6,799 results match your criteria Canadian Journal Of Public Health-revue Canadienne De Sante Publique[Journal]


Income-based inequities in access to mental health services in Canada.

Authors:
Mary Bartram

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Carleton University's School of Public Policy and Administration, Ottawa, Canada.

Objectives: While mental health services provided by general practitioners and psychiatrists can be billed to public health insurance programs in Canada, services provided by psychologists, social workers and other non-physician providers cannot. This study assesses the extent to which access to mental health services varies by income after first taking into account the higher concentration of mental health needs at lower income levels.

Method: Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2013-2014 are used to calculate need-standardized concentration indices for access to mental health services. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00204-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00204-5DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Public health: who, what, and why?

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

There has been renewed concern about the state of public health in Canada, with several recent articles in this journal suggesting that the discipline of public health is under threat and that there has been a significant erosion of its core infrastructure. We strongly agree with the need for a well-resourced formal public health system and preservation of capacity to carry out core public health functions, while also positing a complementary narrative that emphasizes the possibility for a broad notion of public health to persevere and thrive in the face of these challenges. We consider what public health is, who public health is, and why public health exists, and suggest that the answers to these questions point to opportunities to strengthen the necessary interdisciplinary approaches that can best address current and future public health concerns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00207-2DOI Listing

Association of immigrant generational status with asthma.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, Health Sciences Centre Room 2C1, 1280 Main Street, West Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4K1, Canada.

Objective: We sought to examine whether asthma risk is lower in second-generation immigrants (i.e., Canadian-born children with at least one foreign-born parent) and first-generation immigrants (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00201-8DOI Listing

Gender-specific correlates of perceived life stress: a population-based study, Montreal, Canada, 2012.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Direction régionale de santé publique, Service des Connaissances, Centre Intégré Universitaire de Santé et de Services Sociaux du Centre-Sud-de-l'Île-de-Montréal, 1301 rue Sherbrooke Est, Montréal, Québec, H2L 1M3, Canada.

Objectives: To identify the gender-specific correlates of perceived life stress in a representative sample of the Montreal population.

Method: Data were extracted from the Local Health Survey Program (called "TOPO") collected in 2012. TOPO-2012 provided information on chronic diseases, their determinants and risk factors, as well as lifestyle and health services utilization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00205-4DOI Listing

From priority to endgame: the Region of Peel Living Tobacco-Free strategy.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 8. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Region of Peel-Public Health, Mississauga, Canada.

Tobacco use presents a tremendous burden on population health and remains the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Building on tobacco control successes to date, public health agencies are increasingly aligning with the international "Tobacco Endgame" initiative targeting decreases in tobacco use to less than 5% by the year 2025. The local implementation of this initiative follows a decade of work at Region of Peel-Public Health (RoP-PH), a local health department in Ontario, Canada, which made "Living Tobacco-Free" (LTF) a strategic priority in 2009 with a tactical framework encompassing Research, Protection, Prevention, and Cessation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00203-6DOI Listing

A collective voice for advancing public health: why public health associations matter today.

Authors:

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

We reflect on why public health matters today from the perspective of Canada's provincial, territorial, and national public health associations. As independent, non-profit organizations that transcend professional roles and sectors, public health associations are positioned to play an essential role in strengthening public health, broadly speaking, across Canada. We outline three reasons why public health associations matter today. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00197-1DOI Listing

Why public health matters today and tomorrow: the role of applied public health research.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Public health is critical to a healthy, fair, and sustainable society. Realizing this vision requires imagining a public health community that can maintain its foundational core while adapting and responding to contemporary imperatives such as entrenched inequities and ecological degradation. In this commentary, we reflect on what tomorrow's public health might look like, from the point of view of our collective experiences as researchers in Canada who are part of an Applied Public Health Chairs program designed to support "innovative population health research that improves health equity for citizens in Canada and around the world. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00196-2DOI Listing
March 2019
3 Reads

Prevalence of distracted walking with mobile technology: an observational study of Calgary and Edmonton high school students.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 18. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

Department of Paediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada.

Objectives: Distracted walking poses a safety concern while crossing roads. A 2014 Canadian survey showed that 51% of teenagers were hit or almost hit while crossing the street, many of whom were distracted by mobile technology. An American study demonstrated that 1 in 5 high school students engaged in distracted walking; however, prevalence estimates in Canada have not been described. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00200-9DOI Listing

"I feel safe just coming here because there are other Native brothers and sisters": findings from a community-based evaluation of the Niiwin Wendaanimak Four Winds Wellness Program.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 13. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Well Living House, Centre for Urban Health Solutions (C-UHS), St. Michael's Hospital, 209 Victoria St, Toronto, ON, M5B1T8, Canada.

Background: Urban Indigenous populations in Canada are steadily growing and represent diverse and culturally vibrant communities. Disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples' experiences of the social determinants of health are a growing concern. Under the guidance of the West End Aboriginal Advisory Council (WEAAC), Parkdale Queen West Community Health Centre (PQWCHC) launched the Niiwin Wendaanimak Four Winds Wellness Program that seeks to enhance health and community services for homeless and at-risk Indigenous populations in Toronto. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00192-6DOI Listing

Utilizing public health core competencies to share data effectively with community organizations to promote health equity.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Niagara Region Public Health & Emergency Services, 1815 Sir Isaac Brock Way, Thorold, ON, L2V 4T7, Canada.

Objectives: This article utilizes an adapted model for research transfer to highlight the important role of Local Public Health Agencies (LPHAs) to share data more effectively with local community organizations to advance health equity.

Methods: A literature review related to public health data sharing with local community partners was conducted using Medline, Embase, and CINAHL databases and grey literature sources with 12 articles included for analysis. Six LPHAs distributed an online survey to 405 local community organizations to define their current data uses and needs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00190-8DOI Listing
March 2019
1 Read

Oral healthcare experiences of humanitarian migrants in Montreal, Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 8. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Faculty of Dentistry, McGill University, #500-2001 McGill College, Montréal, QC, H3A 1G1, Canada.

Objective: To understand the oral healthcare experiences of humanitarian migrants in Montreal and their perceptions of ways to improve access to oral healthcare.

Methods: We used focused ethnography informed by a public health model of the dental care process. The adapted McGill Illness Narrative Interview (MINI) guided interviews of a purposeful sample of humanitarian migrants who received or needed dental care in Montreal. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00193-5
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00193-5DOI Listing
March 2019
5 Reads

Strengthening the health system through novel population and public health fellowships in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

This commentary provides a response to the call for papers that explore why public health matters today. We present our thoughts and experiences as members of the inaugural (2017) cohort of Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Health System Impact Fellows, focused on population and public health projects within our respective health organizations. One year in, we understand our fellowships as uniquely integrating population and public health attributes toward enhancing health system learning and impact. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00195-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00195-3DOI Listing
March 2019
7 Reads

In defense of a population-level approach to prevention: why public health matters today.

Authors:
Lindsay McLaren

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 7. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, TRW3, 3280 Hospital Dr. NW, Calgary, Alberta, T2N 4Z6, Canada.

A focus on populations, and a corresponding population-level approach to intervention, is a foundation of public health and is one reason why public health matters today. Yet, there are indications that this foundation is being challenged. In some policy and practice domains, and alongside growing concern about the social determinants of health and health equity, there has been a shift from a population-level or universal approach to intervention, to a targeted approach focusing on those experiencing social or economic vulnerability. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00198-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00198-0DOI Listing
March 2019
16 Reads

A call for action for mental health intervention and support for refugees who escape internal conflicts or war.

Authors:
Ehsan Jozaghi

Can J Public Health 2019 Mar 5. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

The British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, 655 W 12th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00187-3DOI Listing

Integrating clinical medicine and population health: where to from here?

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 21. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Efforts to contain healthcare costs have led a renewed clinician interest in addressing population-level outcomes, with some proposing that the integration of population health into clinical practice represents a novel concept entitled "clinical population medicine" (CPM). This commentary offers an examination of the function and utility of CPM. In reviewing relevant literature, we note several inconsistencies in CPM's purported mandate, which ranges from simply incorporating the social determinants of health into clinical practice to broad involvement in community health planning. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00194-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Les traits d'identité culturelle en lien avec le statut d'immigrant et l'ethnicité : quel lien avec les symptômes de détresse psychologique et les symptômes dépressifs dans la main-d'œuvre canadienne? Résultats des neuf cycles de l'ENSP.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

L'École des Relations Industrielles, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), Pavillon Lionel-Groulx, École de relations industrielles CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville Montréal, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada.

Purpose: This study investigated variations over time of psychological distress and depressive symptoms among working Canadians according to two cultural identity traits: ethnicity and immigration status.

Method: Data came from the nine cycles of the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) conducted by Statistics Canada. Based on a sample of 7069 workers, multiple regressions analyses and multilevel regressions models were carried out. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00186-4DOI Listing
February 2019

Advocating for improvements to building codes for the population's health.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, 4-398, Mailbox #54, 11405 87 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2P5, Canada.

Construction codes are a major component of building codes. They provide normative standards by which buildings are designed, built, altered, inspected, and assessed. Persistently high, fall-related injury rates on stairs and in bathrooms indicate that public health advocacy is needed to enhance the passive protection of these codes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00191-7DOI Listing
February 2019

Postpartum depression prevalence and risk factors among Indigenous, non-Indigenous and immigrant women in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: The social position of different minority groups in contemporary societies suggests different risk factors for postpartum depression (PPD). In this study, we used two cut-offs of the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) to examine prevalence and risk factors for PPD among mothers participating in the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey (MES), and to compare Indigenous, Canadian-born non-Indigenous and immigrant mothers.

Methods: We used cross-sectional nationwide data from the 2006 MES (unweighted N = 6237, weighted N = 74,231) and conducted multivariate logistic regression models for EPDS ≥ 10 and EPDS ≥ 13 to explore risk factors for the total sample of mothers and in each study group. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00182-8DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Potential harms from legalization of recreational cannabis use in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 13;110(2):222-226. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada.

With the recent legalization of recreational cannabis use in Canada, questions remain concerning optimal regulation to minimize harms and ensure public health and safety. Patterns of use are subject to change following legalization, and it is important to consider the potential adverse effects that this may have on public health. Important areas of consideration are methods of consumption (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-00173-1DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Annual trends in prevalence and incidence of autism spectrum disorders in Manitoba preschoolers and toddlers: 2004-2015.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

College of Pharmacy, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 750 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T5, Canada.

Objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are among the leading causes of disabilities in children. We examined the annual prevalence and incidence rate of ASD between 2004 and 2015 in children aged 1 to 5 years residing in Manitoba.

Methods: A population-based study was conducted using the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00181-9DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A "buck a beer," but at what cost to public health?

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

World Health Organization/Pan American Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Alcohol use leads to a substantial number of hospitalizations, and to increased health and social harms as well as economic costs in Ontario and across Canada. The effects of alcohol price changes on consumption and resulting harms have been firmly established; changes in the minimum price of alcohol have the greatest effect on consumption among people who for reasons of affordability consume low-priced alcoholic beverages, typically adolescents, people with lower socio-economic status, and people with harmful alcohol use. Decreases in inflation-adjusted minimum pricing in British Columbia from 2002 to 2006 have been associated with increases in deaths wholly attributable to alcohol. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00184-6
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00184-6DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

"It's not a food issue; it's an income issue": using Nutritious Food Basket costing for health equity advocacy.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Department of Geography and Planning, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada.

Objectives: Ontario's public health units (PHUs) face considerable challenges in addressing the social determinants of health, even though "reducing health inequities" is a primary population health outcome in the Ontario Public Health Standards (OPHS). Since 1998, the OPHS mandated PHUs to use the Nutritious Food Basket (NFB) protocol to document food costs, a requirement that was removed in 2018. This study examined how the NFB advanced health equity advocacy by Ontario PHUs, and why some have used this tool more strategically than others. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00185-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The relationship between bullying behaviours in childhood and physician-diagnosed internalizing disorders.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

School of Public Health, 3-300 Edmonton Clinic Health Academy, University of Alberta, 11405 - 87 Ave, Edmonton, AB, T6G 1C9, Canada.

Objective: Bullying and its potential consequence for poor mental health constitutes a public health concern, yet there is a dearth of longitudinal studies examining the topic. This study examines the temporal relationship between childhood bullying behaviours (being a victim, being a bully, or being a bully and a victim) and physician-diagnosed internalizing disorders over a 7-year timespan.

Methods: Data from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School performance Study (CLASS), a population-based health survey of grade 5 students in Nova Scotia, Canada were linked to administrative health-care records to examine the relationship between bullying behaviours and services where a physician diagnosis of an internalizing disorder (ID) was received. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00179-3
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00179-3DOI Listing
February 2019
9 Reads

Supervised inhalation is an important part of supervised consumption services.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 6;110(2):210-215. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

ARCHES, 1016 1 Avenue S, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 0B1, Canada.

Setting: The first regulated supervised inhalation site (safer smoking room) in North America has opened in Lethbridge, Alberta, as part of a supervised consumption site addressing all routes of consumption. When designing the service, we felt it was important to accommodate not just injection drug use but also inhalation because (1) it is not the method of drug use that kills but the drug itself, (2) all people who use drugs deserve service regardless of their mode of use, and (3) people who use drugs should have the opportunity to use the method with the lowest risk.

Intervention: We received approval from Health Canada to offer supervised inhalation services in addition to supervised injection services. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00180-wDOI Listing

The challenge of pollution and health in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 4;110(2):159-164. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

BC Children's Hospital, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.

The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, which conducted a comprehensive assessment of the health and economic impacts of key forms of toxic pollutants in air, water, and soil, estimated that 9 million people die annually from the impact of pollution, which represents 16% of all deaths worldwide. Over 90% of these pollution-related deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. While Canada ranks seventh lowest in the world, the burden is still too high; many pollutants were not considered in the Commission's work, and vulnerable populations-including the poor, women, children, and Indigenous peoples-are disproportionally affected by pollution in Canada. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-019-00175-7
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00175-7DOI Listing
April 2019
13 Reads

Stay in or play out? The influence of weather conditions on physical activity of grade 5 children in Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 1;110(2):169-177. Epub 2019 Feb 1.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Objectives: Regular physical activity (PA) in children is essential for their development and prevention of overweight and obesity. Little is known about the effect of day-to-day variations in weather conditions on PA levels in school-aged children, particularly with regard to school compared to non-school days and girls compared to boys.

Methods: Daily step count (7:00 a. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00176-6DOI Listing

Assessing the strength of secondary school tobacco policies of schools in the COMPASS study and the association to student smoking behaviours.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 31;110(2):236-243. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: The school environment is an ideal setting to introduce policies to prevent smoking behaviour. However, there may be variability in the strength of school board and secondary school tobacco policies, which may affect student smoking behaviours. This study assessed the strength of a sample of school board and secondary school tobacco policies and examined the association with student smoking behaviours. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00178-4DOI Listing

Towards 'smart cities' as 'healthy cities': health equity in a digital age.

Can J Public Health 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4, Canada.

The advent of 'smart' technologies has already transformed urban life, with important consequences for physical, mental, and social well-being. Population health and equity have, however, been conspicuously absent from much of the 'smart cities' research and policy agenda. With this in mind, we argue for a re-conceptualization of 'digital divides' in terms of socio-economic gradients at the individual level, and we draw attention to digitally mediated connections as crucial elements for health promotion at an institutional level and for remedying inequities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00177-5DOI Listing
January 2019

The calorie counter-intuitive effect of restaurant menu calorie labelling.

Authors:
Laura McGeown

Can J Public Health 2019 Jan 30. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Psychology, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Rd, Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7B 5E1, Canada.

As of January 1, 2017, the Healthy Menu Choices Act mandates that food service premises with 20 or more locations in Ontario must display the number of calories in every food item sold on menus. The impetus for this legislation was to enable Ontarians to become aware of the calorie content of foods and beverages consumed outside the home, and make healthier dietary choices while dining out. Though arising as an initiative to attenuate the development of obesity and current obesity rates, evidence suggests menu labelling does not significantly alter individuals' food choices. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00183-7DOI Listing
January 2019

Staying true to Rowan's Law: how changing sport culture can realize the goal of the legislation.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 29;110(2):165-168. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

St. Michael's Hospital - Neurosurgery, 30 Bond St, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Rowan's Law was recently introduced into Ontario legislation following the death of Rowan Stringer, a young rugby player for whom a string of head injuries culminated in her death. The law mandates the removal from play of any youth athlete suspected to have a concussion and makes concussion education mandatory for certain individuals involved with youth sport. This commentary addresses the larger issues within sport culture that may limit the effectiveness of the law, and describes how awareness alone is not sufficient to generate change. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-019-00174-8DOI Listing
April 2019
18 Reads

Program implementation and effectiveness of a national workplace physical activity intervention: UPnGO with ParticipACTION.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 9;110(2):187-197. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3, Canada.

Intervention: UPnGO with ParticipACTION (UPnGO) is a 6-week workplace physical activity (PA) initiative aiming to increase habitual PA (steps) during the workday. Core intervention components included (1) self-monitoring of steps and action planning behaviours using a Web/mobile app with incentives and (2) organizational support, which included senior management's role modeling and endorsement of the program.

Research Question: What is the effectiveness and levels of implementation of the UPnGO intervention? What is the relationship between effectiveness and levels of implementation?

Methods: A single-arm, pre-/post-test study design was used. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0170-2DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Municipal transportation policy as a population health intervention: estimating the impact of the City of Ottawa Transportation Master Plan on diabetes incidence.

Can J Public Health 2019 Jan 9. Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Bruyère Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada.

Intervention: Physical inactivity is an important behavioral risk factor for chronic disease in Canada. Individual-level strategies are used in clinical medicine to target individuals for preventive intervention based on one or more risk factors. In contrast, this study examines the impact of a population-level intervention: a municipal policy outside the healthcare sector that influences the built and social environment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0168-9DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Les aliments ultra-transformés, un concept utile pour la santé publique : Ultra-processed foods, a useful concept for public health.

Authors:
Louise Potvin

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb;110(1):1-3

École de santé publique et Institut de recherche en santé publique, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0172-0DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

The successful scale-up of direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C treatments will benefit from concerted investments in implementation science.

Authors:
Rod Knight Mint Ti

Can J Public Health 2019 Jan 8. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The introduction of highly efficacious direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment therapeutics presents new opportunities to both directly reduce chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and prevent the onward transmission of HCV. To achieve the equitable scale-up of DAA interventions at the population level, however, reductions in HCV incidence and prevalence must be achieved among entire populations of people living with HCV-all in "real-world" conditions. In this commentary, we describe five problem areas that will benefit from new investments in implementation science in order to inform the scale-up of DAA interventions: (1) New evidence is needed to optimize the integration of DAA treatments into generalist models of care; (2) DAA scale-up needs to be adaptive to the needs of highly diverse and large populations living with HCV who will benefit from DAA interventions; (3) we need to do better at measuring and responding to features of implementation context; (4) costs need to be explicitly assessed in "real time"; and (5) new research-community-practice partnerships are needed to inform evolving HCV testing, treatment and prevention guidelines, policies, and programs. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-018-0164-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0164-0DOI Listing
January 2019
8 Reads

Variability in ambient ozone and fine particle concentrations and population susceptibility among Canadian health regions.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 7;110(2):149-158. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Air Quality Research Division, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 4905 Dufferin St, 4th Floor, Office 4S310, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4, Canada.

Objectives: To estimate the proportion of the Canadian population that is more susceptible to adverse effects of ozone (O) and fine particle (PM) air pollution exposure and how this varies by health region alongside ambient concentrations of O and PM.

Methods: Using data from the census, the Canadian Community Health Survey, vital statistics and published literature, we generated cross-sectional estimates for 2014 of the proportions of the Canadian population considered more susceptible due to age, chronic disease, pregnancy, outdoor work, socio-economic status, and diet. We also estimated 2010-2012 average concentrations of O and PM. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-018-0169-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0169-8DOI Listing
April 2019
14 Reads

Why public health matters today more than ever: the convergence of health and social policy.

Can J Public Health 2019 Jan 7. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Flinders Social Work, College of Education, Psychology and Social Work, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide, 5001, Australia.

We argue that public health matters more today than ever because it is uniquely positioned as a meeting point or fulcrum between health care and social welfare policy perspectives on the social determinants of health. It combines a grounding in the sciences of biomedicine and epidemiology with the moral imperatives of social advocacy. Health cannot be delivered through health care policy alone and neither can social welfare policy ensure the well-being of all citizens on its own. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-018-0171-1
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0171-1DOI Listing
January 2019
24 Reads

A call for integrated foot care and amputation prevention pathways for patients with diabetes and peripheral arterial disease across Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 7;110(2):253-255. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michaels Hospital, 30 Bond Street, 7-080 Bond Wing, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada.

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http://link.springer.com/10.17269/s41997-018-0166-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0166-yDOI Listing
April 2019
4 Reads

Influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep on inmates' body weight during incarceration in Canadian federal penitentiaries: a retrospective cohort study.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 4;110(2):198-209. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

School of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: Recent research found that inmates experience undesirable and rapid weight gain during incarceration in Canadian federal penitentiaries. However, little is known about what factors and daily movement behaviours (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0165-zDOI Listing
April 2019
11 Reads

Peer engagement barriers and enablers: insights from people who use drugs in British Columbia, Canada.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 4;110(2):227-235. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

BC Centre for Disease Control, 655 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4R4, Canada.

Objectives: Globally, engaging people who have used drugs, or peers, in decision-making has been increasingly touted as a best practice approach to developing priorities, programs, and policies. Peer engagement ensures decisions are relevant, appropriate, and effective to the affected community. However, ensuring that inclusion is accessible and equitable for those involved remains a challenge. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0167-xDOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Public health should promote co-operative housing and cohousing.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 4;110(2):121-126. Epub 2019 Jan 4.

BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada.

In promoting healthier built environments, attention worldwide has focused largely on streetscapes and recreational spaces, with less regard given to housing form, in particular to the health effects of communal housing. Research demonstrates that communal housing models, such as cohousing and co-operative housing, promote social inclusion, and increase the perceived well-being and mental and physical health of residents, particularly of seniors. In Canada, relative to other countries, there is a paucity of evidence for the health effects of co-operatives and cohousing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0163-1DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Impacts of im/migration experience on work stress among sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 18. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Centre for Gender & Sexual Health Equity, St. Paul's Hospital, 608-1081 Burrard Street, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6, Canada.

Objectives: Despite the precarious and unsafe working conditions frequently experienced by sex workers (SWs) and im/migrant workers, there remains a paucity of research on work-related stress and links to duration of im/migration residency among SWs. This study analyzes the relationship between duration of residency and two dimensions of work stress among SWs in Metro Vancouver.

Methods: Data were drawn from a longitudinal cohort of women SWs across Metro Vancouver (2010-2014). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0161-3DOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Public housing and healthcare use: an investigation using linked administrative data.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 13;110(2):127-138. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, S113-750 Bannatyne Ave, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3E 0W3, Canada.

Objective: This study investigated whether a move to public housing affects people's use of healthcare services.

Method: Using administrative data from Manitoba, the number of hospitalizations, general practitioner (GP), specialist and emergency department (ED) visits, and prescription drugs dispensed in the years before and after the housing move-in date (2012/2013) were measured for a public housing and matched cohort. Generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations tested for differences between the cohorts in utilization trends. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0162-2DOI Listing
April 2019
9 Reads

Disability trends in Canada: 2001-2014 population estimates and correlates.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Social Science Centre, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6G 2V4, Canada.

Objectives: Disability is a major concern for the health of midlife and older Canadians. Understanding disability trends is critical for detecting socio-economic and health precursors that could be amenable to policy interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess trends in rates of disability among Canadian adults age 40-64 and 65+. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0158-yDOI Listing
December 2018
12 Reads

Availability of legalized cannabis reduces demand for illegal cannabis among Canadian cannabis users: evidence from a behavioural economic substitution paradigm.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 6;110(2):216-221. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, McMaster University and St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 100 West 5th St, Hamilton, ON, L8N 3K7, Canada.

In the context of cannabis legalization, an important question among clinicians, policymakers, and the public is whether availability of legal cannabis will significantly reduce consumption (demand) of illegal cannabis. Using paradigms from behavioural economics, we tested the prediction that legal cannabis would be an asymmetrical substitute for illegal cannabis, with legal cannabis operating as a superior commodity based on its regulated status. In a sample of 289 adult cannabis users in Ontario, we found evidence of substitutability for both legal and illegal cannabis, but significantly lower substitutability of illegal for legal cannabis, a pattern that was also present for price elasticity (α) and P. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0160-4DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

District-level implementation of British Columbia's school food and beverage sales policy: a realist evaluation exploring intervention mechanisms in urban and rural contexts.

Can J Public Health 2019 Feb 7;110(1):21-30. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Centre for Sustainable Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Intervention: British Columbia's (BC) provincial school food and beverage sales policy.

Research Question: What are the processes associated with district-level implementation of BC's school food and beverage sales policy?

Methods: We adopted a realist approach and a qualitative, multiple case study design that included three urban and two rural BC school districts. Data collection involved semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with health, education, and industry stakeholders, observations, document analysis and website scans. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0159-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335380PMC
February 2019
11 Reads

Duration and intensity of different types of physical activity among children aged 10-13 years.

Can J Public Health 2019 Apr 28;110(2):178-186. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen's University, 28 Division St, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada.

Objectives: To use a predominately objective measurement approach to assess and describe: (1) the amount of time that children aged 10-13 years spend participating in outdoor active play, active travel, curriculum-based physical activity at school, and organized sport; (2) the movement intensity composition of these four types of physical activity (i.e., % of time spent at a sedentary, light, or moderate-to-vigorous intensity); and (3) the proportion of each movement intensity obtained by participating in these four types of physical activity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0157-zDOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

"This drug turned me into a robot": an actor-network analysis of a web-based ethnographic study of psychostimulant use.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 21;109(5-6):653-661. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Montreal, 7101, avenue du Parc, 3ième étage, Montréal, (Québec), H3N 1X9, Canada.

Objectives: This study aims to understand contemporary psychostimulant use within the socio-cultural context of Western societies. Two objectives are addressed: to describe accounts of practices related to psychostimulant use among members of selected online fora and to examine how these are related to representations of the self.

Methods: This research is a qualitative study of psychostimulant use among members of selected online fora. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0149-zDOI Listing
December 2018
1 Read

Beyond bare bones: critical, theoretically engaged qualitative research in public health.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 21;109(5-6):613-621. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.

While qualitative inquiry has been a part of the Canadian Journal of Public Health (CJPH) for many years, CJPH does not yet have the reputation as a home for qualitative research that has a critical focus and that is cqqqonversant with contemporary developments in social theory and qualitative methodology. This paper describes efforts to establish CJPH as a welcoming home for critical, theoretically engaged qualitative research in public health. The paper introduces the Special Section that heralds the forward vision for qualitative research at CJPH. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0154-2DOI Listing
December 2018
3 Reads

Is 'health equity' bad for our health? A qualitative empirical ethics study of public health policy-makers' perspectives.

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 21;109(5-6):633-642. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 155 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5G 1L4, Canada.

Objectives: 'Social justice' and 'health equity' are core values in public health. Yet, despite their normative character, the numerous normative accounts of social justice and equity are rarely acknowledged, meaning that these values are often unaccompanied by an explanation of what they require in practice. The objective of this study was to bridge this normative scholarship with information about how these 'core values' are integrated and interpreted by Canadian public health policy-makers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0128-4DOI Listing
December 2018
86 Reads

Knowledge brokering: (mis)aligning population knowledge with care of fat bodies.

Authors:
Patricia Thille

Can J Public Health 2018 Dec 21;109(5-6):643-652. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Manitoba, R106 - 771 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, MB, R3E 0T6, Canada.

Objective: Two prominent Canadian knowledge brokers aim to influence how primary care clinicians address obesity, through the dissemination of texts: the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (guideline) and the Canadian Obesity Network (5As). While written for the same clinician and adult patient population, the recommendations differ. This analysis highlights active decisions that produced the difference. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.17269/s41997-018-0147-1DOI Listing
December 2018
17 Reads