1,231 results match your criteria Canada communicable disease report = Releve des maladies transmissibles au Canada[Journal]


Measles surveillance in Canada: 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):77-83. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Measles has been eliminated in Canada since 1998. Every year, the Public Health Agency of Canada presents epidemiologic evidence to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to verify that measles continues to be eliminated in Canada. The objectives of this article are to: provide an epidemiologic summary of measles activity reported in 2018 in Canada, and provide documented evidence to support the continued verification of measles elimination status in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279125PMC

Surveillance of persons-who tested negative for COVID-19 in Ontario, January 22-February 22, 2020.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):150-154. Epub 2020 May 7.

Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON.

As of January 22, 2020, "disease caused by a novel coronavirus" became a reportable disease of public health significance in Ontario. Public health units were provided with guidance on the entry of patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), into the provincial public health information system. Between January 22 and February 22, 2020, there were 359 individuals who had a negative test result recorded and three confirmed cases of COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279126PMC

Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network Best Practices for COVID-19.

Authors:

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):112-118. Epub 2020 May 7.

The ability to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, is a foundational component of Canada's containment and mitigation strategies. Laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 cases allows the appropriate clinical management and public health interventions. Whether the local goal is containment or mitigation will depend on local epidemiology of the pandemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279127PMC

Laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in children and youth in Canada, January 15-April 27, 2020.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):121-124. Epub 2020 May 7.

Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Understanding the epidemiology of COVID-19 among children and youth in Canada will help to inform public health measures in settings where children gather. As of April 27, 2020, provinces and territories provided the Public Health Agency of Canada with detailed information on 24,079 cases, of which 3.9% (n=938) were younger than 20 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i06a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279124PMC

Vaccine acceptance: How to build and maintain trust in immunization.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):155-159. Epub 2020 May 7.

Quebec National Institute of Public Health, Québec, QC.

In Canada, over 80% of parents choose to vaccinate their children. Although this may appear positive, it is one of the lowest vaccination rates in the western world, and does not meet the 95% coverage rate needed to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases such as measles. A recent national immunization survey showed approximately 50% of parents are concerned about potential side-effects from vaccines, 25% believe that a vaccine can cause the disease it was meant to prevent, and 13% think alternative practices could eliminate the need for vaccines. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279131PMC

Summary of the NACI Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Statement for 2020-2021.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):132-137. Epub 2020 May 7.

NACI Influenza Working Group Vice Chair.

Background: Evidence on influenza vaccination is continually evolving. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) provides annual recommendations to the Public Health Agency of Canada regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines.

Objective: To summarize NACI's recommendations regarding the use of seasonal influenza vaccines for the 2020-2021 influenza season and to highlight new and updated recommendations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279128PMC

Modified two-tiered testing algorithm for Lyme disease serology: the Canadian context.

Authors:

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):125-131. Epub 2020 May 7.

Background: Lyme disease (LD) is emerging in many parts of central and eastern Canada. Serological testing is most commonly used to support laboratory diagnosis of LD. Standard two-tiered testing (STTT) for LD involves detection of antibodies using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by IgM and/or IgG immunoblots. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279132PMC

Healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance in Canadian acute care hospitals, 2014-2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 May 7;46(5):99-112. Epub 2020 May 7.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) pose serious threats to the health of Canadians due to increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Epidemiologic and laboratory surveillance data, collected through the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program, are used to inform infection prevention and control and antimicrobial stewardship programs and policies. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiologic and laboratory characteristics and trends of HAIs and AMR from 2014 to 2018 using surveillance data provided by Canadian hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i05a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7279130PMC

Overview of the respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate pipeline in Canada.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):56-61. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

McGill University, Montreal, QC.

A vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been actively sought for over 60 years due to the health impacts of RSV disease in infants, but currently the only available preventive measure in Canada and elsewhere is limited to passive immunization for high-risk infants and children with a monoclonal antibody. RSV vaccine development has faced many challenges, including vaccine-induced enhancement of RSV disease in infants. Several key developments in the last decade in the fields of cellular immunology and protein structure have led to new products entering late-stage clinical development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273503PMC

Motivational interviewing: A powerful tool to address vaccine hesitancy.

Authors:
Arnaud Gagneur

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):93-97. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC.

According to the World Health Organization, vaccine hesitancy is among the top threats to global health and few effective strategies address this growing problem. In Canada, approximatively 20% of parents/caregivers are concerned about their children receiving vaccines. Trying to convince them by simply providing the facts about vaccination may backfire and make parents/caregivers even more hesitant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145430PMC

Large community mumps outbreak in Manitoba, Canada, September 2016-December 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):70-76. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Epidemiology and Surveillance, Manitoba Health, Seniors and Active Living, Winnipeg, MB.

Background: After routine mumps immunization programs were implemented in Manitoba in the 1980s, incidence was low, with 0-9 cases of disease annually. In September 2016, a mumps outbreak began in fully vaccinated university students in Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Objective: We describe the investigation of this province-wide mumps outbreak, which lasted between September 2016 and December 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145432PMC

Gap analyses to assess Canadian readiness for respiratory syncytial virus vaccines: Report from an expert retreat.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):62-68. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause severe disease in infants and older adults. Various vaccine candidates are in development and may become authorized for use in Canada within the next 2-5 years. The Public Health Agency of Canada sought to enhance preparedness for RSV vaccine and passive immunization candidates by organizing an expert retreat to identify knowledge gaps in surveillance and research and development in the context of provincial and territorial RSV public health priorities. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145429PMC

Risk factors for drug-resistant tuberculosis at a referral centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada: 2010-2016.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Apr 2;46(4):84-92. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) poses a major public health concern worldwide. However, no studies have addressed risk factors for drug resistance in Ontario, which has its own unique profile of immigrants. We evaluated demographic and clinical risk factors for drug-resistant TB among patients treated at West Park Healthcare Centre, located in Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i04a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7145431PMC

Improving national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Dec 5;45(12):313-316. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

The purpose of national HIV surveillance is to track and summarize trends in newly diagnosed cases as an indicator of HIV transmission within Canada, and supports the development and evaluation of programs and policies for prevention, testing and delivery of care. Accurately capturing and interpreting trends in HIV diagnoses within national surveillance becomes complicated when there is movement of people within a country or when individuals are diagnosed with HIV prior to migrating to a new country. This has been identified as an issue in other countries, including Australia, New Zealand and Switzerland. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i12a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041654PMC
December 2019

HIV in Canada-Surveillance Report, 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Dec 5;45(12):304-312. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global public health issue, with an estimated 36.9 million people living with HIV in 2017. HIV has been reportable in Canada since 1985 and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) continues to monitor trends in new HIV diagnoses. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i12a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7043211PMC
December 2019

Networking-A quintessential public health activity.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Feb 6;46(2-3):30. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Office of the Chief Science Officer, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i23a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041661PMC
February 2020

Optimizing communication material to address vaccine hesitancy.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Feb 6;46(2-3):48-52. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Québec, QC.

Vaccine hesitancy (the reluctance to accept recommended vaccines) is a complex issue that poses risk communication challenges for public health authorities and clinicians. Studies have shown that providing too much evidence on vaccine safety and efficacy to those who are vaccine-hesitant has done little to stem the growth of hesitancy-related beliefs and fears. The objective of this paper is to describe good practices in developing communication materials to address vaccine hesitancy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i23a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041657PMC
February 2020

Preventing transmission of bloodborne viruses from infected healthcare workers to patients: Summary of a new Canadian Guideline.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Dec 5;45(12):317-322. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC.

Background: Although it is well documented that bloodborne viruses (BBVs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) have been transmitted from patients to healthcare workers (HCWs), there has also been reported transmission from HCWs to patients during the provision of health care. With remarkable progress in infection prevention, diagnosis tools, treatment regimens and major improvements in guideline development methodology, there was a need to develop an evidence-based guideline to replace the 1998 Canadian consensus document for managing HCWs infected with BBVs.

Purpose: This article summarizes the Canadian . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i12a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041653PMC
December 2019

Infection prevention and control lapse involving medical equipment reprocessing at a family medicine clinic in Ottawa, Ontario, 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Feb 6;46(2-3):40-47. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Ottawa Public Health, Ottawa, ON (when study was conducted).

Background: In April 2018, Ottawa Public Health identified a large-scale infection prevention and control (IPAC) lapse spanning 15 years related to inadequate reprocessing of reusable critical medical equipment used in a family medicine clinic.

Objectives: To describe the public health response to, and estimate the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from, this IPAC lapse.

Methods: Patients who underwent a procedure of concern (during which reusable equipment may have been used) at this clinic were identified using Ontario Health Insurance Plan data and individually notified. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i23a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041655PMC
February 2020

Accelerating our response: Government of Canada five-year action plan on sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Dec 5;45(12):323-326. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI)-which include HIV, hepatitis B and C, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis and human papillomavirus-remain significant public health issues both nationally and globally. In 2018, a (the Framework) was released by federal, provincial and territorial governments to provide an overarching and comprehensive approach to addressing STBBI for all those involved. This includes all levels of government, First Nations, Inuit and Métis communities and leadership, frontline service providers, clinicians, public health practitioners, non-governmental organizations and researchers. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i12a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041658PMC
December 2019

Summary of the NACI Statement on the Use of Bivalent Factor H Binding Protein Meningococcal Serogroup B (MenB-fHBP) Vaccine for the Prevention of Meningococcal B Disease.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Feb 6;46(2-3):36-39. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB.

Background: TrumenbaTM, a bivalent, factor-H binding protein meningococcal serogroup B (MenB-fHBP) vaccine was authorized for use in Canada in October 2017 for the prevention of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) caused by serogroup B in individuals 10-25 years of age. The National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) provides recommendations regarding the use of meningococcal vaccines to the Public Health Agency of Canada.

Objective: To summarize NACI recommendations regarding the use of MenB-fHBP vaccine in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i23a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041660PMC
February 2020

Canada's National Collaborating Centres: Facilitating evidence-informed decision-making in public health.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Feb 6;46(2-3):31-35. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Office of the Chief Science Officer, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Although evidence-informed decision-making is fundamental to public health, it is challenging in practice as there is a continual burgeoning of both evidence and emerging issues, which public health professionals need to address at local, regional and national levels. One way that Canada has addressed this perennial challenge is through its six National Collaborating Centres (NCCs). The NCCs for Public Health were created to promote and support the use of scientific research and other knowledge to strengthen public health practice, programs and policies in Canada. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i23a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041659PMC
February 2020

Prescriber-led practice changes that can bolster antimicrobial stewardship in community health care settings.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jan 2;46(1):1-5. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Stabilizing the emerging resistance of antibiotics depends on our ability to practise appropriate antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Over 90% of antibiotics dispensed for human use are prescribed in community health care settings rather than in hospitals, with the main prescribers being family physicians, dentists, pharmacists and nurse practitioners working across a broad range of private offices, family health teams, urgent care clinics, emergency departments and long-term care homes. To improve the reach of AMS in community health care settings, the Public Health Agency of Canada partnered with Choosing Wisely Canada in 2017 to develop a focused campaign titled . Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i01a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941924PMC
January 2020

Tuberculosis drug resistance in Canada: 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jan 2;46(1):9-15. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Centre for Communicable Disease and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a public health issue of global importance that poses a threat to TB control efforts. Canada conducts nationwide surveillance to monitor emerging drug resistance trends and document progress towards reaching the goal of TB elimination.

Objective: To describe TB drug resistance trends across Canada from 2008-2018, with a focus on 2018, by drug resistance, geographic and demographic patterns. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i01a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941922PMC
January 2020

Promoting immunization resiliency in the digital information age.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jan 2;46(1):20-24. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Quebec National Institute of Public Health, Quebec City, QC.

The avalanche of online information on immunization is having a major impact on the percentage of the population who choose to get vaccinated. Vaccine misinformation spreads widely with the interactive Web 2.0 and social media; this can bury science-based information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i01a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941923PMC
January 2020

A new resource to summarize evidence on immunization from the Canadian Vaccination Evidence Resource and Exchange Centre (CANVax).

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jan 2;46(1):16-19. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Quebec National Institute of Public Health, Quebec City, QC.

Scientific progress around the development, use and best practices for communicating the benefits of vaccines is rapid, and keeping up-to-date with the substantial body of evidence on these topics is challenging. However, the increase in the number of vaccines and decline in vaccine-preventable illnesses has often focused public attention more on the risks of vaccines rather than the risks of the diseases. In Canada and elsewhere, an increasing number of parents are choosing to delay and/or refuse some or all vaccines for their children, leading to declining community protection against vaccine-preventable diseases and an increase in the number of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i01a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941921PMC
January 2020

National Influenza Mid-Season Report, 2019-2020.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2020 Jan 2;46(5):25-28. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Canada's national influenza season started in week 47 between November 17 to 23, 2019. Of the 3,762 laboratory-confirmed influenza detections reported from August 25 to December 14, 2019, 61% were influenza A, and of those subtyped, 68% were A(H3N2). Influenza B detections are above average for this time of year. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v46i01a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941920PMC
January 2020

Public health investigation of infection prevention and control complaints in Ontario, 2015-2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Nov 7;45(11):289-295. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Toronto Public Health, Toronto, ON.

Background: Following an update to the provincial in 2015, Ontario public health units have been mandated to investigate infection prevention and control (IPAC) complaints in various settings, including those where regulated health professionals work. No surveillance system exists for IPAC complaints; therefore, little is known about their occurrence. Anecdotal evidence suggests a recent increase in IPAC complaints resulting in increased demand on public health resources. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i11a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850723PMC
November 2019

Canadian results from the European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet survey (EMIS-2017).

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Nov 7;45(11):271-282. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

University of Windsor, Windsor, ON.

Background: In 2017, the international European Men-who-have-sex-with-men Internet Survey (EMIS-2017) collected data from 50 countries, including Canada for the first time.

Objective: To provide an overview of the Canadian EMIS-2017 data to describe the sexually transmitted and other bloodborne infection (STBBI) related needs of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM).

Methods: The EMIS-2017 questionnaire was an updated version of EMIS-2010. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i11a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850724PMC
November 2019

Newly diagnosed cases of HIV in those aged 50 years and older and those less than 50: 2008-2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Nov 7;45(11):283-288. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, OttawaON.

Background: Canada's population is aging, with nearly forty percent of Canadians aged 50 years or more. As the population ages, unique challenges related to health are becoming evident, including increasing rates of sexually transmitted and bloodborne infections. Understanding the epidemiology of HIV in older adults is important to guide prevention and control programs. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i11a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850722PMC
November 2019

Increase in detection of in Canada: 2006-2019.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Nov 7;45(11):296-301. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB.

Background: Increasingly, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) has been used to provide rapid, inexpensive and precise identification of bacteria, including species. Only three species are able to produce diphtheria toxin (DT), and strains recovered may be either toxin-producing or non-toxin-producing. It appears the more precise bacterial identification provided by MALDI-TOF systems has led to an increase in requests submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) for toxin testing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i11a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850721PMC
November 2019

Surveillance of laboratory exposures to human pathogens and toxins: Canada 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Sep 5;45(9):244-251. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Public Health Agency of Canada, Centre for Biosecurity, Ottawa, ON.

Background: The Laboratory Incident Notification Canada (LINC) surveillance system monitors laboratory incidents reported under the . The year 2018 marks the third complete year of data.

Objective: To describe the laboratory exposure and laboratory-acquired infection incidents that occurred in Canada in 2018 compared to previous years, and then by sector, human pathogens and toxins involved, number of affected persons, incident type and root causes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i09a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781952PMC
September 2019

Molecular surveillance of hepatitis C virus genotypes identifies the emergence of a genotype 4d lineage among men in Quebec, 2001-2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Sep 5;45(9):230-237. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC.

Background: Molecular phylogenetics are generally used to confirm hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission events. In addition, the Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec (LSPQ) has been using molecular phylogenetics for surveillance of HCV genotyping since November 2001.

Objectives: To describe the emergence of a specific lineage of HCV genotype 4d (G4d) and its characteristics using molecular phylogenetics as a surveillance tool for identifying HCV strain clustering. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i09a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781953PMC
September 2019

Use of a case-control study and control bank to investigate an outbreak of locally acquired cyclosporiasis in Canada, 2016.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Sep 5;45(9):225-229. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC.

Background: is an intestinal parasite that is not endemic in Canada. However, national outbreaks of locally acquired cases have been reported since 2013. These outbreaks were suspected to be associated with consumption of produce imported from countries where is endemic. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i09a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781950PMC
September 2019
1 Read

Reaping the benefits of Open Data in public health.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Oct 3;45(11):252-256. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Office of the Chief Science Officer, Public Health Agency of Canada, OttawaON.

Open Data is part of a broad global movement that is not only advancing science and scientific communication but also transforming modern society and how decisions are made. What began with a call for Open Science and the rise of online journals has extended to Open Data, based on the premise that if reports on data are open, then the generated or supporting data should be open as well. There have been a number of advances in Open Data over the last decade, spearheaded largely by governments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i10a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781855PMC
October 2019

Updates to the Canadian Notifiable Disease Surveillance System and its interactive website.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Oct 3;45(10):4257-4261. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, OttawaON.

The Canadian Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (CNDSS) provides data on diseases that have been identified as priorities for public health monitoring and control. Several advances that have been made on Notifiable Diseases Online, the CNDSS interactive website, are consistent with the Government of Canada's commitment to Open Data. This article provides an update on changes in case definitions that have been made since the case definitions were last published in 2009, and describes updates that have been made to the interactive website since 2013. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i10a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781854PMC
October 2019
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Community outbreak of hepatitis A disproportionately affecting men who have sex with men in Toronto, Canada, January 2017-November 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Oct 3;45(10):262-268. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

National Microbiology Laboratory, Winnipeg, MB.

Background: In late 2016 and early 2017, a number of countries began reporting hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks involving person-to-person transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM), people using illicit drugs and homeless or underhoused persons.

Objective: To describe the epidemiology and public health response to an outbreak of HAV disproportionately affecting MSM in Toronto, Canada from January 2017 to November 2018.

Methods: Following an increase in the number of cases of HAV in MSM being reported in other countries, enhanced surveillance was performed for all non-travel-related cases of HAV reported from June 1, 2017 to November 1, 2018, including a retrospective analysis of cases reported from January 2017 to June 2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i10a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781856PMC
October 2019

Shiga toxin-producing in British Columbia, 2011-2017: Analysis to inform exclusion guidelines.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Sep 5;45(9):238-243. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

BC Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC.

Background: Shiga toxinproducing (STEC) can cause severe illness including bloody diarrhea and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) through the production of Shiga toxins 1 (Stx1) and 2 (Stx2). O157:H7 was the most common serotype detected in the 1980s to 1990s, but improvements in laboratory methods have led to increased detection of non-O157 STEC. Non-O157 STEC producing only Stx1 tend to cause milder clinical illness. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i09a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736465PMC
September 2019
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Invasive group A streptococcal infection outbreaks of type118 in a long-term care facility, and of type 74 in the homeless population, Montréal, Quebec.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2019 Jan 3;45(1):26-31. Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Laboratoire de santé publique du Québec [Quebec Public Health Laboratory], Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC.

Background: Two invasive group A streptococcus (iGAS) infection outbreaks occurred in Montreal in 2016 and 2017; one in a long-term care facility (type118) and one in the community, primarily involving homeless people (type74).

Objective: To describe two recent iGAS outbreaks in Montréal and highlight the challenges in dealing with these outbreaks and the need to tailor the public health response to control them.

Methodology: All cases of iGAS were investigated and the isolates were sent to the laboratory fortyping. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v45i01a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707444PMC
January 2019
1 Read

Results of a population screening intervention for tuberculosis in a Nunavik village, Quebec, 2015-2016.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Oct 4;44(10):257-263. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Public Health, Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services, Kuujjuaq, QC.

Background: A small village in Nunavik, Quebec experienced a tuberculosis (TB) outbreak in 2012-2013 and then a resurgence in 2015-2016. Cases were still occurring, despite the fact that contact tracing had already been conducted on one quarter of the population. A decision was taken to conduct large-scale screening of the population for TB. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i10a04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707481PMC
October 2018
1 Read

A scoping review of Lyme disease research relevant to public health.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Oct 4;44(10):243-256. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

National Microbiology Laboratory at Guelph, Public Health Agency of Canada, Guelph, ON.

Lyme disease (LD) is an emerging infectious disease in Canada associated with expansion of the geographic range of the tick vector in eastern and central Canada. A scoping review of published research was prioritized to identify and characterize the scientific evidence concerning key aspects of LD to support public health efforts. Prior to initiation of this review, an expert advisory group was surveyed to solicit insight on priority topics and scope. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i10a03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707479PMC
October 2018
1 Read

tick distribution and infection rates in Ottawa, Ontario, 2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Oct 4;44(10):237-242. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

University of Ottawa, School of Epidemiology and Public Health, Ottawa, ON.

Background: The incidence of Lyme disease has increased in many regions of Canada in recent years, including in Ottawa, Ontario. To date there has been limited active tick surveillance in the region.

Objectives: To estimate both the distribution and density of ticks in the city of Ottawa, and the infection rates of ticks with (that causes Lyme disease) and other tick-borne pathogens. Read More

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https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/servic
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i10a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707482PMC
October 2018
2 Reads

The continued rise of Lyme disease in Ontario, Canada: 2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Oct 4;44(10):231-236. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Communicable Diseases, Emergency Preparedness and Response, Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON.

Background: Lyme disease is an infection caused by the spirochete and, in most of North America, is transmitted by the blacklegged tick . Climate change has contributed to the expansion of the geographic range of blacklegged ticks in Ontario, increasing the risk of Lyme disease for Ontarians.

Objective: To identify the number of cases and incidence rates, as well as the geographic, seasonal and demographic distribution of Lyme disease cases reported in Ontario in 2017, with comparisons to historical trends. Read More

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https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/phac-aspc/documents/servic
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i10a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707478PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Outbreak of Chailey infections linked to precut coconut pieces - United States and Canada, 2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Oct 4;44(10):264-266. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA.

Foodborne salmonellosis causes an estimated one million illnesses and 400 deaths annually in the United States (US). During March-May 2017, an outbreak of 19 cases of Chailey associated with precut coconut pieces from a single grocery store chain occurred in the United States and Canada. The chain voluntarily recalled precut coconut pieces. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i10a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707480PMC
October 2018
1 Read

Bringing home unwelcome souvenirs: Travel and drug-resistant bacteria.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Nov 1;44(11):277-282. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Public Health Ontario, Toronto, ON.

Antimicrobial resistance poses a significant threat to public health globally and in Canada. Wide regional variability in antimicrobial resistance and ongoing increases in global travel present an important risk for the acquisition and transmission of drug-resistant organisms. Travel from high-income to low- and middle-income countries, particularly the Indian subcontinent, present the greatest risks for acquiring a drug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i11a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707421PMC
November 2018

Evidence for optimal HIV screening and testing intervals in HIV-negative individuals from various risk groups: A systematic review.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Dec 6;44(12):337-347. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Communicable Diseases and Infection Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing plays a crucial role in Canada's HIV prevention and treatment efforts and is the first step to achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets; however, how often Canadians, including populations at increased risk of HIV exposure, should be tested is unclear. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the optimal HIV screening and testing intervals.

Objective: To examine the current evidence on HIV testing intervals in HIV-negative individuals from various risk groups and to assess the potential harms and patients' values and preferences associated with different testing frequencies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i12a05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707414PMC
December 2018

Investigation and management of a large community mumps outbreak among young adults in Toronto, Canada, January 2017-February 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Dec 6;44(12):309-316. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON.

Background: In 2017, a mumps outbreak was identified in a cohort of 18-34 year olds in Toronto, Canada.

Objective: To describe a large community mumps outbreak in an urban centre from January 2017 to February 2018 among young adults.

Methods: A broad range of interventions were implemented in an attempt to reach the target audience; including case and contact management, vaccination clinics at schools and clinicians' offices, school exclusions, bar inspections, traditional communication strategies (including health care provider updates and posters) and newer communication strategies (including three sequential social media campaigns). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i12a01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707419PMC
December 2018
2 Reads

Outbreak of invasive among an inner-city population in Victoria, British Columbia, 2016-2017.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Dec 6;44(12):317-322. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Island Health, Victoria, BC.

Background: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality; however, outbreaks of IPD are relatively rare. Homelessness and substance use are known risk factors for IPD and have been associated with several outbreaks in Canada, despite national recommendations for routine childhood and targeted adult pneumococcal vaccination.

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology and public health challenges related to an outbreak of novel serotype 4 IPD in a homeless and unstably housed population in Victoria, British Columbia during the autumn and winter of 2016-2017. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i12a02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707416PMC
December 2018
1 Read

What is new in the Canadian Immunization Guide: November 2016 to November 2018.

Can Commun Dis Rep 2018 Dec 6;44(12):331-335. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON.

The Canadian Immunization Guide is an online resource that provides evidence-based recommendations on the use of vaccines and vaccine administration practices to health care providers and public health practitioners in Canada. Its contents are based on the most up-to-date recommendations of the National Advisory Committee on Immunization (NACI) and the Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT). The Canadian Immunization Guide (CIG) is frequently updated online in response to new evidence and changing product indications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14745/ccdr.v44i12a06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6707418PMC
December 2018
2 Reads