117,665 results match your criteria Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology[Journal]


Cardiovascular disease risk in patients with hepatitis C infection: Results from two general population health surveys in Canada and the United States (2007-2017).

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208839. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. The objective of the present study is to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD in HCV- positive subjects and describe their profile of cardiometabolic risk markers compared to HCV-negative subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate 10-year CVD risk, calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), in participants from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; 2007-2015, n = 10,115) and the US-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2007-2016, n = 16,668). Read More

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December 2018
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Can patients be trained to expect shared decision making in clinical consultations? Feasibility study of a public library program to raise patient awareness.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(12):e0208449. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Tier 1 Canada Research Chair in Shared Decision Making and Knowledge Translation, Université Laval, Quebec City (QC, Canada).

Introduction: Shared decision making (SDM) is a process whereby decisions are made together by patients and/or families and clinicians. Nevertheless, few patients are aware of its proven benefits. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability and impact of an intervention to raise public awareness of SDM in public libraries. Read More

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December 2018

The Titration and Tolerability of Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients with Heart Failure in Clinical Practice.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Little is known about the dosing and tolerability of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696; Entresto™, Quebec, Canada) in a non-clinical trial population. This study was conducted to evaluate the use and tolerability of sacubitril/valsartan in patients followed at a multidisciplinary heart failure clinic. We performed a retrospective chart review of 126 patients with heart failure, initiated on sacubitril/valsartan, and seen at a specialty heart failure clinic between August 1, 2015 and August 1, 2017. Read More

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December 2018

Standards of Care for Hypoparathyroidism in Adults.

Eur J Endocrinol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

B Clarke, Medicine, Mayo Clinic School of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA, Rochester, United States.

Purpose: To provide practice recommendations for the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism in adults Methods: Key questions pertaining to the diagnosis and management of hypoparathyroidism were addressed following a literature review. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from January 2000 to March 2018 using keywords "hypoparathyroidism, diagnosis, treatment, calcium, PTH, calcidiol, calcitriol, hydrochlorothiazide and pregnancy". Only English language papers involving humans were included. Read More

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December 2018

Physiotherapy practice patterns in gait rehabilitation for adults with acquired brain injury.

Brain Inj 2018 Dec 12:1-16. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

a Department of Physical Therapy , University of Toronto , Toronto , Canada.

Objective: Gait dysfunction is common following acquired brain injury (ABI). Clinical practice guidelines can improve patient outcomes; however, information regarding ABI-specific management of gait dysfunction is limited. This study aimed to describe practice patterns of Canadian physiotherapists regarding gait rehabilitation in adults post-ABI. Read More

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December 2018

Screening, prevention and management of osteoporosis among Canadian adults.

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2018 Dec;38(12):445-454

Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: This study provides a benchmark for the nationwide use of osteoporosis screening, prevention and management strategies among Canadians aged 40 years and older (40+) using data collected one year prior to the release of Osteoporosis Canada's latest (2010) clinical practice guidelines.

Methods: Data are from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Osteoporosis Rapid Response Component. The study sample (n = 5704) was divided into four risk subgroups: (1) osteoporosis diagnosis and major fracture; (2) osteoporosis diagnosis only; (3) major fracture only; or (4) neither osteoporosis diagnosis nor major fracture. Read More

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December 2018

Obesity and healthy aging: social, functional and mental well-being among older Canadians.

Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2018 Dec;38(12):437-444

Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Canadians are living longer than before, and a large proportion of them are living with obesity. The present study sought to describe how older participants in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) who are living with obesity are aging, through an examination of measures of social, functional and mental well-being.

Methods: We used data from the first wave of the CLSA for people aged 55 to 85 years in this study. Read More

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December 2018
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Enterococci as a key parameter for water quality index: Purires River, Costa Rica.

J Water Health 2018 Dec;16(6):1007-1017

Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (INISA), Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060, San José, Costa Rica E-mail:

This study used the Canadian Water Quality Index (CWI) to characterize water sampled at three points within the Purires River micro basin, Costa Rica. The first sampling point is located in a high zone with domestic agricultural activities, the second point around the mid-point of the flow of the river, and the third point at the lowest zone with extensive agricultural activities mainly centered on the production of fresh vegetables. Eleven physicochemical parameters (As, Cd, Cr, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH, NO, Pb, pH, percent saturation of dissolved oxygen (PSO), and total suspended solids (TSS)) and two microbiological parameters (fecal coliforms and enterococci) were evaluated. Read More

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December 2018

Comparing Maternal Serum Screening Markers Among IVF and Spontaneous Conceptions in Ontario Through Registry Data.

J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2018 Dec 26;40(12):1608-1617. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

BORN (Better Outcomes Registry and Network) Ontario, Ottawa, ON; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON; OMNI Research Group, Ottawa, ON; CHEO (Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario) Research Institute, Ottawa, ON; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON.

Objective: The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to investigate the accuracy of IVF identification on the prenatal screening record from prenatal screening laboratories; (2) to compare the screening markers in IVF and non-IVF pregnancies in the population of Ontario; and (3) to propose more appropriate IVF adjustment factors for the Ontario population.

Methods: Two years of IVF treatment, data from all fertility clinics in Ontario were merged with the corresponding prenatal screening data from all five prenatal screening labs. New adjustment factors for IVF were developed for each maternal serum screening marker and nuchal translucency measurement. Read More

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December 2018

[Charlotte Tassé (1893-1974), a tireless promoter of the French-Canadian nurses model.]

Authors:
Alexandre Klein

Rech Soins Infirm 2018 09(134):78-93

A forgotten figure of the history of healthcare as well as Quebec's history, Charlotte Tassé (1893-1974) was a figurehead of the professionalization of Quebecoise nurses. This French-Canadian nurse established and ran two nursing schools, launched and directed a professional reference journal for thirty-five years, actively participated in the development of psychiatric nursing in Quebec, owned and managed one of the most important mental healthcare centers in the country, and also created a new class of nurses in Quebec: practical nurses. One of her main achievements was to establish and defend, with tenacity and persistence and through all her endeavors, a unique nursing model that was specific to Quebec: the French-Canadian nurses model. Read More

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September 2018

Special announcement: Guidelines to the Practice of Anesthesia-Revised Edition 2019.

Authors:
Gregory R Dobson

Can J Anaesth 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Committee on Standards, Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society, 1 Eglinton Avenue East, Suite 208, Toronto, ON, M4P 3A1, Canada.

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December 2018

Occupational Therapy's Unique Contribution to Chronic Pain Management: A Scoping Review.

Pain Res Manag 2018 12;2018:5378451. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Faculty of Medicine, School of Rehabilitation, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Occupational therapy (OT) makes a unique contribution to chronic pain (CP) management due to its overarching focus on occupation. The aim of this scoping review was to describe current knowledge about this contribution by documenting OT roles, models, assessments, and intervention methods used with adults living with CP. A systematic search exploring 10 databases and gray literature from 2006 to 2017 was conducted. Read More

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November 2018

The association between depression, anxiety and substance use among Canadian post-secondary students.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018 23;14:3241-3251. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

School of Public Health, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada,

Purpose: This study aims to examine the association between depression, anxiety and substance use among Canadian post-secondary students.

Methods: This study used data from the spring 2016, American College Health Association - National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) survey. It includes 43,780 college students from 41 Canadian post-secondary institutions. Read More

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November 2018

Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol produce dissociable effects on prefrontal cortical executive function and regulation of affective behaviors.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2018 Nov 27. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.

The use of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational purposes is growing exponentially. Nevertheless, substantial questions remain concerning the potential cognitive and affective side-effects associated with cannabis exposure. In particular, the effects of specific marijuana-derived phytocannabinoids on neural regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are of concern, given the role of the PFC in both executive cognitive function and affective processing. Read More

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November 2018

Embracing complexity and uncertainty to create impact: exploring the processes and transformative potential of co-produced research through development of a social impact model.

Health Res Policy Syst 2018 Dec 11;16(1):118. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, University Road, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, United Kingdom.

The potential use, influence and impact of health research is seldom fully realised. This stubborn problem has caused burgeoning global interest in research aiming to address the implementation 'gap' and factors inhibiting the uptake of scientific evidence. Scholars and practitioners have questioned the nature of evidence used and required for healthcare, highlighting the complex ways in which knowledge is formed, shared and modified in practice and policy. Read More

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December 2018

Are Traumatic Brain Injuries Associated With Criminality After Taking Account of Childhood Family Social Status and Disruptive Behaviors?

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Dec 12:appineuropsych18040094. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

From the Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (GIG, AP); the Centre de Recherche de l'Institut Universitaire de Santé Mentale de Montréal, Département de Psychiatrie et Addictologie, Université de Montréal (MPR, SH); the Groupe de Recherche sur l'Inadaptation Sociale, Montréal (FV, RET, SH); and the School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden (PL).

Objective:: The authors aimed to elucidate the links between traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and criminal convictions in a sample of 724 Canadian males with and without criminal records followed up to age 24.

Methods:: Prospectively collected data were analyzed to determine whether prior TBIs predicted subsequent criminal convictions after taking account of family social status (FSS) and childhood disruptive behaviors. At age 24, diagnoses of TBIs were extracted from health records and convictions from official criminal records. Read More

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December 2018
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Evaluation of the Measuring and Improving Quality in Palliative Care Survey.

J Oncol Pract 2018 Dec;14(12):e834-e843

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD; University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH; Duke Cancer Institute and Duke Fuqua School of Business, Duke University, Durham, NC; Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Health System, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles; Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; Temmy Latner Centre for Palliative Care, Sinai Health System; University of Toronto; and Institute for Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Purpose:: To evaluate the reliability, content validity, and variation among sites of a survey to assess facilitators and barriers to quality measurement and improvement in palliative care programs.

Methods:: We surveyed a sample of diverse US and Canadian palliative care programs and conducted postcompletion discussion groups. The survey included constructs addressing educational support and training, communication, teamwork, leadership, and prioritization for quality measurement and improvement. Read More

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December 2018

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations: Epidemiology and the impacts of kill-trapping.

Zoonoses Public Health 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative, Abbotsford, British Columbia, Canada.

Urban Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations can carry the bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are numerous knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of MRSA in these populations that limit understanding of its ecology in urban environments. For example, fecal shedding of MRSA, which may increase environmental contamination, has been reported in other species; however, it is unknown whether Norway rats carry the bacteria rectally. Read More

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December 2018

A Comparison of U.S. and Canadian Osteoporosis Screening and Treatment Strategies in Postmenopausal Women.

J Bone Miner Res 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

The optimal approach to osteoporosis screening and treatment in postmenopausal women is unclear. We compared 1) the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) and Osteoporosis Canada osteoporosis screening strategies; and 2) the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) and Canadian treatment strategies. We used data from the prospective Women's Health Initiative Observational Study and Clinical Trials of women aged 50-79 years at baseline (n = 117,707 followed for self-reported fractures; n = 8,134 in bone mineral density [BMD] subset). Read More

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December 2018

Commentary on Otten et al. (2019): moderators and person-environment interactions in developmental cascade models.

Addiction 2018 Dec 9. Epub 2018 Dec 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Addiction, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

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December 2018

Pain in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed acute leukemia.

Support Care Cancer 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Supportive Care, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, 610 University Ave., 16-712, Toronto, Ontario, M5G 2M9, Canada.

Purpose: Acute leukemia (AL) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. We assessed the prevalence and correlates of pain in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed AL.

Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed AL admitted to a comprehensive cancer center completed the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), which assesses prevalence, severity, and distress associated with pain and other symptoms. Read More

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December 2018

The Final Size of a Serious Epidemic.

Authors:
Fred Brauer

Bull Math Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

In an epidemic of a serious disease, there is likely to be behavioral response that decreases the epidemic size considerably, and taking this into account may lead to estimates of the final epidemic size that are much smaller and more realistic than estimates that do not take this into account. Read More

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December 2018

Preparing to migrate: expression of androgen signaling molecules and insulin-like growth factor-1 in skeletal muscles of Gambel's white-crowned sparrows.

J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Neurobiology Physiology Behavior, University of California, Davis, USA.

Migratory birds, including Gambel's white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys gambelii), exhibit profound modifications of skeletal muscles prior to migration, notably hypertrophy of the pectoralis muscle required for powered flight. Muscle growth may be influenced by anabolic effects of androgens; however, prior to spring departure, circulating androgens are low in sparrows. A seasonal increase in local androgen signaling may occur within muscle to promote remodeling. Read More

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December 2018

ARENA: Inter-modality affine registration using evolutionary strategy.

Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

PERFORM Centre, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Purpose: Image fusion of different imaging modalities renders valuable information to clinicians. In this paper, we proposed an automatic multimodal registration method to register intra-operative ultrasound images (US) to preoperative magnetic resonance images (MRI) in the context of image-guided neurosurgery.

Methods: We employed refined correlation ratio as a similarity metric for our intensity-based image registration method. Read More

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December 2018

External validation of a combined PET and MRI radiomics model for prediction of recurrence in cervical cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospital, Brest, France.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to validate previously developed radiomics models relying on just two radiomics features from F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images for prediction of disease free survival (DFS) and locoregional control (LRC) in locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC).

Methods: Patients with LACC receiving chemoradiotherapy were enrolled in two French and one Canadian center. Pre-treatment imaging was performed for each patient. Read More

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December 2018

The relationship between aerobic fitness and low-flow-mediated constriction in older adults.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Autonomic Cardiovascular Control and Exercise Laboratory, School of Health and Human Performance, Division of Kinesiology, Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, 6230 South Street, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2, Canada.

Purpose: Aerobic fitness is directly related to favorable vasodilatory (i.e., flow-mediated dilation; FMD) and vasoconstrictor functions (i. Read More

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December 2018

IBDoc Canadian User Performance Evaluation.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a stool biomarker that has been shown to be sensitive and specific for mucosal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The test is limited by the requirement for patients to collect and return stool samples. A home-based FC test may improve test adherence. Read More

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December 2018

Burden of Children Hospitalized With Pertussis in Canada in the Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Era, 1999-2015.

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Vaccine Evaluation Center, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Background: Recent increases in pertussis morbidity and mortality rates among young infants have led to a recommendation in some countries for vaccination against pertussis during pregnancy. Having data on the burden of pediatric pertussis in a large population over time is important for establishing the true burden of disease in the acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine era. Here, we describe age-specific epidemiology and morbidity and mortality rates in children hospitalized with pertussis over 17 years across Canada in the aP vaccine era. Read More

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December 2018

Automatic and semi-automatic assignment and fitting of spectra with PGOPHER.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.

Two new tools for computer assisted assignment of rotational spectra with the PGOPHER program are presented, aimed particularly at spectra where many individual lines are resolved. The first tool tries many different assignments, presenting a small number for possible refinement and a preliminary version of this has already been presented. The second tool, the nearest lines plot (a new style of residual plot) provides a clear indication as to whether a trial calculation is plausible, and allows rapid assignment of sets of related lines. Read More

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December 2018

Effect of β-lactam antibiotic resistance gene expression on the radio-resistance profile of O157:H7.

Heliyon 2018 Dec 1;4(12):e00999. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Research Laboratories in Sciences Applied to Food, Canadian Irradiation Center, INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier, Institute of Nutraceutical and Functional Foods, 531 Boulevard des Prairies, Laval, Québec, H7V 1B7, Canada.

Some pathogens might develop favorable global adaptation in response to certain stress treatments resulting in enhanced virulence and/or resistance to a different stress. β-lactam resistance, as well as and genes involved in this resistance, were studied to evaluate their possible role in O157:H7 () radioresistance. adapted to 25, 15 or 7 μg/mL of kanamycin or carbenicillin, were produced and treated with sensitization (0. Read More

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December 2018

Frailty significantly impairs the short term prognosis in elderly patients with heart failure.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2018 Nov;15(11):675-681

Cukurova University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Adana, Turkey.

Background: Frailty is a condition of elderly characterized by increased vulnerability to stressful events with high risk of adverse outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between frailty and adverse outcomes including death and hospitalization due to heart failure in elderly patients.

Methods: We included patients aged ≥ 65 years with the diagnosis of heart failure. Read More

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November 2018

Complete Genome Sequences of Canadian Epidemic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains CMRSA3 and CMRSA6.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2018 Aug 9;7(5). Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Centre for Antimicrobial Resistance, Alberta Health Services/Calgary Laboratory Services/University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 8 (CC8) sequence type 239 (ST239) represents a predominant hospital-associated MRSA sublineage present worldwide. The Canadian epidemic MRSA strains CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 are moderately virulent members of this group but are closely related to the highly virulent strain TW20. Whole-genome sequencing of CMRSA3 and CMRSA6 was conducted to identify genetic determinants associated with their virulence. Read More

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Saproxylic Diptera assemblages in a temperate deciduous forest: implications for community assembly.

PeerJ 2018 4;6:e6027. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, Canada.

Saproxylic insects, those associated directly or indirectly with decaying wood for all or part of their life cycle, compose a large proportion of forest organisms. Flies (Diptera) are often the most abundant and species-rich group of insects in forest microhabitats, yet most work to date on saproxylic insect diversity and ecology has focused on beetles (Coleoptera). We compared saproxylic Diptera assemblages reared from two tree species (sugar maple and American beech) at two stages of decay (early/young and advanced/old) for a total of 20 logs in an eastern Canadian Nearctic old-growth forest. Read More

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December 2018

Essentials of extracellular vesicles: posters on basic and clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles.

J Extracell Vesicles 2018 30;7(1):1548234. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary.

The past decade has witnessed an exponential development in the field of extracellular vesicles. Sporadic observations have reached a critical level and the scientific community increasingly recognizes the potential biomedical significance of these subcellular structures present in all body fluids as significant components of the cellular secretome. The Educational Committee of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles prepared two posters ("Basic aspects of extracellular vesicles" and "Clinical aspects of extracellular vesicles") to provide essential pieces of information on extracellular vesicles at glance for anyone not familiar with the field. Read More

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November 2018