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    667 results match your criteria Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology [Journal]

    1 OF 14

    Are fixations in static natural scenes a useful predictor of attention in the real world?
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):172-181
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.
    Research investigating scene perception normally involves laboratory experiments using static images. Much has been learned about how observers look at pictures of the real world and the attentional mechanisms underlying this behaviour. However, the use of static, isolated pictures as a proxy for studying everyday attention in real environments has led to the criticism that such experiments are artificial. Read More

    Lifespan changes in attention revisited: Everyday visual search.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):160-171
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.
    This study compared visual search under everyday conditions among participants across the life span (healthy participants in 4 groups, with average age of 6 years, 8 years, 22 years, and 75 years, and 1 group averaging 73 years with a history of falling). The task involved opening a door and stepping into a room find 1 of 4 everyday objects (apple, golf ball, coffee can, toy penguin) visible on shelves. The background for this study included 2 well-cited laboratory studies that pointed to different cognitive mechanisms underlying each end of the U-shaped pattern of visual search over the life span (Hommel et al. Read More

    Safe or out: Does the location of attention affect judgments at first base in baseball?
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):146-159
    Department of Psychology & Neuroscience, Dalhousie University.
    Titchener's law of prior entry states that attended stimuli are perceived before unattended stimuli. Prior entry effects measured with visual stimuli have been generated with both endogenous and exogenous attentional deployment (e.g. Read More

    Coordinating vision and action in natural behaviour: Differences in spatiotemporal coupling in everyday tasks.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):133-145
    School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen.
    Vision and action are tightly coupled in space and time: for many tasks we must look at the right place at the right time to gather the information that we need to complete our behavioural goals. Vision typically leads action by about 0.5 seconds in many natural tasks. Read More

    Wandering minds and wavering goals: Examining the relation between mind wandering and grit in everyday life and the classroom.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):120-132
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.
    Here we examined the relation between mind wandering and the personality trait of 'grit.' Our hypothesis was that because mind wandering leads to a disruption of momentary goal completion, the tendency to mind wander might be inversely related to the completion of long-term goals that require sustained interest and effort (i.e. Read More

    Talking is harder than listening: The time course of dual-task costs during naturalistic conversation.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):111-119
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University.
    Many studies have shown that the cognitive demands of language use are a substantial cause of central dual-task costs, including costs on concurrent driving performance. More recently, several studies have considered whether language production or comprehension is inherently more difficult with respect to costs on concurrent performance, with mixed results. This assessment is particularly difficult given the open question of how one should best equate and compare production and comprehension demands and performance. Read More

    The smartphone and the driver's cognitive workload: A comparison of Apple, Google, and Microsoft's intelligent personal assistants.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):93-110
    Department of Psychology, University of Utah.
    The goal of this research was to examine the impact of voice-based interactions using 3 different intelligent personal assistants (Apple's Siri, Google's Google Now for Android phones, and Microsoft's Cortana) on the cognitive workload of the driver. In 2 experiments using an instrumented vehicle on suburban roadways, we measured the cognitive workload of drivers when they used the voice-based features of each smartphone to place a call, select music, or send text messages. Cognitive workload was derived from primary task performance through video analysis, secondary-task performance using the Detection Response Task (DRT), and subjective mental workload. Read More

    Everyday attention.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Jun;71(2):89-92
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.
    Understanding the basic mechanisms underlying attentional function using naturalistic stimuli, tasks, and/or settings is the focus of everyday attention research. Interest in everyday approaches to attention research has increased recently-arguably riding a more general wave of support for such considerations in experimental psychology. This special issue of the Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology attempts to capture the emerging enthusiasm for studying everyday attention by bringing together work from a wide array of attentional domains (e. Read More

    How different cultures look at faces depends on the interpersonal context.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):258-264. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, University College London.
    Culture can influence how we see and experience the world, and recent research shows that it even determines how we look at each other. Yet, most of these laboratory studies use images of faces that are deprived of any social context. In the real world, we not only look at people's faces to perceive who they are, but also to signal information back to them. Read More

    Gaze behavior to faces during dyadic interaction.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):226-242. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Experimental Psychology, Helmholtz Institute, Utrecht University.
    A long-standing hypothesis is that humans have a bias for fixating the eye region in the faces of others. Most studies have tested this hypothesis with static images or videos of faces, yet recent studies suggest that the use of such "nonresponsive" stimuli might overlook an influence of social context. The present study addressed whether the bias for fixating the eye region in faces would persist in a situation that allowed for social interaction. Read More

    Spontaneous gaze selection and following during naturalistic social interactions in school-aged children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):243-257. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University.
    Using a novel naturalistic paradigm allowing participants the freedom to spontaneously select and follow gaze cues in their environment, this study extends previous research conducted with younger children to determine whether school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 17) demonstrate abnormal gaze following relative to typically developing (TD, n = 15) children. The participant and experimenter played a series of games, during which the experimenter pseudorandomly averted her gaze toward a social target (person) or a nonsocial target (object). A significant finding was that, relative to TD children, children with ASD were slower to follow the experimenter's gaze relative to the start of the trial (social targets d = -. Read More

    Chatting in the face of the eyewitness: The impact of extraneous cell-phone conversation on memory for a perpetrator.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):183-190. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Psychology, Université Laval.
    Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Read More

    Staring reality in the face: A comparison of social attention across laboratory and real world measures suggests little common ground.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):212-225. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Psychology, McGill University.
    The ability to attend to someone else's gaze is thought to represent one of the essential building blocks of the human sociocognitive system. This behavior, termed social attention, has traditionally been assessed using laboratory procedures in which participants' response time and/or accuracy performance indexes attentional function. Recently, a parallel body of emerging research has started to examine social attention during real life social interactions using naturalistic and observational methodologies. Read More

    Re-reading after mind wandering.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):203-211. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia.
    Though much research has been conducted on the causes and processes underlying mind wandering, relatively little has addressed what happens after an episode of mind wandering. We explore this issue in the context of reading. Specifically, by examining re-reading behaviours following mind wandering episodes. Read More

    Load theory behind the wheel; perceptual and cognitive load effects.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Sep 12;71(3):191-202. Epub 2017 Jun 12.
    School of Psychology, University College Dublin.
    Perceptual Load Theory has been proposed as a resolution to the longstanding early versus late selection debate in cognitive psychology. There is much evidence in support of Load Theory but very few applied studies, despite the potential for the model to shed light on everyday attention and distraction. Using a driving simulator, the effect of perceptual and cognitive load on drivers' visual search was assessed. Read More

    Cognitive Modeling as an Interface Between Brain and Behavior: Measuring the Semantic Decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is characterised by subjective and objective memory impairment in the absence of dementia. MCI is a strong predictor for the development of Alzheimer's disease, and may represent an early stage in the disease course in many cases. A standard task used in the diagnosis of MCI is verbal fluency, where participants produce as many items from a specific category (e. Read More

    Key-Finding by Artificial Neural Networks That Learn About Key Profiles.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 May 8. Epub 2017 May 8.
    We explore the ability of a very simple artificial neural network, a perceptron, to assert the musical key of novel stimuli. First, perceptrons are trained to associate standardized key profiles (taken from 1 of 3 different sources) to different musical keys. After training, we measured perceptron accuracy in asserting musical keys for 296 novel stimuli. Read More

    The Development of Haptic Processing Skills From Childhood to Adulthood by Means of Two-Dimensional Materials.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Apr 10. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
    Research into haptic perception has mostly focused on 3-dimensional objects, and more needs to be known about the processing of 2-dimensional materials (e.g., raised dots and lines and raised-line shapes, patterns and pictures). Read More

    Selection of Procedures in Mental Subtraction: Use of Eye Movements as a Window on Arithmetic Processing.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Adults who use mental procedures other than direct retrieval to solve simple arithmetic problems typically make more errors and respond more slowly than individuals who rely on retrieval. The present study examined how this extra time was distributed across problem components when adults (n = 40) solved small (e.g. Read More

    Underestimation in Linear Function Learning: Anchoring to Zero or X-Y Similarity?
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    Function learning research has shown that people tend to underestimate positive linear functions when extrapolating Y for X-values below the training range. Kwantes and Neal (2006) proposed that this underestimation occurs because people anchor their Y-estimates at zero. It is equally plausible, however, that people are biased to make Y-estimates similar to the presented X-value. Read More

    Are Lexical Factors Immune to Response Modality in Backward Recall? The Effects of Imageability and Word Frequency.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 23. Epub 2017 Mar 23.
    In immediate serial recall, it is well established that performance is influenced by lexical factors such as imageability and word frequency. However, when participants are asked to recall the to-be-remembered items in their reverse order, known as backward recall, lexical factors produced contradictory findings. In 4 experiments, we tested the role of response modality in modulating the effects of imageability and word frequency in backward recall. Read More

    Sliding into happiness: A new tool for measuring affective responses to words.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar;71(1):71-88
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster University.
    Reliable measurement of affective responses is critical for research into human emotion. Affective evaluation of words is most commonly gauged on multiple dimensions-including valence (positivity) and arousal-using a rating scale. Despite its popularity, this scale is open to criticism: It generates ordinal data that is often misinterpreted as interval, it does not provide the fine resolution that is essential by recent theoretical accounts of emotion, and its extremes may not be properly calibrated. Read More

    Training perceptual experts: Feedback, labels, and contrasts.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar;71(1):32-39
    School of Psychology, The University of Queensland.
    Are strategies for learning in education effective for learning in applied visual domains, such as fingerprint identification? We compare the effect of practice with immediate corrective feedback (feedback training), generating labels for features of matching and mismatching fingerprints (labels training), and contrasting matching and mismatching fingerprints (contrast training). We benchmark these strategies against a baseline of regular practice discriminating fingerprints. We found that all 3 training protocols-feedback, labels, and contrasts-resulted in a significantly greater ability to discriminate new pairs of prints (independent of response bias) than the baseline training protocol. Read More

    The Relationship Between Flash Based Illusory Line Motion and Exogenous Visual Attention.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    If a bar suddenly appears between 2 squares after 1 of the squares flashes the bar appears to shoot away from the flashed square toward the other. This occurs despite the bar actually having been presented all at once. This illusory motion is sufficiently strong to cancel real motion drawn in the opposite direction. Read More

    Étude des stratégies de raisonnement causal dans l'estimation de la probabilité diagnostique à travers un paradigme expérimental de production de règle.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    The objective of this research was to test for the existence of reasoning strategies in the estimation of the diagnostic probability: P(cause|effect). In two experiments, we show that estimation of this probability can be achieved by two paths that are formally distinct. The most intuitive approach (default strategy) consists in evaluating P(cause|effect) by means of retractable deduction type reasoning based on a retractable Modus Ponens (EFFECT; if EFFECT then CAUSE is probable; thus CAUSE is probable). Read More

    The Brain's Representations May Be Compatible With Convolution-Based Memory Models.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Feb 13. Epub 2017 Feb 13.
    Convolution is a mathematical operation used in vector-models of memory that have been successful in explaining a broad range of behaviour, including memory for associations between pairs of items, an important primitive of memory upon which a broad range of everyday memory behaviour depends. However, convolution models have trouble with naturalistic item representations, which are highly auto-correlated (as one finds, e.g. Read More

    Time-out for conflict monitoring theory: Preventing rhythmic biases eliminates the list-level proportion congruent effect.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 15;71(1):52-62. Epub 2016 Dec 15.
    Ghent University.
    The proportion congruent (PC) effect is the observation that congruency effects are smaller when most trials are incongruent rather than congruent. The list-level PC (LLPC) effect is the finding that a PC effect can transfer from biased inducer items to unbiased diagnostic items. Such effects are generally interpreted as resulting from conflict monitoring and attentional adaptation. Read More

    Comprendre le stade compensatoire de la maladie d'Alzheimer et agir pour promouvoir la cognition et la plasticité cérébrale.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Dec;70(4):288-294
    Centre de recherche de l'Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal et Université de Montréal.
    Alzheimer's disease begins with a phase of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), characterized by the presence of minor symptoms that have little or no impact on functional independence. The study of patients with MCI has led to spectacular advances in understanding the prodrome of the disease. It has also produced a typical cognitive profile: an impairment of episodic memory, especially delayed recall and associative memory, deficit in executive functions or working memory and certain semantic problems. Read More

    A career of harnessing group variability.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Dec;70(4):279-287
    Departments of Psychology and Medicine (Neurology, Rehabilitation Sciences), University of Toronto.
    Neuroscience research, particularly in brain-injured patients, is often hampered by the problems of variability of performance among the individuals included in what seems like a well-defined supposedly homogeneous group. This review presents examples from the author's research in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the effects of frontal lobe focal pathology to illustrate how variability was explored and "harnessed" to advance the understanding of specific brain-behaviour relations and the role of the frontal lobes in human behaviour. A final section summarizes how this approach informed the establishment of an administrative structure that integrates different types of information (genetic to behavioural) and basic and clinical science to improve diagnoses and care. Read More

    Using the locus-of-slack logic to determine whether inhibition of return in a cue-target paradigm is delaying early or late stages of processing.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 12;71(1):63-70. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Dalhousie University.
    Inhibition of return (IOR) is a phenomenon characterized by slower responses to targets at cued locations relative to those at uncued locations. Based on the results of previous research, it has been suggested that IOR affects a process at the input end of the processing continuum when it is generated while the reflexive oculomotor system is suppressed (cf. Satel, Hilchey, Wang, Story, & Klein, 2013). Read More

    Conflicting effects of context in change detection and visual search: A dual process account.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 12;71(1):40-51. Epub 2016 Dec 12.
    Department of Psychology, Neuroscience, & Behaviour, McMaster University.
    Congruent contexts often facilitate performance in visual search and categorisation tasks using natural scenes. A congruent context is thought to contain predictive information about the types of objects likely to be encountered, as well as their location. However, in change detection tasks, changes embedded in congruent contexts often produce impaired performance relative to incongruent contexts. Read More

    Adapting to change: The role of the right hemisphere in mental model building and updating.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Sep;70(3):201-218
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.
    We recently proposed that the right hemisphere plays a crucial role in the processes underlying mental model building and updating. Here, we review the evidence we and others have garnered to support this novel account of right hemisphere function. We begin by presenting evidence from patient work that suggests a critical role for the right hemisphere in the ability to learn from the statistics in the environment (model building) and adapt to environmental change (model updating). Read More

    How the baby learns to see: Donald O. Hebb Award Lecture, Canadian Society for Brain, Behaviour, and Cognitive Science, Ottawa, June 2015.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Sep;70(3):195-200
    McMaster University.
    Hebb's (1949) book The Organisation of Behaviour presented a novel hypothesis about how the baby learns to see. This article summarizes the results of my research program that evaluated Hebb's hypothesis: first, by studying infants' eye movements and initial perceptual abilities and second, by studying the effect of visual deprivation (e.g. Read More

    Rôle des afférences proprioceptives dans le développement de l'imagerie motrice chez l'enfant.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Dec 15;70(4):343-350. Epub 2016 Aug 15.
    Laboratoire Cognitions Humaine et Artificielle, École Pratique des Hautes Etudes.
    To which extent is motor imagery (MI) development, commonly observed between the ages of 5 and 9, related to the increasing ability to integrate proprioceptive afferences for the control of action? This question was addressed in a study evaluating MI performance of 108 children aged 5, 7 and 9 years old. A mental chronometry paradigm based on a walking task was used. Integration of proprioceptive information was evaluated by comparing MI performance when children held an external load (5 % of the children weight) to when they did not. Read More

    The automatic visual simulation of words: A memory reactivated mask slows down conceptual access.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 25;71(1):14-22. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
    Etude des Mécanismes Cognitifs (EMC) Laboratory, University Lyon 2.
    How do we represent the meaning of words? The present study assesses whether access to conceptual knowledge requires the reenactment of the sensory components of a concept. The reenactment-that is, simulation-was tested in a word categorisation task using an innovative masking paradigm. We hypothesised that a meaningless reactivated visual mask should interfere with the simulation of the visual dimension of concrete words. Read More

    The effect of lexical factors on recall from working memory: Generalizing the neighborhood size effect.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2017 Mar 9;71(1):23-31. Epub 2016 Jun 9.
    École de psychologie, Université de Moncton.
    The word-length effect, the finding that lists of short words are better recalled than lists of long words, is 1 of the 4 benchmark phenomena that guided development of the phonological loop component of working memory. However, previous work has noted a confound in word-length studies: The short words used had more orthographic neighbors (valid words that can be made by changing a single letter in the target word) than long words. The confound is that words with more neighbors are better recalled than otherwise comparable words with fewer neighbors. Read More

    Single-step simple ROC curve fitting via PCA.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Dec 6;70(4):301-305. Epub 2016 Jun 6.
    University of Lethbridge.
    A simple approach to fitting curves to receiver operating characteristic rating data is presented. It is based on the first principal component of the covariance space of the inverse normal integral of the cumulative rating data of the targets and distractors. It provides for 2 new associated d' estimates, dp' and dYNp'. Read More

    Evaluating the basis of the between-group production effect in recognition.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):186-94
    Department of Psychology, University of Calgary.
    Reading a list of words aloud can improve recognition over silently reading them. This between-groups production effect (PE) cannot be due to relative distinctiveness because each group studies only 1 type of item. We tested 2 other possibilities. Read More

    Influence of retrieval mode on effects of production: Evidence for costs in free recall.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):177-85
    Department of Communication Disorders, Ariel University.
    Study modality (visual, auditory) of words as well as production mode (reading aloud, writing down) have been shown to influence the production effect (PE). When study words are presented visually, reading them aloud yields superior memory. However, when the same study words are presented aurally, writing them down leads to superior memory. Read More

    The production effect in long-list recall: In no particular order?
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):165-76
    Department of Psychology, Western University.
    The production effect reflects a memory advantage for words read aloud versus silently. We investigated how production influences free recall of a single long list of words. In each of 4 experiments, a production effect occurred in a mixed-list group but not across pure-list groups. Read More

    A computational account of the production effect: Still playing twenty questions with nature.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):154-64
    Department of Psychology, Wilfrid Laurier University.
    People remember words that they read aloud better than words that they read silently, a result known as the production effect. The standing explanation for the production effect is that producing a word renders it distinctive in memory and, thus, memorable at test. By 1 key account, distinctiveness is defined in terms of sensory feedback. Read More

    Production does not improve memory for face-name associations.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):147-53
    Department of Psychology, Memorial University of Newfoundland.
    Strategies for learning face-name associations are generally difficult and time-consuming. However, research has shown that saying a word aloud improves our memory for that word relative to words from the same set that were read silently. Such production effects have been shown for words, pictures, text material, and even word pairs. Read More

    Order information is used to guide recall of long lists: Further evidence for the item-order account.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):125-38
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.
    Differences in memory for item order have been used to explain the absence of between-subjects (i.e., pure-list) effects in free recall for several encoding techniques, including the production effect, the finding that reading aloud benefits memory compared with reading silently. Read More

    Auditory presentation at test does not diminish the production effect in recognition.
    Can J Exp Psychol 2016 Jun;70(2):116-24
    Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo.
    Three experiments investigated whether auditory information at test would undermine the relational distinctiveness of vocal production at study, diminishing the production effect. In Experiment 1, with visual presentation during study, the production effect was equivalently large regardless of whether participants read each test word out loud prior to making their recognition decision. In Experiment 2, incorporating auditory presentation during study, the production effect was unaltered by whether recognition test words were presented visually or auditorily. Read More

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