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    Pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention in East and Southern Africa.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e643-e645. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, QC.
    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has proven to be highly effective in preventing HIV in uninfected persons when properly adhered to. East and Southern African countries that suffer from high HIV prevalence and incidence are increasingly adopting PrEP as an HIV prevention strategy for their high-risk populations, including for young women. Structural factors such as poverty, lack of education, and gender-based violence may compromise their PrEP uptake and adherence, however. Read More

    Caring for seniors living with dementia means caring for their caregivers too.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):639-642. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Research Centre of the CHU of Quebec, Quebec City, QC; Quebec Excellence Centre on Aging, St. Sacrement Hospital, Quebec City, QC; Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC.
    To improve the care of seniors living with dementia, current initiatives typically target better identification and treatment of the patient. Our recent survey, however, shows we should also focus more on the needs of the informal caregivers who care for this population in primary care settings. This three-round Delphi survey sought caregivers' views on the most frequent and difficult decisions that seniors with dementia, their informal caregivers, and health care providers face in primary care settings in the province of Quebec. Read More

    An exploration of citizen science for population health research in retail food environments.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e636-e638. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Division of Community Health and Humanities, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.
    Public engagement is an essential component of public health research, practice, knowledge exchange processes, and decision making. Citizen science was first documented in the early 1900s as an approach to public engagement and there is growing interest in how it can be used in health research. This commentary describes how citizen science approaches were incorporated into a public engagement activity as part of a population health intervention research project on the retail food environment, a workshop we hosted called The Food In This Place in St. Read More

    And if there were another way out? Questioning the prevalent radicalization models.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e633-e635. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Division of Social and Cultural Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC.
    Violent radicalization is increasingly conceptualized as a public health issue, associated with psychological distress, a sharp increase in discrimination and profiling, and an increase in hate crime and some types of terrorist acts.This brief paper addresses the limitations of the current conceptual models of violent radicalization. Beyond understanding the path leading from radicalization of opinion to violent radicalization, it proposes to consider the non-violent outcomes of radicalization of opinions in the current social context and to study these outcomes in multiple settings for both minorities and majorities. Read More

    A response to "A critical analysis of obesity prevention policies and strategies".
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e630-e632. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS.
    This commentary provides a response to the article "A critical analysis of obesity prevention policies and strategies" from a feminist fat studies perspective. We argue that a fundamental disjuncture exists between the authors' desire to redress fat stigma, and their understanding of "obesity as disease", which inherently draws on a neoliberal, healthist paradigm of health and body weight that is at the root of fat stigma. Read More

    Stories of policy change: City of Hamilton's healthy food and beverage policy.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e625-e629. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Policy Analyst, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Setting: Municipal buildings and corporate events in the City of Hamilton, Ontario.

    Intervention: In 2011, the City of Hamilton adopted a healthy food and beverage policy. The intent of the policy is to demonstrate the City's commitment to healthy eating by providing food and beverages that are healthy, safe, and free of industrially produced trans fats, and promoting a sustainable, local food system. Read More

    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e621-e624. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Professeure agrégée de clinique à l'École de santé publique de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec).
    Un Centre de services sociaux et de santé (CSSS) de Montréal a mis en place une communauté d'apprentissage des formateurs suite à la visite d'agrément relié à l'obtention de la certification Initiative Amis des bébés. Les évaluatrices de ce programme de qualité de soins avaient noté que les parents retenaient peu l'information transmise lors des rencontres prénatales. L'article décrit le dispositif de développement professionnel établi auprès de l'équipe de périnatalité qui cherchait à améliorer ses pratiques d'enseignement. Read More

    Opioid use in pregnancy and parenting: An Indigenous-based, collaborative framework for Northwestern Ontario.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e616-e620. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Thunder Bay, ON; Thunder Bay Regional Health Research Institute, Thunder Bay, ON; University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.
    Opioid use affects up to 30% of pregnancies in Northwestern Ontario. Health care providers in Northwestern Ontario have varying comfort levels providing care to substance-involved pregnant women. Furthermore, health care practitioners, social service agencies and community groups in Northwestern Ontario often work in isolation with little multidisciplinary communication and collaboration. Read More

    Impact of the decision-making environment on policy responses to road worker fatality in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e609-e615. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Sociology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objectives: Fatal accidents often lead to policy changes. However, the existing decision-making environment is critical to policy responses. This study compares the policy responses to similar events in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. Read More

    A critical analysis of obesity prevention policies and strategies.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e598-e608. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Objectives: Public health policies have been criticized for promoting a simplistic narrative that may contribute to weight bias. Weight bias can impact population health by increasing morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to: 1) critically analyze Canadian obesity prevention policies and strategies to identify underlying dominant narratives; 2) deconstruct dominant narratives and consider the unintended consequences for people with obesity; and 3) make recommendations to change dominant obesity narratives that may be contributing to weight bias. Read More

    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e586-e597. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Programme en Nutrition et Santé Transnationales, Intercontinentales, et au Canada (PRONUSTIC), Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec); Institut de Recherche en Santé Publique de l'Université de Montréal (IRSPUM), Montréal (Québec).
    Objectifs: Évaluer le rôle des commodités familiales dans l'occurrence de la diarrhée chez les enfants de moins de 5 ans en Haïti, selon leur type (eau potable, toilettes et réfrigérateur) et leur nombre.MÉTHODE : Nous avons mis en commun les données de quatre Enquêtes démographiques et de santé réalisées en Haïti entre 1994-1995 et 2012. Nous avons retenu un échantillon de 14 481 enfants de 1-59 mois. Read More

    Child development in rural Ghana: Associations between cognitive/language milestones and indicators of nutrition and stimulation of children under two years of age.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e578-e585. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC (at time of study; currently a PhD candidate, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC).
    Objectives: Two studies aimed to assess the provision of nutrition and psychosocial stimulation in the home and to examine associations between mental development and nutrition and stimulation using a validated measure of development milestones.

    Methods: The first study consisted of secondary analyses on health and nutrition data from 1081 mother-child pairs (the children aged 0-12 months) and their households in Ghana's Eastern Region. For the second study, the Ghana Milestones Measure, consisting of items assessing cognitive and language development, was used to assess child development in a subsample (N = 330) of Study 1 participants one year later (children 10-24 months of age). Read More

    Factors associated with shorter night-time sleep in toddlers: The Survey of Young Canadians.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e571-e577. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Kinesiology and Health Science, York University, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: Adequate sleep in childhood is important for healthy development. No information exists on the predictors of night-time sleep among toddlers in Canada. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and to identify factors associated with sleeping <11 consecutive hours per night among children aged 1-2 years in Canada. Read More

    Slim cigarette smoking prevalence among Canadian youth smokers: Implications for federal standardized packaging legislation.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e565-e570. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Planning, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON; Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON.
    Objectives: Tobacco companies market to females and young people through slim cigarette design features and packaging. This study assessed the prevalence and perceptions of slim cigarette smoking in grades 9-12 student smokers across Canada using multiple data sources.

    Methods: Data from three cycles of the Youth Smoking Survey (2008/2009 to 2012/2013) and one cycle of the Cancer Risk Assessment in Youth Survey (2015) were used. Read More

    Geographic variation and factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence in Manitoba.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e558-e564. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Hematology and Oncology, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objectives: Although individuals living in areas with lower household income have been shown to have higher rates of mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC), findings on the effect of income on CRC incidence in countries with universal health care have been inconsistent. There are limited data from Canada. We investigated the geographic variation and factors associated with CRC incidence in Manitoba, a central Canadian province. Read More

    Active living in Saskatchewan: A review of official community plans.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e551-e557. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK.
    Objective: Municipal policies may have a significant impact on the development of environments that provide sustainable opportunities for individuals to engage in healthy, active lifestyles. Little is known about how explicitly community planning in Canada integrates strategies to promote physical activity. In the context of Active Saskatchewan 2020 (AS2020), the strategic plan of Saskatchewan in motion, such an analysis would create a basis for identifying policy gaps and ongoing monitoring. Read More

    Does socio-economic status or having a chronic condition affect whether family physicians accept a new patient? A Nova Scotia population study.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e546-e550. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Family Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS.
    Objectives: To determine whether socio-economic status (SES) and presence of a chronic condition are associated with the response a prospective patient receives when seeking a family physician (FP).

    Methods: Scripted telephone calls (indicating higher or lower SES and presence or absence of a chronic condition) were made to all 327 FP offices in Nova Scotia (NS) requesting an appointment. The main outcome measures were the responses to callers seeking a FP: being accepted for an appointment or being offered further assistance if not accepted (e. Read More

    The impact of false positive breast cancer screening mammograms on screening retention: A retrospective population cohort study in Alberta, Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e539-e545. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Objectives: The impact of false positives on breast cancer screening retention is inconsistent across international studies. We investigate factors associated with screening retention, including false positive screening results, invasiveness of diagnostic procedures, and geographic variation in Alberta, Canada.

    Methods: A total of 213 867 women aged 50-67 years who had an index screen mammogram between July 2006 and June 2008 were evaluated at 30 months post index screen to determine the screening retention rate. Read More

    Validating an administrative data-based case definition for identifying children and youth with autism spectrum disorder for surveillance purposes.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e530-e538. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Public Health Sciences, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
    Objectives: To evaluate the sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of administrative health and education data for identifying cases of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Manitoba, and to recommend a surveillance case definition.

    Methods: Four service providers abstracted information on children who had been clinically diagnosed with ASD ("sensitivity cohort"). That information was linked to Manitoba's administrative health and education data and records were extracted into the study dataset. Read More

    Proximity to two main sources of industrial outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for childhood asthma in Edmonton, Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e523-e529. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB; Department of Public Health, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Objective: Children are recognized to be more susceptible than healthy adults to the effects of air pollution; however, relatively few Canadian studies of children have focused on industrial emissions. We conducted a spatial cross-sectional study to explore associations between emergency department (ED) visits for childhood asthma and residential proximity to two industrial sources of air pollution (coal-fired power plant and petrochemical industry) in Edmonton, Canada.

    Methods: Using administrative health care data for Alberta between 2004 and 2010, we conducted a spatial analysis of disease clusters of count data around these two industrial sources. Read More

    Prevalence of problematic cannabis use in Canada: Cross-sectional findings from the 2013 Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e516-e522. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Public Health & Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON.
    Objectives: Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in Canada. There exist a variety of tools to measure problematic characteristics of cannabis use; however, there is no consensus on the operational definition of "problematic use". The current study sought to estimate the prevalence of problematic cannabis use in Canada, in terms of the kinds of problems Canadians report due to their cannabis use, the levels of harm associated with cannabis consumption, and potential differences among socio-demographic groups. Read More

    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e510-e515. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Département de sociologie, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec); Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LEST, Aix-en-Provence, France.
    Objectif: Examiner le lien entre les conditions de travail et la santé mentale des travailleurs-euses de la restauration.MÉTHODE : L'échantillon se compose de 652 travailleurs-euses de la restauration issus de l'ESCC-SM de 2012. Des analyses de régression linéaire hiérarchique sont effectuées et ajustées en fonction de divers facteurs sélectionnés (sociodémographiques, habitudes de vie). Read More

    Socio-economic inequalities in exposure to industrial air pollution emissions in Quebec public schools.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e503-e509. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC.
    Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationships between deprivation at Quebec public schools, their proximity to polluting industries, and their exposure to industrial air emission sources including ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

    Methods: We obtained four indicators of school deprivation using data from the 2006 Canadian census called the low-income threshold indicator, the neighbourhood SES indicator, and the social and material deprivation indicators of Pampalon. Read More

    Difficulty buying food, BMI, and eating habits in young children.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e497-e502. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Division of Academic General Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY.
    Objectives: To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Read More

    Alcohol distribution reforms and school proximity to liquor sales outlets in New Brunswick.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e488-e496. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Institute for Circumpolar Health Studies, University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, USA; Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Victoria, BC.
    Objectives: The purpose of this project was to evaluate how changes to the sale of alcohol in New Brunswick would be distributed across urban and rural communities, and low- and high-income neighbourhoods. The study objectives were to 1) estimate the population living close to alcohol outlets before and after liquor distribution reforms, 2) identify communities or regions that would be more or less affected, and 3) determine whether expanding access to alcohol products would reduce school proximity to retailers.

    Methods: Data from Statistics Canada, Desktop Mapping Technologies Inc. Read More

    Racial discrimination and depression among on-reserve First Nations people in rural Saskatchewan.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e482-e487. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
    Objectives: To determine among rural-dwelling on-reserve Saskatchewan First Nations people whether racial discrimination is associated with depression, and in turn, if this relationship is moderated by gender.

    Methods: As a component of a community-based participatory research project, a cross-sectional, interviewer-administered survey of 874 adults living on 2 Cree First Nation reserves in rural north-central Saskatchewan was conducted during May-August in 2012 and 2013. Self-reported, health-provider diagnosis of depression was the dependent variable and experiences of interpersonal racial discrimination was the primary exposure. Read More

    Cybervictimization among preadolescents in a community-based sample in Canada: Prevalence and predictors.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e475-e481. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK.
    Objectives: To examine the prevalence and predictors associated with cybervictimization among preadolescents in a community-based sample from Canada.

    Methods: Data were drawn from a cohort of 5783 students of grades 5-8, aged 9-14 from 109 elementary schools at the Saskatoon Health Region, Saskatchewan of Canada based on the Student Health Survey in the year of 2010-2011. Multivariate logistic regression with the generalized estimating equation was used to determine the individual and contextual factors associated with self-reported cybervictimization. Read More

    Cyberbullying victimization and its association with health across the life course: A Canadian population study.
    Can J Public Health 2018 Jan 22;108(5-6):e468-e474. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neuroscience, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.
    Objectives: To examine the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization (CV), its associations with self-reported health and substance use and the extent to which age moderates these associations.

    Methods: We used the 2014 Canadian General Social Survey on Victimization (N = 31 907, mean age = 45.83, SD = 18. Read More

    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e452-e454. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Département de médicine sociale et préventive, École de santé publique (ÉSPUM), Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec); Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montréal (Québec).
     L'étude des conséquences de la mondialisation sur la santé des populations est au coeur de la santé mondiale. Ce faisant, la mondialisation conditionne également la mise en oeuvre des projets de recherche et des interventions en santé mondiale, et les rapports sociaux inégalitaires qui s'y perpétuent. Le présent commentaire propose des réflexions sur des défis épistémologiques et politiques auxquels se confronte la santé mondiale. Read More

    Adapting maternal health practice to co-morbidities and social inequality: A systematic approach.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e448-e451. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Senior Research Scientist & Adjunct Associate Professor, Ramalingaswami Centre on Equity and Social Determinants of Health, Public Health Foundation of India, Bangalore, India.
    The process of adapting universal guidelines to local institutional and cultural settings is recognized as important to their implementation and uptake. However, clarity on what, why and how to adapt in an evidence-based manner is still somewhat elusive. Health providers in low and middle income country contexts often have to deal with widely present co-morbidities and social inequalities among pregnant women. Read More

    "It makes us really look inferior to outsiders": Coping with psychosocial experiences associated with the lack of access to safe water and sanitation.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e442-e447. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON.
    Objective: This paper explores daily experiences and coping resources related to the lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya.

    Methods: A qualitative approach that involved 10 focus group discussions and 9 key informant interviews with community leaders, volunteers and professionals was used to explore the research objectives. Data were collected from June to August 2013. Read More

    Impacts of the Interim Federal Health Program reforms: A stakeholder analysis of barriers to health care access and provision for refugees.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e435-e441. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Health Policy PhD Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON; Global Health, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON.
    Background: Changes to the Interim Federal Health Program (IFHP) in 2012 reduced health care access for refugees and refugee claimants, generating concerns among key stakeholders. In 2014, a new IFHP temporarily reinstated access to some health services; however, little is known about these changes, and more information is needed to map the IFHP's impact.

    Objective: This study explores barriers occurring during the time period of the IFHP reforms to health care access and provision for refugees. Read More

    Enhancing the capacity and effectiveness of community health volunteers to improve maternal, newborn and child health: Experience from Kenya.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e427-e434. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Centre for Global Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB; Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB.
    Objective: To determine whether a simple monitoring and tracking tool, Mwanzo Mwema Monitoring and Tracking Tool (MMATT), would enable community health volunteers (CHVs) in Kenya to 1) plan their workloads and activities, 2) identify the women, newborns and children most in need of accessing critical maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) interventions and 3) improve key MNCH indicators.

    Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Household surveys at baseline (n = 912) and endline (n = 1143) collected data on key MNCH indicators in the four subcounties of Taita Taveta County, Kenya. Read More

    Weighing in on Canadian school-based vision screening: A call for action.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e421-e426. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL.
    Vision-screening programs are designed to detect common causes of visual impairment and increase the likelihood of early diagnosis and treatment. In the health authority Eastern Health - Newfoundland and Labrador, public health leaders raised a concern about the efficiency and effectiveness of the current non-routine, opportunistic vision screening protocol for school-aged children. An environmental scan of screening practices and programs across Canada was conducted, yielding a wide range of inconsistencies with respect to program type, target population, and screening tools. Read More

    Canadian pharmacists as immunizers: Addressing questions related to this new scope of practice.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e418-e420. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Assistant Professor, School of Pharmacy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON.
    Currently, pharmacists in nine Canadian provinces can apply for authorization to administer drugs and vaccines by injection following the successful completion of a required training program and with evidence of certification in first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. As more provinces and pharmacists embrace this new scope, questions are being raised about their readiness and ability to provide this public health service. This commentary addresses a number of questions commonly raised about pharmacists as immunizers, taking the position that pharmacists are able and willing to play a larger role in vaccination programs. Read More

    Ethical challenges in FASD prevention: Scientific uncertainty, stigma, and respect for women's autonomy.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e414-e417. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Neuroethics Research Unit, Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, Montréal, QC.
    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading form of neurodevelopmental delay in Canada, affecting an estimated 3000 babies per year. FASD involves a range of disabilities that entail significant costs to affected individuals, families, and society. Exposure to alcohol in utero is a necessary factor for FASD development, and this has led to FASD being described as "completely preventable". Read More

    Policy recommendations for front-of-package, shelf, and menu labelling in Canada: Moving towards consensus.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e409-e413. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.
    Greater availability of low nutritional quality foods and decreased consumption of nutrient-dense foods have negatively impacted the nutrient profile of the Canadian diet. Poor diet is now the leading risk factor for chronic disease and premature death in Canada. To help consumers choose healthful foods, nutrition labelling is one policy tool for communicating relevant nutrition information. Read More

    A strategic approach to workforce development for local public health.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e403-e408. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Manager, Education and Research, Peel Public Health, Mississauga, ON.
    Setting: In 2009, Peel Public Health set a vision to transform the work of public health from efficient delivery of public health services as defined by provincial mandate to the robust analysis of the health status of the local population and selection and implementation of programming to achieve best health outcomes. A strategic approach to the workforce was a key enabler. PPH is a public health unit in Ontario that serves 1. Read More

    Alberta's provincial take-home naloxone program: A multi-sectoral and multi-jurisdictional response to overdose.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e398-e402. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    University of Alberta and Alberta Health Services.
    Setting: Alberta is a prairie province located in western Canada, with a population of approximately 4.3 million. In 2016, 363 Albertans died from apparent drug overdoses related to fentanyl, an opioid 50-100 times more toxic than morphine. Read More

    Preconception health interventions delivered in public health and community settings: A systematic review.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e388-e397. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Interdisciplinary Centre for Health & Society, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, ON; Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, ON.
    Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effects of preconception health interventions, delivered to individuals of reproductive age in public health and community settings, on reproductive, maternal, and child health outcomes.

    Methods: A search of Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Scopus, Gender Studies Database, and SocINDEX from July 1999 through July 2016 was performed. We included studies that reported original data, used an interventional study design, included reproductive-aged women or men, were written in English, and were published in peer-reviewed journals. Read More

    Comparing "insider" and "outsider" news coverage of the 2014 Ebola outbreak.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e381-e387. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Department of Sociology and Social Anthropology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS; Faculty of Pharmacy, Université Laval, Quebec, QC; Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Quebec - Université Laval Research Centre, Quebec, QC.
    Objectives: Information provided by news media during an infectious disease outbreak can affect the actions taken to safeguard public health. There has been little evaluation of how the content of news published during an outbreak varies by location of the news outlet. This study analyzes coverage of the 2014 Ebola outbreak by one news outlet operating within a country affected by the outbreak and one country not directly affected. Read More

    Incidence of lower limb amputation in Canada.
    Can J Public Health 2017 Nov 9;108(4):e374-e380. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
    Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.
    Objectives: To determine the Canadian age-adjusted incidence rates of lower limb amputation (LLA) by province, sex, level, and cause of amputation.

    Methods: Data on all hospital discharges associated with LLA from April 1, 2006, to March 31, 2012, were obtained from the Canadian Institute for Health Information's Discharge Abstract Database. National and provincial age-adjusted rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals by sex, level, and cause of LLA using the direct method of standardization. Read More

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