some form of law that restricted smoking in public establishments as of 2014, most research examining the relationship between smoke-free laws and health has been focused at the state level.

    Purpose: To examine the effect of county workplace smoke-free laws over and above the effect of other (restaurant or bar) smoke-free laws on adult asthma.

    Methods: The study estimated the effect of rates of adult asthma discharges before and after the implementation of county nonhospitality workplace smoke-free laws and county restaurant and bar smoke-free laws. Read More

    Role of Adult Asthma Education in Improving Asthma Control and Reducing Emergency Room Utilization and Hospital Admissions in an Inner City Hospital.
    Can Respir J 2017 4;2017:5681962. Epub 2017 May 4.
    Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center, Bronx, NY, USA.
    Objective. Asthma education programs have been shown to decrease healthcare utilization and improve disease control and management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of an outpatient adult asthma education program in an inner city hospital caring for patients with low socioeconomic and educational status. Read More

    Thin Air Resulting in High Pressure: Mountain Sickness and Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension.
    Can Respir J 2017 27;2017:8381653. Epub 2017 Mar 27.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Universities of Giessen and Marburg Lung Center (UGMLC), Klinikstrasse 33, 35392 Giessen, Germany.
    With rising altitude the partial pressure of oxygen falls. This phenomenon leads to hypobaric hypoxia at high altitude. Since more than 140 million people permanently live at heights above 2500 m and more than 35 million travel to these heights each year, understanding the mechanisms resulting in acute or chronic maladaptation of the human body to these circumstances is crucial. Read More

    Insufficient Humidification of Respiratory Gases in Patients Who Are Undergoing Therapeutic Hypothermia at a Paediatric and Adult Intensive Care Unit.
    Can Respir J 2017 20;2017:8349874. Epub 2017 Apr 20.
    Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Kurume University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
    For cooled newborn infants, humidifier settings for normothermic condition provide excessive gas humidity because absolute humidity at saturation is temperature-dependent. To assess humidification of respiratory gases in patients who underwent moderate therapeutic hypothermia at a paediatric/adult intensive care unit, 6 patients were studied over 9 times. Three humidifier settings, 37-default (chamber-outlet, 37°C; Y-piece, 40°C), 33. Read More

    Clara Cell Protein Expression in Mechanically Ventilated Term and Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome and at Risk of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Pilot Study.
    Can Respir J 2017 11;2017:8074678. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Department of Physiology and Cellular Development, Instituto Nacional de Perinatología Isidro Espinoza de los Reyes, Montes Urales 800, 11000 Lomas de Virreyes, CDMX, Mexico.
    The aim of this pilot study was to determine Clara cell protein (CC16) concentration in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) fluid from full-term and preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age) neonates requiring respiratory support, having symptoms of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, and at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that CC16 may be predictive of BPD diagnosis regardless of gestational age. BAL fluid CC16 was measured by ELISA at birth and at day 7 of life. Read More

    Differential Expression of Serum Proteins in Rats with Allergic Asthma: A Study Based on the Nanoliter Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Technique.
    Can Respir J 2017 11;2017:8015703. Epub 2017 Apr 11.
    Hunchun Chinese Medicine Hospital, Hunchun 133300, China.
    Objective. To investigate the pathogenesis of allergic asthma via the nanoliter two-dimensional liquid chromatography (nano-2D-LC) technique. Method. Read More

    Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax Admitted in Emergency Unit: Does First Episode Differ from Recurrence? A Cross-Sectional Study.
    Can Respir J 2017 30;2017:2729548. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
    UMR 6249 Chronoenvironnement/University of Franche Comté, La Bouloie-UFR Sciences et Techniques, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.
    Introduction. Management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) consists of immediate resolution of pleural air, or observation, and prevention of recurrence. The risk factors for recurrence remain debated. Read More

    Primary and Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Prevalence, Clinical Features, and In-Hospital Mortality.
    Can Respir J 2017 13;2017:6014967. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Department of Emergency Medicine, Tsuchiura Kyodo General Hospital, 4-1-1 Otsuno, Tsuchiura, Ibaraki 300-0028, Japan.
    Background. Optimal treatment practices and factors associated with in-hospital mortality in spontaneous pneumothorax (SP) are not fully understood. We evaluated prevalence, clinical characteristics, and in-hospital mortality among Japanese patients with primary or secondary SP (PSP/SSP). Read More

    Effect of Antipyretic Therapy on Mortality in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis Receiving Mechanical Ventilation Treatment.
    Can Respir J 2017 12;2017:3087505. Epub 2017 Mar 12.
    Psychological Department, The Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou 310003, China.
    Purpose. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of antipyretic therapy on mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods. Read More

    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Saudi Arabia and Gulf Countries: A Review.
    Can Respir J 2017 27;2017:5035932. Epub 2017 Feb 27.
    Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) are causing growing health problems worldwide. This is indicated by an increasing amount of scientific reports showing not only well-identified species reemerging but also emergence of new species. The emergence and reemergence of NTM are particularly worrying in developing countries due to scarce published data and improper identification. Read More

    The Role of Serotonin Transporter in Human Lung Development and in Neonatal Lung Disorders.
    Can Respir J 2017 20;2017:9064046. Epub 2017 Feb 20.
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, University School of Medicine of Colorado, 13123 East 16th Avenue, P.O. Box 120, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.
    Introduction. Failure of the vascular pulmonary remodeling at birth often manifests as pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and is associated with a variety of neonatal lung disorders including a uniformly fatal developmental disorder known as alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV). Serum serotonin regulation has been linked to pulmonary vascular function and disease, and serotonin transporter (SERT) is thought to be one of the key regulators in these processes. Read More

    Effect of High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Conventional Oxygen Therapy for Patients with Thoracoscopic Lobectomy after Extubation.
    Can Respir J 2017 19;2017:7894631. Epub 2017 Feb 19.
    Department of Emergency, Rui Jin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Objective. To investigate whether high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is superior to conventional oxygen therapy for reducing hypoxemia and postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC) in patients with thoracoscopic lobectomy after extubation. Methods. Read More

    Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Systemic Sclerosis Lung Disease.
    Can Respir J 2017 14;2017:6736239. Epub 2017 Feb 14.
    University Health Network Pulmonary Hypertension Programme, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto Scleroderma Program, Toronto Western Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, Department of Medicine, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Background. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a potential biomarker to distinguish systemic sclerosis (SSc) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and interstitial lung disease (ILD). We evaluated the discriminative validity, feasibility, methods of eNO measurement, and magnitude of differences across lung diseases, disease-subsets (SSc, systemic lupus erythematosus), and healthy-controls. Read More

    Pulmonary Hypertension Associated with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Current and Future Perspectives.
    Can Respir J 2017 13;2017:1430350. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is commonly present in patients with chronic lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) or Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) where it is classified as Group III PH by the World Health Organization (WHO). PH has been identified to be present in as much as 40% of patients with COPD or IPF and it is considered as one of the principal predictors of mortality in patients with COPD or IPF. However, despite the prevalence and fatal consequences of PH in the setting of chronic lung diseases, there are limited therapies available for patients with Group III PH, with lung transplantation remaining as the most viable option. Read More

    Assessing Survival and Grading the Severity of Complications in Octogenarians Undergoing Pulmonary Lobectomy.
    Can Respir J 2017 8;2017:6294895. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Division of Thoracic and Foregut Surgery, Swedish Medical Center and Cancer Institute, 1101 Madison Street, Suite 900, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
    Introduction. Octogenarians are at increased risk for complications after lung resection. With alternatives such as radiation, understanding the risks of surgery and associated survival are valuable. Read More

    Comparison of Comfort and Effectiveness of Total Face Mask and Oronasal Mask in Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure: A Clinical Trial.
    Can Respir J 2017 8;2017:2048032. Epub 2017 Feb 8.
    Tracheal Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Background. There is a growing controversy about the use of oronasal masks (ONM) or total facemask (TFM) in noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), so we designed a trial to compare the uses of these two masks in terms of effectiveness and comfort. Methods. Read More

    Comparison of the Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Adolescents at Three Schools Located Three Different Distances from a Large Steel Mill.
    Can Respir J 2017 6;2017:6231309. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Department of Pulmonology, Karabük University, Karabük, Turkey.
    Objectives. Exposure to ambient metals and air pollutants in urban environments has been associated with impaired lung health and inflammation in the lungs. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a reliable marker of airway inflammation. Read More

    Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization.
    Can Respir J 2017 6;2017:5937908. Epub 2017 Feb 6.
    Botucatu Medical School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Department of Internal Medicine, Pneumology Area, Botucatu Campus, Botucatu, SP, Brazil.
    Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. Read More

    Harmful Effects of Hyperoxia in Postcardiac Arrest, Sepsis, Traumatic Brain Injury, or Stroke: The Importance of Individualized Oxygen Therapy in Critically Ill Patients.
    Can Respir J 2017 26;2017:2834956. Epub 2017 Jan 26.
    Department of Intensive Care, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060, China.
    The beneficial effects of oxygen are widely known, but the potentially harmful effects of high oxygenation concentrations in blood and tissues have been less widely discussed. Providing supplementary oxygen can increase oxygen delivery in hypoxaemic patients, thus supporting cell function and metabolism and limiting organ dysfunction, but, in patients who are not hypoxaemic, supplemental oxygen will increase oxygen concentrations into nonphysiological hyperoxaemic ranges and may be associated with harmful effects. Here, we discuss the potentially harmful effects of hyperoxaemia in various groups of critically ill patients, including postcardiac arrest, traumatic brain injury or stroke, and sepsis. Read More

    Outdoor Environment and Pediatric Asthma: An Update on the Evidence from North America.
    Can Respir J 2017 23;2017:8921917. Epub 2017 Jan 23.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, USA.
    Introduction. The evidence about the association between asthma and outdoor environmental factors has been inadequate for certain allergens. Even less is known about how these associations vary across seasons and climate regions. Read More

    The Effect of the Treatment with Heated Humidified High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome in China: A Single-Center Experience.
    Can Respir J 2017 12;2017:3782401. Epub 2017 Jan 12.
    Department of Paediatrics, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.
    Background. Noninvasive respiratory support is considered the optimal method of providing assistance to preterm babies with breathing problems, including nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) and humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC). The evidence of the efficacy and safety of HHHFNC used as the primary respiratory support for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is insufficient in low- and middle-income countries. Read More

    Computed Tomography Findings of Pulmonary Mycobacterium simiae Infection.
    Can Respir J 2017 3;2017:6913564. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Mycobacteriology Research Center, National Research Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (NRITLD), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Biotechnology, School of Advanced Technology in Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary infections can be quite similar to tuberculosis, both clinically and radiologically. However, the treatment protocol is not similar. Mycobacterium simiae is a rare cause of NTM pulmonary infection. Read More

    Mechanical Ventilation during Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Patients with Acute Severe Respiratory Failure.
    Can Respir J 2017 3;2017:1783857. Epub 2017 Jan 3.
    Department of Critical Care Medicine, Jinhua Municipal Central Hospital, Jinhua Hospital of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.
    Conventionally, a substantial number of patients with acute respiratory failure require mechanical ventilation (MV) to avert catastrophe of hypoxemia and hypercapnia. However, mechanical ventilation per se can cause lung injury, accelerating the disease progression. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides an alternative to rescue patients with severe respiratory failure that conventional mechanical ventilation fails to maintain adequate gas exchange. Read More

    Is Universal Screening Necessary? Incidence of Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees Arriving in Calgary, Alberta.
    Can Respir J 2016 29;2016:8249843. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
    Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Background. Canadian policy requires refugees with a history of tuberculosis (TB) or abnormal chest radiograph to be screened after arrival for TB. However, Tibetan refugees are indiscriminately screened, regardless of preimmigration assessment. Read More

    Management of Malignant Pleural Effusion with ASEPT® Pleural Catheter: Quality of Life, Feasibility, and Patient Satisfaction.
    Can Respir J 2016 15;2016:4273480. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Division of Interventional Pulmonology, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
    Objective. The PleurX® IPC system has been used extensively in the past. Over time, management of MPE with the PleurX system can be costly. Read More

    Obesity and Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders in Middle East and UAE.
    Can Respir J 2016 1;2016:9673054. Epub 2016 Dec 1.
    Pediatric ENT, Al Jalila Children's Hospital, Dubai, UAE.
    A pandemic of obesity is sweeping all across the globe and the Middle East region also does not remain untouched by this prevailing pandemic. In fact, as per WHO report, Kuwait has the second highest obesity prevalence followed closely by other Middle East (ME) countries, namely, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates (UAE). Apart from direct medical, psychological, and quality of life related adverse effects of obesity, many indirect medical comorbidities, namely, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS), diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HTN), and metabolic syndrome, imposes a significant health burden on the individual and community with consequent morbidity and mortality. Read More

    Differentiating Malignant from Tubercular Pleural Effusion by Cancer Ratio Plus (Cancer Ratio: Pleural Lymphocyte Count).
    Can Respir J 2016 14;2016:7348239. Epub 2016 Dec 14.
    Pulmonary Disease Program, Vanderbilt University, 1161 21st Ave. South, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.
    Background. We performed prospective validation of the cancer ratio (serum LDH : pleural ADA ratio), previously reported as predictive of malignant effusion retrospectively, and assessed the effect of combining it with "pleural lymphocyte count" in diagnosing malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Methods. Read More

    Role of the Endobronchial Landmarks Guiding TBNA and EBUS-TBNA in Lung Cancer Staging.
    Can Respir J 2016 12;2016:1652178. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Interventional Pulmonology, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Critical Care, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, 1800 Orleans Street, Suite 7125L, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.
    Background. Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignancy related mortality in the United States. Accurate staging of NSCLC influences therapeutic decisions. Read More

    Decreased S100A9 Expression Promoted Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Stimulating ROS Generation and Inhibiting p38 MAPK.
    Can Respir J 2016 5;2016:1462563. Epub 2016 Dec 5.
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Shanghai Research Institute of Acupuncture and Meridian, Yue Yang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China.
    Background. Asthma is a disease with a core abnormality in airway smooth muscle function, and the proliferation of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) plays a pivotal role in asthma airway remodeling. Our previous study showed that S100A9 (S100 calcium-binding protein A9; 400 and 800 ng/mL) significantly inhibited rat ASMCs proliferation at 48 h, and 50-800 ng/mL S100A9 (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 ng/mL) also induced a lasting effect by significantly inhibiting rat ASMCs proliferation at 72 h in a dose-dependent manner. Read More

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