126,864 results match your criteria Canadian Mathematical Bulletin-bulletin Canadien De Mathematiques[Journal]


The effects of shift work and sleep duration on cancer incidence in Alberta`s Tomorrow Project cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol 2020 May 25;67:101729. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, CancerControl Alberta, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; Departments of Oncology and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Electronic address:

Introduction: We investigated the main effects of shift work and sleep duration on cancer incidence, and effect modification of the shift work-cancer incidence association by sleep duration.

Methods: Shift work and sleep duration were assessed among 21,804 participants from Alberta`s Tomorrow Project. Incident cases of breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancers were identified through registry linkage. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101729DOI Listing

Governance of mental healthcare: Fragmented accountability.

Soc Sci Med 2020 Apr 22;255:113007. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Addictions and Mental Health Ontario, Toronto, Canada.

Within international healthcare systems the neglect of mental health and challenge in shifting from institutional to community care have been recurrent themes. In analysing the challenges, we focus on the case study of Canada by exploring the manner in which health law and policy evolved to inhibit community-based mental healthcare, and compare the resulting funding landscape from an international perspective. The historical institutionalist analysis draws on the literature and healthcare finance data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113007DOI Listing

The Rational Development of CD133-Targeting Immunotherapies for Glioblastoma.

Cell Stem Cell 2020 May 22. Epub 2020 May 22.

McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1, Canada; Departments of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada; Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada. Electronic address:

CD133 marks self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) in a variety of solid tumors, and CD133+ tumor-initiating cells are known markers of chemo- and radio-resistance in multiple aggressive cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM), that may drive intra-tumoral heterogeneity. Here, we report three immunotherapeutic modalities based on a human anti-CD133 antibody fragment that targets a unique epitope present in glycosylated and non-glycosylated CD133 and studied their effects on targeting CD133+ cells in patient-derived models of GBM. We generated an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (RW03-IgG), a dual-antigen T cell engager (DATE), and a CD133-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T): CART133. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.04.008DOI Listing

Changes in water quality related to permafrost thaw may significantly impact zooplankton in small Arctic lakes.

Ecol Appl 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Rising temperatures are leading to permafrost thaw over vast areas of the northern hemisphere. In the Canadian Arctic, permafrost degradation is causing significant changes in surface water quality due to the release of solutes that can alter conductivity, water clarity, and nutrient levels. For this study, we examined how changes in water quality associated with permafrost thaw might impact zooplankton, a group of organisms that play an important role in the food web of Arctic lakes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eap.2186DOI Listing

Size-Mediated Recurring Spinel Sub-nanodomains in Li and Mn-rich Layered Cathode Materials.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, N6A 3K7, London, CANADA.

Li and Mn-rich layered oxide (LMR-NMC) is one of the most promising cathode materials for Li-ion batteries with high theoretical energy density. Its practical application is, however, hampered by the capacity and voltage fade after long cycling. Herein, a finite difference method for near-edge structure (FDMNES) code was combined with in-situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM/EELS) to investigate the evolution of transition metals (TMs) in the fresh and heavily cycled electrode. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202005337DOI Listing

Rapid changes in vascular compliance contribute to cerebrovascular adjustments during transient reductions in blood pressure in young, healthy adults.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

School of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, Canada.

Characterization of dynamic cerebral autoregulation has focused primarily on adjustments in cerebrovascular resistance in response to blood pressure (BP) alterations. However, the role of vascular compliance in dynamic autoregulatory processes remains elusive. The present study examined changes in cerebrovascular compliance and resistance during standing-induced transient BP reductions in 9 young, healthy adults (3 females). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00272.2020DOI Listing

Opioid use trends in patients undergoing elective thoracic and lumbar spine surgery.

Can J Surg 2020 May 28;63(3):E306-E312. Epub 2020 May 28.

From the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Stratton, Wai, Kingwell, Phan); The Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ont. (Roffey, El Koussy); the Division of Neurosurgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, N.S. (Christie); the Department of Surgery, McGill Scoliosis & Spine Group, McGill University, Montreal, Que. (Jarzem); Victoria Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont. (Rasoulinejad); the Foothills Medical Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta. (Casha, Thomas); Université Laval, Québec, Que. (Paquet); the Winnipeg Spine Program, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg, Man. (Johnson); the Canada East Spine Centre, Saint John Regional Hospital, Saint John, N.B. (Abraham, Manson); the Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Hall); Canadian Spine Outcomes and Research Network, Toronto, Ont.(McIntosh); Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Rampersaud); and the Combined Neurosurgery and Orthopaedic Spine Program, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. (Fisher).

Background: Opioid use in North America has increased rapidly in recent years. Preoperative opioid use is associated with several negative outcomes. Our objectives were to assess patterns of opioid use over time in Canadian patients who undergo spine surgery and to determine the effect of spine surgery on 1-year postoperative opioid use. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cjs.018218DOI Listing

Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in an At-Home Setting.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):171-178

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Emerging digital tools have the potential to enable a new generation of qualitative and quantitative assessment of cognitive performance. Moreover, the ubiquity of consumer electronics, such as smartphones and tablets, can be harnessed to support large-scale self-assessed cognitive screening with benefit to healthcare systems and consumers. A wide variety of apps, wearables, and new digital technologies are either available or in development for the detection of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a risk factor for dementia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.22DOI Listing
January 2020

Early Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in Primary Care.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):165-170

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is significantly misdiagnosed in the primary care setting due to multi-dimensional frictions and barriers associated with evaluating individuals' cognitive performance. To move toward large-scale cognitive screening, a global panel of clinicians and cognitive neuroscientists convened to elaborate on current challenges that hamper widespread cognitive performance assessment. This report summarizes a conceptual framework and provides guidance to clinical researchers and test developers and suppliers to inform ongoing refinement of cognitive evaluation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.21DOI Listing
January 2020

Rationale for Early Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Supported by Emerging Digital Technologies.

J Prev Alzheimers Dis 2020 ;7(3):158-164

Marwan N. Sabbagh, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Tel.: (702) 483-6029; Fax: (702) 722-6584.

Disease-modifying pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are currently in late-stage clinical development; once approved, new healthcare infrastructures and services, including primary healthcare, will be necessary to accommodate a huge demand for early and large-scale detection of AD. The increasing global accessibility of digital consumer electronics has opened up new prospects for early diagnosis and management of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with particular regard to AD. This new wave of innovation has spurred research in both academia and industry, aimed at developing and validating a new "digital generation" of tools for the assessment of the cognitive performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14283/jpad.2020.19DOI Listing
January 2020

Young Children and Ongoing Child Welfare Services: A Multilevel Examination of Clinical and Worker Characteristics.

Child Maltreat 2020 May 28:1077559520923757. Epub 2020 May 28.

McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

There is a growing body of research that underscores that young child welfare-involved children are a unique vulnerable subgroup of children. The decision to provide postinvestigation child welfare services is consequential to children's safety and well-being and has fiscal implications for organizations. Despite the potential ramifications of the decision, there is little known about the factors associated with the ongoing services provision for young children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559520923757DOI Listing

An Immersive Simulation to Build Empathy for Geriatric Patients with Co-Occurring Physical and Mental Illness.

Acad Psychiatry 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the effectiveness of an immersive simulation experience using an aging simulation suit for fostering empathy towards geriatric patients with advanced mental illness.

Method: Psychiatry residents were recruited during their clinical rotations at a Canadian mental health hospital. The participants took on the first-person perspective of a geriatric patient with mental illness initially through written reflection, and then physically inhabited this role by wearing an aging simulation suit to perform the task of meeting with a pharmacist to review current medications and prepare a dosette. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40596-020-01233-wDOI Listing

Association between the regional variation in premature mortality and immigration in Ontario, Canada.

Can J Public Health 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, Health Sciences Building, University of Toronto, 6th floor, 155 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 3M7, Canada.

Objectives: Health region differences in immigration patterns and premature mortality rates exist in Ontario, Canada. This study used linked population-based databases to describe the regional proportion of immigrants in the context of provincial health region variation in premature mortality.

Methods: We analyzed all adult premature deaths in Ontario from 1992 to 2012 using linked population files, Canadian census, and death registry databases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00330-5DOI Listing

A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of E-Cigarette Use for Smoking Cessation in the General Population: E3 Trial Design.

CJC Open 2020 May 19;2(3):168-175. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Smoking cessation improves morbidity and mortality among smokers who achieve long-term abstinence. Many smokers are using electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to attempt to quit, despite a lack of data concerning their efficacy and safety for smoking cessation.

Methods: The Evaluating the Efficacy of E-Cigarette use for Smoking Cessation (E3) trial is a multicentre randomized controlled trial (NCT02417467) with a treatment period of 12 weeks and follow-up of 52 weeks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.03.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242503PMC

Familial Hypercholesterolemia and the Founder Effect Among Franco-Americans: A Brief History and Call to Action.

CJC Open 2020 May 25;2(3):161-167. Epub 2020 Jan 25.

Department of Cardiology, Central Maine Medical Center, Lewiston, Maine, USA.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder characterized by chronically elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and an increased risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. FH has been shown to disproportionately affect French Canadians and other ethnic populations due to the presence of a founder effect characterized by reduced genetic diversity resulting from relatively few individuals with FH-causing genetic mutations establishing self-contained populations. Beginning in the mid-1800s, approximately 1 million French Canadians immigrated to the Northeastern United States and largely remained in these small, tight-knit communities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.01.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242505PMC

The Status of Specialized Ambulatory Heart Failure Care in Canada: A Joint Canadian Heart Failure Society and Canadian Cardiovascular Society Heart Failure Guidelines Survey.

CJC Open 2020 May 7;2(3):151-160. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Memorial University, St John's, Newfoundland, Canada.

This joint Canadian Heart Failure Society and the CCS Heart Failure guidelines report has been developed to provide a pan-Canadian snapshot of the current state of clinic-based ambulatory heart failure (HF) care in Canada with specific reference to elements and processes of care associated with quality and high performing health systems. It includes the viewpoints of persons with lived experience, patient care providers, and administrators. It is imperative to build on the themes identified in this survey, through engaging all health care professionals, to develop integrated and shared care models that will allow better patient outcomes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242502PMC

Introducing the Canadian Women's Heart Health Alliance ATLAS on the Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Management of Cardiovascular Diseases in Women.

CJC Open 2020 May 22;2(3):145-150. Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Division of Cardiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Despite a global understanding that indicators and outcomes of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known to differ between men and women, uptake of the recognition of sex and gender influences on the clinical care of women has been slow or absent. The Canadian Women's Heart Health Alliance (CWHHA) was established as a network of experts and advocates to develop and disseminate evidence-informed strategies to transform clinical practice and augment collaborative action on women's cardiovascular health in Canada. As an initial project, the CWHHA membership undertook an environmental scan of CVD in women in Canada from which a scientific statement could be developed to summarize critical sex- and gender-specific issues in CVD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.02.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242496PMC

Construct validity, test-retest reliability, and the ability to detect change of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure in a spinal cord injury population.

Spinal Cord Ser Cases 2019 May 29;5(1):52. Epub 2019 May 29.

Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Neurosciences and Neurorehabilitation Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Objectives: To examine the construct validity and the ability to detect change, of the Italian version of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population.

Settings: Rehabilitation service of the Paraplegic Center of Ostia, Italy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41394-019-0196-6DOI Listing

Baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units in Vancouver, Canada: a case series.

CMAJ 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine (Mitra, Wormsbecker, Foster, Karpov, Haljan, Chittock, Kanji, Sekhon, Griesdale), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine (Mitra, Haljan), Surrey Memorial Hospital, Surrey, BC; MD Undergraduate Program (Fergusson), University of British Columbia; Quality & Patient Safety (Fergusson, Lloyd-Smith), Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver BC; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine (Wormsbecker), Royal Columbian Hospital, New Westminster, BC; Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Nurse Practitioners (Crowe), Surrey Memorial Hospital, Surrey, BC; Program of Critical Care (Chittock, Kanji, Sekhon, Griesdale), Vancouver General Hospital; Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology & Therapeutics (Griesdale), University of British Columbia; Centre for Clinical Epidemiology and Evaluation (Griesdale), Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC.

Background: Pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with high intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a Canadian setting.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series of critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection consecutively admitted to 1 of 6 ICUs in Metro Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, between Feb. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200794DOI Listing

Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a distinct entity?

Eur Respir Rev 2020 Jun 27;29(156). Epub 2020 May 27.

Inserm UMR_S 999, Hôpital Marie Lannelongue, Le Plessis Robinson, France

Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare and incompletely understood histopathological finding characterised by abnormal capillary proliferation within the alveolar interstitium, which has long been noted to share many overlapping features with pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD). But are PCH and PVOD distinct entities that occur in isolation, or are they closely intertwined manifestations along a spectrum of the same disease? The classic clinical features of both PCH and PVOD include signs and symptoms related to pulmonary hypertension, hypoxaemia, markedly impaired diffusion capacity of the lung and abnormal chest imaging with ground glass opacities, septal lines and lymphadenopathy. In recent years, increasing evidence suggests that the clinical presentation, histopathological features, genetic substrate and pathobiological mechanisms of PCH and PVOD are overlapping and usually indistinguishable. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/16000617.0168-2019DOI Listing

Financial ties between leaders of influential US professional medical associations and industry: cross sectional study.

BMJ 2020 05 27;369:m1505. Epub 2020 May 27.

Charles Perkins Centre and School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine and Health, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Objective: To investigate the nature and extent of financial relationships between leaders of influential professional medical associations in the United States and pharmaceutical and device companies.

Design: Cross sectional study.

Setting: Professional associations for the 10 costliest disease areas in the US according to the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1505DOI Listing

Multi-dose Oral Ondansetron for Pediatric Gastroenteritis: study Protocol for the multi-DOSE oral ondansetron for pediatric Acute GastroEnteritis (DOSE-AGE) pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2020 May 27;21(1):435. Epub 2020 May 27.

Max Rady College of Medicine, Pediatrics and Child Health, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, and the Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.

Background: There are limited treatment options that clinicians can provide to children presenting to emergency departments with vomiting secondary to acute gastroenteritis. Based on evidence of effectiveness and safety, clinicians now routinely administer ondansetron in the emergency department to promote oral rehydration therapy success. However, clinicians are also increasingly providing multiple doses of ondansetron for home use, creating unquantified cost and health system resource use implications without any evidence to support this expanding practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04347-6DOI Listing

Measuring the impact of sea surface temperature on the human incidence of Vibrio sp. infection in British Columbia, Canada, 1992-2017.

Environ Health 2020 May 27;19(1):58. Epub 2020 May 27.

British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 4R4, Canada.

Background: Vibrio growth in the environment is related to sea surface temperature (SST). The incidence of human Vibrio illness increased sharply in British Columbia (BC) between 2008 and 2015 for unknown reasons, culminating in the largest outbreak of shellfish-associated Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) in Canadian history in 2015. Our objective was to assess the relationship between SST and Vibrio illness in BC, Canada during 1992-2017 and assess the role of SST and other environmental factors in the 2015 Vp outbreak. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12940-020-00605-xDOI Listing

CAMKK2-CAMK4 signaling regulates transferrin trafficking, turnover, and iron homeostasis.

Cell Commun Signal 2020 May 27;18(1):80. Epub 2020 May 27.

Canadian Centre for Agri-Food Research in Health and Medicine, St. Boniface Albrechtsen Research Centre, Room R2034 - 351 Taché Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R2H 2A6, Canada.

Background: Circulatory iron is a hazardous biometal. Therefore, iron is transported in a redox-safe state by a serum glycoprotein - transferrin (TF). Different organs acquire iron from the systemic circulation through a tightly regulated mechanism at the blood-tissue interface which involves receptor-mediated internalization of TF. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12964-020-00575-0DOI Listing

Cancer staging in individuals with a severe psychiatric illness: a cross-sectional study using population-based cancer registry data.

BMC Cancer 2020 May 27;20(1):476. Epub 2020 May 27.

ICES, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON, M4N 3M5, Canada.

Background: Advanced cancer stage at diagnosis may explain high cancer mortality among patients with a severe psychiatric illness (SPI). Studies to date investigating advanced stage cancer at diagnosis as a potential explanation for high cancer mortality in individuals with a history of mental illness have been inconclusive. We examined the relationship between a SPI history and unknown cancer stage at diagnosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06943-wDOI Listing

Quantifying stratosphere-troposphere transport of ozone using balloon-borne ozonesondes, radar windprofilers and trajectory models.

Atmos Environ (1994) 2019 Feb 24;198:496-509. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Graduate School of Oceanography, University of Rhode Island, RI, USA.

In a series of 10-day campaigns in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, between 2005 and 2007, ozonesondes were launched twice daily in conjunction with continuous high-resolution wind-profiling radar measurements. Windprofilers can measure rapid changes in the height of the tropopause, and in some cases follow stratospheric intrusions. Observed stratospheric intrusions were studied with the aid of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model and the Canadian operational weather forecast system. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.10.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7250237PMC
February 2019

Large-scale implementation of a pragmatic atrial fibrillation screening program in canadian community practice.

Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Université Laval, Quebec City, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pace.13966DOI Listing

A risk assessment tool for predicting fragility fractures and mortality in the elderly.

J Bone Miner Res 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Osteoporosis and Bone Biology, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Sydney, Australia.

Existing fracture risk assessment tools are not designed to predict fracture-associated consequences, possibly contributing to the current under-management of fragility fractures worldwide. We aimed to develop a risk assessment tool for predicting the conceptual risk of fragility fractures and consequences. The study involved 8965 people aged ≥60 years from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study and the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4100DOI Listing

A comparison of consumer-grade electronic radon monitors.

J Radiol Prot 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Radiation Safety Institute of Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, CANADA.

Radon is a radioactive gas which is naturally occurring in soil and can accumulate to concentrated levels inside homes and buildings. Exposure to elevated levels of radon leads to an increased risk of developing lung cancer. In recent years there has been a rise in the popularity of consumer-grade electronic radon monitors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/ab96d6DOI Listing

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a surrogate tool for the quantification of naphthenic acids in oil sands process water and groundwater.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 7;734:139191. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1H9, Canada. Electronic address:

Naphthenic acid fraction compounds (NAFCs), defined herein as the polar organic compounds extracted from the acidified oil sands process water (OSPW) samples using dichloromethane, are becoming the research hotspot due to their presence in large amount in OSPW and along with other potentially NA-contaminated water streams from the mining site. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method is commonly used to quantify NAFCs and assumes that the total NA concentration is measured as the sum of the responses for all carboxylic acid functional groups. In this study, the NAFCs in various OSPW and groundwater (GW) samples from an active oil sands mining site were analyzed using FTIR. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139191DOI Listing

Translating 'protein foods' from the new Canada's Food Guide to consumers: Knowledge gaps and recommendations.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

University of Manitoba , Room 209 Human Ecology , Department of Human Nutritional Sciences , Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada , R3T 2N2 ;

The revised version of Canada's Food Guide, released in January 2019, issued new guidance by combining meat and alternatives with milk and alternatives into a single group called 'protein foods' and emphasized selecting plant-based foods from this category more often. Though the changes represent a simple depiction of a healthy plate, the new Food Guide has opened knowledge gaps about 'protein foods' and exposed new concerns about the interpretation and implementation of the Food Guide among vulnerable groups, particularly children and the elderly. To address key knowledge and research gaps, nutrition leaders need to reach a consensus on key messages to best inform the development of tools and resources to support practitioners in translating messages to consumers, including foodservice standards. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2020-0192DOI Listing

Composite lipid emulsion for the infant at risk of intestinal failure associated liver disease: the Canadian perspective.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Currently, in North America we are fortunate to have a number of available options for lipid emulsions to be used in the parenteral nutrition regimens for infants and children, including for long term parenteral nutrition given intestinal failure. Neonates and infants in particular are at risk for intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD). The choice of parenteral lipid emulsion will influence the risk and severity of IFALD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0000000000002794DOI Listing

Branching points of primary afferent fibres are vital for the modulation of fibre excitability by epidural DC polarization and by GABA in the rat spinal cord.

J Neurophysiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

The aim of the study was to examine whether the sustained increases in the excitability of afferent fibres traversing the dorsal columns evoked by their polarization depend on the branching points of these fibres. To this end, effects of epidural polarization were compared in four spinal regions in deeply anaesthetized rats; two with the densest collateralization of muscle afferent fibres (above motor nuclei and Clarke's column) and two where the collateralization is more sparse (rostral and caudal to motor nuclei respectively. The degree of collateralization in different segments was reconstructed in retrogradely labelled afferent fibres in the rat. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.00161.2020DOI Listing

Impact of the New McGill Undergraduate Medical Curriculum on Medical Students' Diagnostic Accuracy of Common Dermatoses Encountered in Primary Care.

J Cutan Med Surg 2020 May 27:1203475420928906. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Dermatology, McGill University - Jewish General Hosptial, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: The McGill Faculty of Medicine implemented a new undergraduate medical curriculum in 2013 with additional preclinical lectures in dermatology. At the time of writing, no Canadian prospective study has been published on undergraduate dermatology training in the context of a complete curricular renewal.

Objectives: Our study was designed to determine the impact of increasing preclinical teaching in dermatology on medical students' diagnostic accuracy and learning retention of common dermatoses encountered in primary care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1203475420928906DOI Listing

Glucose-induced duration-dependent genome-wide DNA methylation changes in human endothelial cells.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

DNA methylation, a critical epigenetic mechanism, plays an important role in governing gene expressions during biological processes such as aging, which is well known to be accelerated in hyperglycemia (diabetes). In the present study, we investigated the effects of glucose on whole-genome DNA methylation in small (HRECs) and large (HUVECs) vessel endothelial cell (EC) lines exposed to basal or high glucose-containing media for variable lengths of time. Using the Infinium EPIC array, we obtained 773,133 CpG sites (probes) for analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00011.2020DOI Listing

Validation of the 7-item Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G7) as a short measure of quality of life in patients with advanced cancer.

Cancer 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Supportive Care, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Assessing quality of life is essential for individuals with advanced cancer, but lengthy assessments can be burdensome. The authors investigated the psychometric characteristics of the FACT-G7, a 7-item quality-of-life measure derived from the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) scale, in advanced cancer.

Methods: Data were obtained from outpatients with advanced cancer who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of early palliative care. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32981DOI Listing

Does the public feel prepared to be substitute decision-makers? Gaps in preparedness and support for a high school curriculum: a national survey.

Age Ageing 2020 May 27. Epub 2020 May 27.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Background: Substitute decision-makers (SDMs) make decisions on behalf of patients who do not have capacity, in line with previously expressed wishes, values and beliefs. However, miscommunications and poor awareness of previous wishes often lead to inappropriate care. Increasing public preparedness to communicate on behalf of loved ones may improve care in patients requiring an SDM. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa100DOI Listing

Routine gastric residual volume measurement to guide enteral feeding in mechanically ventilated infants and children: the GASTRIC feasibility study.

Health Technol Assess 2020 May;24(23):1-120

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Background: The routine measurement of gastric residual volume to guide the initiation and delivery of enteral feeding is widespread in paediatric intensive care and neonatal units, but has little underlying evidence to support it.

Objective: To answer the question: is a trial of no gastric residual volume measurement feasible in UK paediatric intensive care units and neonatal units?

Design: A mixed-methods study involving five linked work packages in two parallel arms: neonatal units and paediatric intensive care units. Work package 1: a survey of units to establish current UK practice. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3310/hta24230DOI Listing

Health Service Use among Individuals with Depression and Psychological Distress: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

Can J Psychiatry 2020 May 27:706743720927826. Epub 2020 May 27.

ICES, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: Relatively little is known about how health-care utilization differs among individuals with psychological distress compared to those with major depressive disorder (MDD).

Methods: Ontario participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey Cycle 1.2 (2002) were linked to health administrative data to follow their health-care utilization patterns for up to 15 years. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0706743720927826DOI Listing

Economic Burden and Healthcare Resource Use for Thoracic Aortic Dissections and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms-A Population-Based Cost-of-Illness Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 May 27:e014981. Epub 2020 May 27.

Institute for Clinical and Evaluative Sciences Queen's University Kingston Ontario, Canada.

Background Thoracic aortic dissections (TADs) and thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) are resource intensive. We sought to determine economic burden and healthcare resource use to guide health policy. Methods and Results Using universal healthcare coverage data for Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2016, a cost-of-illness analysis was performed. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014981DOI Listing

Communicating risks to drinkers: testing alcohol labels with a cancer warning and national drinking guidelines in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Canadian Institute for Substance Use Research, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To test whether alcohol labels with a cancer warning and national drinking guidelines are an effective tool for supporting more informed and safer alcohol consumption among drinkers.

Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, pre-post surveys were conducted with 1647 cohort participants systematically selected in liquor stores in two matched sites in Canada in 2017-2018. Enhanced labels designed according to best practices for effective product labels were applied to alcohol containers in the liquor store in the intervention site for one month, and usual practice continued in the comparison site. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-020-00320-7DOI Listing

Nanoparticle delivery of a pH-sensitive prodrug of doxorubicin and a mitochondrial targeting VES-HR synergistically kill multi-drug resistant breast cancer cells.

Sci Rep 2020 May 26;10(1):8726. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5, Canada.

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains a major obstacle in cancer treatment while being heavily dependent on mitochondrial activity and drug efflux. We previously demonstrated that cationic lipids, such as the vitamin E succinate modified octahistidine-octaarginine (VES-HR) conjugate, target mitochondria, resulting in depolarized mitochondria and inhibited drug efflux in MDR breast cancer cells. We hypothesized that the effective cell uptake, efflux inhibition, and mitochondrial depolarization properties of VES-HR would synergistically enhance the toxicity of a pH-sensitive prodrug of doxorubicin (pDox) when co-encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65450-xDOI Listing

Participatory practices at work change attitudes and behavior toward societal authority and justice.

Nat Commun 2020 May 26;11(1):2633. Epub 2020 May 26.

420 Peretsman Scully Hall, Department of Psychology, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA.

Generalized attitudes toward authority and justice are often conceptualized as individual differences that are resistant to enduring change. However, across two field experiments with Chinese factory workers and American university staff, small adjustments to people's experience of participation in the workplace shifted these attitudes one month later. Both experiments randomly assigned work groups to a 20-minute participatory meeting once per week for six weeks, in which the supervisor stepped aside and workers discussed problems, ideas, and goals regarding their work (vs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16383-6DOI Listing

Assessing Diaphragmatic Function.

Respir Care 2020 Jun;65(6):807-819

Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

The diaphragm is vulnerable to injury during mechanical ventilation, and diaphragm dysfunction is both a marker of severity of illness and a predictor of poor patient outcome in the ICU. A combination of factors can result in diaphragm weakness. Both insufficient and excessive diaphragmatic contractile effort can cause atrophy or injury, and recent evidence suggests that targeting an appropriate amount of diaphragm activity during mechanical ventilation has the potential to mitigate diaphragm dysfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07410DOI Listing

Esophageal Manometry.

Respir Care 2020 Jun;65(6):772-792

Center for Acute Respiratory Failure and Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, New York, New York.

The estimation of pleural pressure with esophageal manometry has been used for decades, and it has been a fertile area of physiology research in healthy subject as well as during mechanical ventilation in patients with lung injury. However, its scarce adoption in clinical practice takes its roots from the (false) ideas that it requires expertise with years of training, that the values obtained are not reliable due to technical challenges or discrepant methods of calculation, and that measurement of esophageal pressure has not proved to benefit patient outcomes. Despites these criticisms, esophageal manometry could contribute to better monitoring, optimization, and personalization of mechanical ventilation from the acute initial phase to the weaning period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.07425DOI Listing

Urolithiasis and cystitis associated with Staphylococcus delphini group A and mortality in post-weaning mink kits (Neovison vison).

Vet Microbiol 2020 Jun 5;245:108706. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Ridebanevej 3, 1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.

Mortality of mink kits represents a significant loss to production. However, causes of post-weaning mortality in mink kits in modern Danish mink production systems are still relatively poorly documented. We performed a cross-sectional mortality study on eight Danish mink farms including 1893 post mortem examinations of mink kits found dead or euthanized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108706DOI Listing

Comparative genomic analysis of 142 bacteriophages infecting Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica.

BMC Genomics 2020 May 26;21(1):374. Epub 2020 May 26.

Ottawa Laboratory Fallowfield, Canadian Food Inspection Agency, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Bacteriophages are bacterial parasites and are considered the most abundant and diverse biological entities on the planet. Previously we identified 154 prophages from 151 serovars of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-6765-zDOI Listing

Northern Sea Cucumber (): A Potential Candidate for Functional Food, Nutraceutical, and Pharmaceutical Sector.

Mar Drugs 2020 May 22;18(5). Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL A1B 3X9, Canada.

Sea cucumber () is the most abundant and widely distributed species in the cold waters of North Atlantic Ocean. contains a wide range of bioactive compounds, mainly collagen, cerebrosides, glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, saponins, phenols, and mucopolysaccharides, which demonstrate unique biological and pharmacological properties. In particular, the body wall of this marine invertebrate is the major edible part and contains most of the active constituents, mainly polysaccharides and collagen, which exhibit numerous biological activities, including anticancer, anti-hypertensive, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-coagulation, antimicrobial, antioxidation, and anti- osteoclastogenic properties. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md18050274DOI Listing

Estimating Lower Extremity Running Gait Kinematics with a Single Accelerometer: A Deep Learning Approach.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 22;20(10). Epub 2020 May 22.

Menrva Research Group, Schools of Mechatronic Systems Engineering & Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Metro Vancouver, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.

Abnormal running kinematics are associated with an increased incidence of lower extremity injuries among runners. Accurate and unobtrusive running kinematic measurement plays an important role in the detection of gait abnormalities and the prevention of injuries among runners. Inertial-based methods have been proposed to address this need. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20102939DOI Listing

Systematic Review of the Epidemiological Burden of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Across Europe: Current Evidence and EUROMENE Research Recommendations for Epidemiology.

J Clin Med 2020 May 21;9(5). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious & Tropical Disease, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London WC1E 7HT, UK.

This review aimed at determining the prevalence and incidence of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in Europe. We conducted a primary search in Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science for publications between 1994 and 15 June 2019 (PROSPERO: CRD42017078688). Additionally, we performed a backward-(reference lists) and forward-(citations) search of the works included in this review. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051557DOI Listing