The present article includes a video designed to show the reader/viewer how to obtain a better lip roll in primary and secondary cleft lips as well as in traumatic cleft lips. The key is to not damage the delicate glands and fat in the lip roll. The actual surgery demonstrated in the video is a cleft lip redo with an effaced lip roll. Read More
A case involving a retired, elderly male war veteran with a symptomatic peroneus brevis muscle hernia causing superficial peroneal nerve compression with chosen surgical management is presented. Symptomatic muscle hernias of the extremities occur most commonly in the leg and are a rare cause of chronic leg pain. Historically, treating military surgeons pioneered the early documentation of leg hernias observed in active military recruits. Read More
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a great masquerader in wound diagnosis and management. Frequently misdiagnosed as a necrotizing infection, the elusive nature of its etiology and pathogenesis has thwarted the establishment of a standardized management algorithm, leaving immunosuppressant therapies as the mainstay of treatment. The present report describes a 61-year-old woman presenting with temporally discrete bilateral dorsal hand lesions successfully managed with distinctive multimodality therapies. Read More
Background: Changes in sleep architecture are common phenomena observed in post-traumatic patients; such altered sleeping patterns have negative implications on various phases of rehabilitation. Sleep is an essential process, without which one cannot function effectively and, hence, any aberrations in the quality of sleep in such patients need to be critically analyzed.
Objective: To probe the quality of sleep in postburn patients at one year compared with a group of adequately matched controls. Read More
The Roth | McFarlane Hand and Upper Limb Centre, University of Western Ontario, St Joseph's Health Centre, London, Ontario; ; Departments of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, St Joseph's Health Centre, London, Ontario; ; Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, St Joseph's Health Centre, London, Ontario.
Purpose: To examine treatment trends and costs associated with Dupuytren's disease (DD) in Canada.
Methods: Data regarding fasciectomies, fasciotomies and digit amputations performed for DD from 2005 to 2010 were extracted from the Canadian Institute for Health Information database. The data were analyzed according to year, sex and five-year age groups. Read More
Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures in plastic surgery. Occasionally, there are findings reported by pathologists that are unfamiliar to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present study was to determine the types of pathologies encountered in reduction mammoplasty specimens. Read More
Recent experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the negative effects of nicotine on the viability of skin flaps. Necrotic damage to skin flaps can result in significant complications including delayed wound healing, dehiscence and wound contraction. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, such as sildenafil citrate, have a protective effect in ischemic injuries of the brain, kidney, myocardium, spinal cord, ileum and testes. Read More
Background: Socialized health systems face fiscal constraints due to a limited supply of resources and few reliable ways to control patient demand. Some form of prioritization must occur as to what services to offer and which programs to fund. A data-driven approach to decision making that incorporates outcomes, including safety and quality, in the setting of fiscal prudence is required. Read More
The present article chronicles the career of Dr Albert Ross Tilley, one of the most important Canadian plastic surgeons of the 20th century. Tilley is most well known for his innovations of burn management during World War II and his treatment of a group of burn patients known affectionately as the 'Guinea Pig Club'. In addition to the superb surgical skills he applied to the physical wounds of his patients, Tilley was also a pioneer of caring for the emotional and psychological afflictions suffered by many airmen of World War II. Read More
Abdominal-based autologous free tissue breast reconstruction has undergone significant changes over the past decade. The evolution has focused on limiting morbidity of the donor site. The transition from the transverse rectus abdominus muscle free flap to the muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominus muscle free flap to the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator free flap has markedly improved abdominal-based autologous breast reconstruction. Read More
Implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is the subject of much debate in the field of plastic surgery. Only a few published cases have been reported and the rarity of the disease may make proving causality exceedingly difficult. Despite this, it is of utmost importance that full attention be devoted to this subject to ensure the safety and well-being of patients. Read More
Acral myxoinflammatory fibroplastic sarcoma is an extremely rare soft-tissue sarcoma. It typically presents as an inflammatory mass in the distal extremities of adult patients. The authors present a review of the available literature as well as a discussion on the surgical management of a patient with acral myxoinflammatory fibroplastic sarcoma who originally requested conservative management but ultimately required a two-digit ray amputation after local recurrence. Read More
Background: Keloids may complicate wound healing secondary to trauma, inflammation or surgical incision. Although various treatment modalities have been used with variable degrees of success, overall recurrence rates have remained unacceptably high.
Methods: The present study involved 80 patients with keloids of at least one-years' duration. Read More
Background: Postoperative management of patients after modified radical mastectomy has evolved over the past decades. In the early postoperative period, wound complication rates were reported to be as high as 60%. Flap necrosis after modified radical mastectomy is a common problem encountered by surgeons. Read More
Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common hospital-associated infection and can result in increased health care costs, morbidity and even mortality. In 2009, The Scott & White Memorial Hospital/Texas A&M Health Science Center (Texas, USA) system's CAUTI rate placed it in the upper quartile (ie, highest rate) for the country, necessitating a system-wide change.
Objective: To design and implement a guideline to reduce the incidence of CAUTI. Read More
Background: The potential ramifications of radiation use can be of particular concern in the breast reconstruction population, in which both surgical and aesthetic outcomes are important. Presently, there remains a paucity of data detailing the influence of radiation on specific reconstruction aesthetic outcomes.
Objective: To conduct a quantitative evaluation of aesthetic outcomes for expander-implant breast reconstruction in radiated and nonradiated patients using a validated scoring scale. Read More
Creation of an aesthetically pleasing nipple plays a significant role in breast reconstruction as a determining factor in patient satisfaction. The goals for nipple reconstruction include minimal donor site morbidity and appropriate, long-lasting projection. Currently, the most popular techniques used are associated with a significant loss of projection postoperatively. Read More
Background: Reconstruction of extensive lower lip defects is difficult. The authors describe a new technique of one-stage total lower lip reconstruction, with the ultimate goal being achievement of the delicate balance between adequate mouth opening and competent mouth closure, with satisfactory aesthetic outcome.
Methods: The authors applied their new reconstructive technique in a patient with extensive lower lip defect following excision of squamous cell carcinoma. Read More
The palmaris longus, a slender fusiform muscle, is especially prone to exhibiting anatomical variance relative to other muscles in the upper extremity. The most frequent anatomical variation is the completely absent palmaris longus, followed by the reversed, duplicated, bifid or hypertrophied palmaris longus muscles. The reversed palmaris longus muscle represents a structure that is tendinous proximally and muscular distally (opposite of the normal palmaris longus). Read More
Background/objective: Bupivacaine and lidocaine are often used concurrently, in theory, to combine the more rapid onset of lidocaine and the longer duration of bupivacaine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this concept.
Methods: Twenty-five subjects were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized block design study to evaluate the onset and duration of four different mixtures of lidocaine and bupivacaine with epinephrine. Read More
Background: Submucous cleft palate is characterized by muscular diastasis of the velum in the presence of intact mucosa with variable combinations of bifid uvula and hard palatal defect. Submucous cleft palate is indicated as a separate entity in most previous classifications but it has never been properly classified on an anatomical basis.
Objectives: To revise the Smith-modified Kernahan 'Y' classification of cleft lip and palate deformities, and to describe the different anatomical subtypes of submucous cleft palate. Read More
Background: Flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy constitutes a vexing and grievous complication to the patient and the surgeon. Treatment modalities that can expedite wound healing and re-epithelialization rates are highly desired.
Objectives: To assess wound healing and re-epithelialization rates of open wounds following postrhytidectomy flap necrosis treated with commercially available charged polystyrene microspheres (Polyheal-1, Polyheal Ltd, Israel). Read More
Background: Symptomatic mammary hypertrophy impacts physical function and patient quality of life. Breast reduction mammoplasty, a surgical procedure performed to reduce breast size, has been used for many years to reduce these symptoms.
Objective: To evaluate variations in the surgical practice of breast reduction mammoplasty among women ≥15 years of age (approximately 6. Read More
Background: There is a lack of literature examining the dosimetric implications of irradiating breast implants and expanders with internal ports inserted at the time of mastectomy.
Objective: To determine whether the presence of breast expanders with port in saline or silicone implants affect the dose uniformity across the breast when irradiated with various photon and electron energies.
Methods: One tissue-equivalent torso phantom with overlying tissue expanders in saline or silicone implants were irradiated using tangential fields with 6 MV and 18 MV photons and 9 MeV and 12 MeV electrons. Read More
Background: In a socialized medicine model, prioritization of referrals for specialist consultation is highly important in the distribution of heath care. For high-burden diseases, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the factors that influence prioritization are not well understood.
Objective: To determine the factors that influence the prioritization of referrals for CTS consultation by plastic surgeons in Canada. Read More
Women with hypertrophic breasts often experience body pain and posture problems, which tend to be reduced or even eliminated after reduction mammoplasty. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of reduction mammoplasty on anthropometric variables, body posture and pain in women with breast hypertrophy. Eleven women (mean [± SD] age 31. Read More
Objective: To examine treatment indications, efficacy and side effects of oral beta-blockers for the treatment of problematic hemangiomas.
Methods: A retrospective review of patients with hemangiomas presenting to the Alberta Children's Hospital Vascular Birthmark Clinic (Calgary, Alberta) between 2009 and 2011 was conducted. The subset of patients treated with oral beta-blockers was further characterized, investigating indication for treatment, response to treatment, time to resolution of indication, duration of treatment, occurrence of rebound growth and side effects of therapy. Read More
Background/objective: Few options, apart from the buttock area, are available for autologous breast reconstruction in thin teenagers. The aim of the present study was to objectively evaluate and compare donor-site morbidity of the inferior gluteal artery perforator (IGAP) flap with that of the previously described inferior gluteal musculocutaneous flap.
Method: A retrospective review of all IGAP flaps for breast reconstruction performed in teenagers between June 2006 and April 2011 at the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, was performed. Read More
Background: Sphincter pharyngoplasty has demonstrated time-tested results as a surgical treatment for velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI). However, controversy surrounding the contractility of the transposed muscles persists. Completely unaddressed in the literature is whether the dynamism of the sphincter affects speech outcomes. Read More
Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, Ontario ; Department of Surgery, Division of Plastic Surgery, Western University, London, Ontario ; Department of Medical Biophysics, Western University, London, Ontario.
There appears to be increased use of computed tomography angiography (CTA) in the preoperative planning of autologous perforator flap breast reconstruction. Despite the advantages of providing superior anatomical detail, concerns regarding cost and radiation exposure of this technique remain. In the current study, a paper-based survey was distributed to 44 plastic surgeons with a special interest in breast reconstruction at 19 different centres across Canada to collect their perspectives and practice characteristics with respect to the use of CTA as a preoperative imaging modality in breast reconstruction. Read More
There are currently numerous techniques described in the literature that attempt to optimize wound closure following a fasciotomy. However, primary closure of fasciotomy wounds continues to be difficult to accomplish successfully because of the underlying edema sustained from the compartment syndrome. The approach described in the present report is simple and physiologically sound, and addresses the underlying pathology. Read More
The present report describes the use of a nipple-sharing technique for nipple areolar reconstruction using a donor nipple that was initially grafted from the contralateral and healthy breast 12 years earlier. There are many different techniques available to reconstruct the nipple. Although nipple sharing is not feasible to use in all patients, when available, it is an ideal approach for matching the contralateral nipple in terms of shape, colour, texture and long-term projection. Read More
The authors describe the correlation between 3-Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and surgical findings in two patients who underwent multiple previous failed ulnar nerve surgeries. MRN correctly localized the site of the abnormality. Prospectively observed MRN findings of perineural fibrosis, ulnar nerve re-entrapment abnormalities, medial antebrachial cutaneous neuroma and additional median nerve entrapment were confirmed surgically. Read More
Background: Primary flexor tendon repair was first introduced in the 1960s. Since then, major advances in the understanding of flexor tendon anatomy and biology have led to improved outcomes following repair. Relative to the adult population, sparse knowledge exists as to which operative and postoperative treatments are most successful in children. Read More
Background: Ideal eyebrow aesthetics give a framework for brow rejuvenation and surgical procedures do not always provide satisfying results. Previous studies have shown elevation of the medial brow with aging; however, they failed to characterize overall shape changes.
Objective: To characterize changes in eyebrow slope with increasing age to better direct brow rejuvenation. Read More
Reduction mammoplasty is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons in Canada. The Wise and vertical scar techniques are two of the most commonly published and performed. Although the horizontal breast reduction is a less commonly used technique, it offers added benefits over other procedures. Read More
The transverse upper gracilis free flap is a well-described option for breast reconstruction. The technique is a secondary choice for autologous breast reconstruction because the abdomen remains the primary donor site for breast reconstruction. However, in appropriately selected patients, the authors believe that the transverse upper gracilis flap remains a reliable flap for breast reconstruction. Read More