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    1 OF 131

    Diarrhea ain't dope: Canada needs to consider the food safety implications of edible cannabis.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e455. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON; School of Health and Life Sciences and Community Services, Conestoga College Institute of Technology and Advanced Learning, Kitchener, ON.
    No abstract available. Read More

    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e452-e454. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Département de médicine sociale et préventive, École de santé publique (ÉSPUM), Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec); Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal (Québec).
     L'étude des conséquences de la mondialisation sur la santé des populations est au coeur de la santé mondiale. Ce faisant, la mondialisation conditionne également la mise en oeuvre des projets de recherche et des interventions en santé mondiale, et les rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui s'y perpétuent. Le présent commentaire propose des réflexions sur des défis épistémologiques et politiques auxquels se confronte la santé mondiale. Read More

    Adapting maternal health practice to co-morbidities and social inequality: A systematic approach.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e448-e451. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Senior Research Scientist & Adjunct Associate Professor, Ramalingaswami Centre on Equity and Social Determinants of Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Bangalore, India.
    The process of adapting universal guidelines to local institutional and cultural settings is recognized as important to their implementation and uptake. However, clarity on what, why and how to adapt in an evidence-based manner is still somewhat elusive. Health providers in low and middle income country contexts often have to deal with widely present co-morbidities and social inequalities among pregnant women. Read More

    "It makes us really look inferior to outsiders": Coping with psychosocial experiences associated with the lack of access to safe water and sanitation.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e442-e447. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
    Objective: This paper explores daily experiences and coping resources related to the lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya.

    Methods: A qualitative approach that involved 10 focus group discussions and 9 key informant interviews with community leaders, volunteers and professionals was used to explore the research objectives. Data were collected from June to August 2013. Read More

    Impacts of the Interim Federal Health Program reforms: A stakeholder analysis of barriers to health care access and provision for refugees.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e435-e441. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Health Policy PhD Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON; Global Health, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.
    Background: Changes to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) in 2012 reduced health care access for refugees and refugee claimants, generating concerns among key stakeholders. In 2014, a new IFHP temporarily reinstated access to some health services; however, little is known about these changes, and more information is needed to map the IFHP's impact.

    Objective: This study explores barriers occurring during the time period of the IFHP reforms to health care access and provision for refugees. Read More

    Enhancing the capacity and effectiveness of community health volunteers to improve maternal, newborn and child health: Experience from Kenya.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e427-e434. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Centre for Global Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objective: To determine whether a simple monitoring and tracking tool, Mwanzo Mwema Monitoring and Tracking Tool (MMATT), would enable community health volunteers (CHVs) in Kenya to 1) plan their workloads and activities, 2) identify the women, newborns and children most in need of accessing critical maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions and 3) improve key MNCH indicators.

    Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Household surveys at baseline (n = 912) and endline (n = 1143) collected data on key MNCH indicators in the four subcounties of Taita Taveta County, Kenya. Read More

    Weighing in on Canadian school-based vision screening: A call for action.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e421-e426. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.
    Vision-screening programs are designed to detect common causes of visual impairment and increase the likelihood of early diagnosis and treatment. In the health authority Eastern Health - Newfoundland and Labrador, public health leaders raised a concern about the efficiency and effectiveness of the current non-routine, opportunistic vision screening protocol for school-aged children. An environmental scan of screening practices and programs across Canada was conducted, yielding a wide range of inconsistencies with respect to program type, target population, and screening tools. Read More

    Canadian pharmacists as immunizers: Addressing questions related to this new scope of practice.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e418-e420. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Assistant Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON.
    Currently, pharmacists in nine Canadian provinces can apply for authorization to administer drugs and vaccines by injection following the successful completion of a required training program and with evidence of certification in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As more provinces and pharmacists embrace this new scope, questions are being raised about their readiness and ability to provide this public health service. This commentary addresses a number of questions commonly raised about pharmacists as immunizers, taking the position that pharmacists are able and willing to play a larger role in vaccination programs. Read More

    Ethical challenges in FASD prevention: Scientific uncertainty, stigma, and respect for women's autonomy.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e414-e417. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC.
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". Read More

    Policy recommendations for front-of-package, shelf, and menu labelling in Canada: Moving towards consensus.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e409-e413. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Greater availability of low nutritional quality foods and decreased consumption of nutrient-dense foods have negatively impacted the nutrient profile of the Canadian diet. Poor diet is now the leading risk factor for chronic disease and premature death in Canada. To help consumers choose healthful foods, nutrition labelling is one policy tool for communicating relevant nutrition information. Read More

    A strategic approach to workforce development for local public health.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e403-e408. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Manager, Education and Research, Peel Public Health, Mississauga, ON.
    Setting: In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1. Read More

    Alberta's provincial take-home naloxone program: A multi-sectoral and multi-jurisdictional response to overdose.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e398-e402. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    University of Alberta and Alberta Health Services.
    Setting: Alberta is a prairie province located in western Canada, with a population of approximately 4.3 million. In 2016, 363 Albertans died from apparent drug overdoses related to fentanyl, an opioid 50-100 times more toxic than morphine. Read More

    Preconception health interventions delivered in public health and community settings: A systematic review.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e388-e397. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Interdisciplinary Centre for Health & Society, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, ON; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of preconception health interventions, delivered to individuals of reproductive age in public health and community settings, on reproductive, maternal, and child health outcomes.

    Methods: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Scopus, Gender Studies Database, and SocINDEX from July 1999 through July 2016 was performed. We included studies that reported original data, used an interventional study design, included reproductive-aged women or men, were written in English, and were published in peer-reviewed journals. Read More

    Comparing "insider" and "outsider" news coverage of the 2014 Ebola outbreak.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e381-e387. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS; Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Quebec, QC; Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Quebec - Université Laval Research Centre, Quebec, QC.
    Objectives: Information provided by news media during an infectious disease outbreak can affect the actions taken to safeguard public health. There has been little evaluation of how the content of news published during an outbreak varies by location of the news outlet. This study analyzes coverage of the 2014 Ebola outbreak by one news outlet operating within a country affected by the outbreak and one country not directly affected. Read More

    Incidence of lower limb amputation in Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e374-e380. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
    Objectives: To determine the Canadian age-adjusted incidence rates of lower limb amputation (LLA) by province, sex, level, and cause of amputation.

    Methods: Data on all hospital discharges associated with LLA from April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2012, were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database. National and provincial age-adjusted rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals by sex, level, and cause of LLA using the direct method of standardization. Read More

    Preliminary investigation of the STBBI Stigma Scale: Description and pilot results.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e368-e373. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Psychology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: Sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs) are associated with stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs, which can affect the quality of and access to health care, as well as mental health and quality of life. The current study describes the adaptation from an HIV-related stigma scale and pilot testing of a new STBBI Stigma Scale, assessing the stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs of health and social service providers in Canada.

    Methods: 144 health and social service providers from across Canada completed the newly adapted scale assessing stigma associated with HIV, hepatitis C, other viral STBBIs and bacterial STBBIs, as well as demographic information, a scale of social desirability and measures of convergent and divergent validity. Read More

    Migration and social determinants of mental health: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e362-e367. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Assistant Professor, Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Objectives: Studies worldwide point to increased risk of mental health problems among immigrants. However, the data on Canadian immigrants' mental health are ambiguous. To address this, we examined the relationship of both self-perceived mental health and reported diagnosis of mood disorders with age, gender, migration status, time since migration, and social determinants of health factors. Read More

    Correlates of accelerometer-assessed physical activity and sedentary time among adults with type 2 diabetes.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e355-e361. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Faculty of Health Disciplines, Athabasca University, Athabasca, AB; Alliance for Canadian Health Outcomes Research in Diabetes, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, 2-040 Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Research Innovation, Edmonton, AB; School of Clinical Medicine, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the volume and patterns of objectively assessed sedentary behaviour, light intensity physical activity (LPA) and moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and to examine socio-demographic correlates, among adults living with type 2 diabetes.

    Methods: Participants (n = 166) wore an accelerometer (Actigraph® GT3X+) for seven consecutive days during waking hours and completed a questionnaire. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time were described, and multivariable linear regression was used to estimate associations between socio-demographic characteristics and sedentary time and PA. Read More

    An examination of school- and student-level characteristics associated with the likelihood of students' meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines in the COMPASS study.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e348-e354. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON.
    Objectives: To examine school- and student-level correlates of physical activity.

    Methods: Cross-sectional Year 2 data collected from 45 298 grade 9-12 students attending 89 secondary schools in the COMPASS study were examined using multi-level modelling to predict the likelihood of students a) achieving 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily; and b) achieving the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) activity guideline for youth (60 minutes/MVPA daily, vigorous physical activity at least three days in a week, and resistance training at least three days in a week).

    Results: The prevalence of students achieving 60 minutes of MVPA daily and meeting the CSEP guideline was 49. Read More

    Lunch is ready… but not healthy: An analysis of lunches served in childcare centres in two Canadian provinces.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e342-e347. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC; Centre de formation médicale du Nouveau-Brunswick, Moncton, NB.
    Objectives: Childcare centres (CCs) typically offer one meal and snacks daily. This study compared what is served in CCs with what the nutritional recommendations are; described and compared the nutritional composition of lunches served in CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan; and examined differences between French and English, and urban and rural centres.

    Methods: The study involved 61 randomly selected CCs in New Brunswick and Saskatchewan, Canada. Read More

    Shining new light on newborn screening of cystic fibrosis in the province of Quebec.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e335-e337. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Faculty of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC.
    Newborn screening of cystic fibrosis, a severe genetic disease with high treatment burden, is offered in all of North America with the exception of the province of Quebec. This condition, when diagnosed on symptomatic presentation, is marked by chronic infections and progressive lung function decline leading to eventual respiratory failure. Patients continue to have a median age of survival notably below the Canadian average. Read More

    Estimation of smoking prevalence in Canada: Implications of survey characteristics in the CCHS and CTUMS/CTADS.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e331-e334. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Institut de recherche en santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Montréal, QC; École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal (ESPUM), Montréal, QC.
    One of the main enterprises associated with tobacco control is surveillance, that is, to measure and follow over time the extent of smoking among the Canadian population. While surveillance systems have been in place for more than 50 years, knowing the exact prevalence of smoking in Canada continues to be a complex matter and understanding its estimation requires a critical appreciation of our national surveys' idiosyncrasies. This commentary describes the two Statistics Canada surveys that are most commonly used to examine smoking prevalence in this country: the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) and the Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey (CTADS). Read More

    Recommendations: Will the Tobacco and Vaping Products Act go far enough?
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e328-e330. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Doctoral Student, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON.
    E-cigarette use among adolescents and young adults in Canada is increasing. Potvin's (2016) editorial outlined the need for more evidence on e-cigarettes as a gateway to combustible cigarettes and their toxicity. Since then, new evidence has emerged supporting the gateway effect and establishing toxicity. Read More

    Between a rock and a hard place: Prescription opioid restrictions in the time of fentanyl and other street drug adulterants.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e325-e327. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver, BC; Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
    Non-medical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) has increased alarmingly across Canada and resulted in strict prescribing restrictions on opioids. Despite a clear need to reduce opioid prescriptions in response to this crisis, few other policies have been implemented and this singular focus is incongruent with the known characteristics of substance use disorders, negative effects of supply reduction policies, and realities of pain management. Given the recent rise of fentanyl and other dangerous adulterants in street drugs, this commentary argues that a comprehensive response to NMPOU that includes improvements to addiction management and harm-reduction services is urgently needed. Read More

    An introduction to the healthy corner store intervention model in Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e320-e324. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    Setting: The majority of Canadians' food acquisition occurs in retail stores. Retail science has become increasingly sophisticated in demonstrating how consumer environments influence population-level diet quality and health status. The retail food environment literature is new but growing rapidly in Canada, and there is a relative paucity of evidence from intervention research implemented in Canada. Read More

    Better Strength, Better Balance! Partnering to deliver a fall prevention program for older adults.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e314-e319. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Family Health Specialist, Ottawa Public Health, Ottawa, ON.
    Setting: Falls incur significant health and economic costs, particularly among older adults. Physical activity has been found to be the single most important fall prevention behaviour an older adult can do. This manuscript describes Ottawa Public Health's (OPH) experience implementing the Better Strength, Better Balance! (BSBB) program, a fall prevention exercise program for older adults, through an innovative partnership with the local Recreation, Cultural & Facility Services (RCFS) Department. Read More

    Organizational level indicators to address health equity work in local public health agencies: A scoping review.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e306-e313. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Western University, London, ON.
    Objective: To determine what organizational level indicators exist that could be used by local Ontario public health agencies to monitor and guide their progress in addressing health equity.

    Method: This scoping review employed Arksey and O'Malley's (2005) six-stage framework. Multiple online databases and grey literature sources were searched using a comprehensive strategy. Read More

    Characterizing non-monosexual women at risk for poor mental health outcomes: A mixed methods study.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e296-e305. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Social and Behavioural Health Sciences Division, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Institute for Mental Health Policy Research, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: Non-monosexual women - those who report attraction to or sexual relationships with individuals of more than one gender - have elevated risk for poor mental health outcomes. We aimed to examine which elements of non-monosexual experience are associated with this elevated risk.

    Methods: We conducted a sequential exploratory mixed methods analysis of qualitative interview and survey data from 39 non-monosexual women recruited consecutively through prenatal care providers. Read More

    Lifetime excess cancer risk due to carcinogens in food and beverages: Urban versus rural differences in Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e288-e295. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Geography, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC.
    Objectives: To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages.

    Methods: Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. Read More

    Therapeutic use of cannabis: Prevalence and characteristics among adults in Ontario, Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e282-e287. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of therapeutic cannabis use within a general population sample of adults and to describe various characteristics associated with use.

    Methods: Data were derived from the 2013 and 2014 CAMH Monitor Survey of adults in Ontario, Canada. This repeated cross-sectional survey employed a regionally stratified design and utilized computer-assisted telephone interviewing. Read More

    The 1% of emergency room visits for non-traumatic dental conditions in British Columbia: Misconceptions about the numbers.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e279-e281. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Associate Professor, Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
    In Canada, about 1% of all emergency room (ER) visits in a given year are made by patients with a primary diagnosis of a non-traumatic, non-urgent and yet preventable condition, such as tooth decay. This percentage is typically dismissed as irrelevant. Using 2013-2014 British Columbia data on ER use from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, however, we argue that the 1% figure (and its associated cost) has to be considered beyond its percentage value. Read More

    Redirecting public oral health fluoride varnish intervention to low socio-economic status children in Alberta.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e273-e278. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Provincial Oral Health Office, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB.
    Setting: Dental decay is most prevalent among low socio-economic status (SES) groups where cost limits access to dental care. To address inequities in oral health outcomes, Alberta Health Services (AHS) Oral Health Action Plan encompasses a population health approach that redirects fluoride varnish (FV) applications to low SES children. Using low SES measures to establish the eligibility criteria is fundamental to the delivery of FV applications to the target population. Read More

    Parents' online discussions about children's dental caries: A critical content analysis.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e265-e272. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
    Objectives: Through an analysis of postings to an online parenting forum, we aimed to explore the many ways in which parents orient to (i.e., take up, challenge, re-articulate) information about child dental health in the context of their online interactions. Read More

    Pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions: Birth cohorts and the socio-economic gradient.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e257-e264. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Manitoba Centre for Health Policy, Department of Community Health Sciences, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objectives: This study examines the socio-economic gradient in utilization and the risk factors associated with hospitalization for four pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions (dental conditions, asthma, gastroenteritis, and bacterial pneumonia). Dental conditions, where much care is provided by dentists and insurance coverage varies among different population segments, present special issues.

    Methods: A population registry, provider registry, physician ambulatory claims, and hospital discharge abstracts from 28 398 children born in 2003-2006 in urban centres in Manitoba, Canada were the main data sources. Read More

    Waiting room time: An opportunity for parental oral health education.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e251-e256. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
    Objectives: The UBC Children's Dental Program (CDP) has provided free dental treatments to underserved low-income children, but its preventive component needs to be enhanced. The study aims were: 1) to develop a "waiting-room based" dental education program engaging caregivers of these children, and 2) to assess the program's feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness.

    Methods: In preparation, a situational analysis (SA) included structured interviews with caregivers, and with various stakeholders (e. Read More

    Trends in emergency department visits for non-traumatic dental conditions in Ontario from 2006 to 2014.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e246-e250. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Dental Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Health Promotion, Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Department, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON.
    Objective: In Canada, non-traumatic dental conditions (NTDCs) presenting in emergency departments (EDs) are dealt with by non-dental professionals who are generally not equipped to deal with such emergencies, resulting in an inefficient usage of heath care resources. This study aimed to assess the burden of ED visits for NTDCs in Ontario by observing trends from 2006 to 2014.

    Methods: Aggregate data for Ontario were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's National Ambulatory Care Reporting System. Read More

    Inequalities in oral health: Understanding the contributions of education and income.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e240-e245. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    Objective: To quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in oral health outcomes.

    Methods: Using data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 2003), binary logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between income and education on self-reported oral health (SROH) and chewing difficulties (CD) while controlling for age, sex, ethnicity, employment status and dental insurance coverage. The relative index of inequality (RII) was utilized to quantify the extent to which income and education explain gradients in poor SROH and CD. Read More

    Fluoride exposure and reported learning disability diagnosis among Canadian children: Implications for community water fluoridation.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e229-e239. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, AB; Department of Community Health Sciences and O'Brien Institute for Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
    Objectives: Recent studies have connected increased fluoride exposure with increased risk of neurodevelopmental-related outcomes, such as ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) and lower IQ in children. Our primary objective was to examine the association between fluoride exposure and reported diagnosis of a learning disability among a population-based sample of Canadian children aged 3-12 years.

    Methods: We analyzed data from Cycles 2 and 3 of the Canadian Health Measures Survey. Read More

    How does the social "get under the gums"? The role of socio-economic position in the oral-systemic health link.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Sep 14;108(3):e224-e228. Epub 2017 Sep 14.
    Discipline of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: To evaluate the extent of association between systemic inflammation and periodontal disease in American adults, and to assess whether socio-economic position mediated this relationship.

    Methods: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES IV) (2001-2010). Systemic inflammation was defined by individual and aggregate (cumulative inflammatory load) biomarkers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell counts, neutrophil counts, and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio). Read More

    Promoting children's health: Toward a consensus statement on food literacy.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Jun 16;108(2):e211-e213. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    University of Calgary, Calgary, AB.
    This consensus statement reflects the views of a diverse group of stakeholders convened to explore the concept of "food literacy" as it relates to children's health. Evidence-based conceptions of food literacy are needed in light of the term's popularity in health promotion and educational interventions designed to increase food skills and knowledge that contribute to overall health. Informed by a comprehensive scoping review that identified seven main themes of food literacy, meeting participants ranked those themes in terms of importance. Read More

    Zoning out methadone and rising opioid-related deaths in Ontario: Reforms and municipal government actions.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Jun 16;108(2):e205-e207. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto; Affiliate Scientist, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON.
    In this commentary, we argue that the use of amendments to bylaws by Ontario cities and municipalities to restrict where and how methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics and pharmacies operate may run counter to efforts to prevent record high rates of opioid-related overdoses. As the province of Ontario seeks to reform the opioid treatment system, it is crucial to understand the structural (e.g. Read More

    A surgical intervention for the body politic: Generation Squeeze applies the Advocacy Coalition Framework to social determinants of health knowledge translation.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Jun 16;108(2):e199-e204. Epub 2017 Jun 16.
    Founder, Generation Squeeze; Associate Professor, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
    Setting: The World Health Organization Commission on the Social Determinants of Health (SDoH) observes that building political will is central to all its recommendations, because governments respond to those who organize and show up. Since younger Canadians are less likely to vote or to organize in between elections, they are less effective at building political will than their older counterparts. This results in an age gap between SDoH research and government budget priorities. Read More

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