1,635 results match your criteria Cambridge Quarterly Of Healthcare Ethics[Journal]


Pragmatic Neuroethics: Lived Experiences as a Source of Moral Knowledge.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):578-589

In this article, we present a pragmatic approach to neuroethics, referring back to John Dewey and his articulation of the "common good" and its discovery through systematic methods. Pragmatic neuroethics bridges philosophy and social sciences and, at a very basic level, considers that ethics is not dissociable from lived experiences and everyday moral choices. We reflect on the integration between empirical methods and normative questions, using as our platform recent bioethical and neuropsychological research into moral cognition, action, and experience. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6331682PMC
October 2018

The New Ethics of Neuroethics.

Authors:
Tom Buller

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):558-565

According to a familiar distinction, neuroethics incorporates the neuroscience of ethics and the ethics of neuroscience. Within neuroethics, these two parts have provoked distinct and separate lines of inquiry, and there has been little discussion of how the two parts overlap. In the present article, I try to draw a connection between these two parts by considering the implications that are raised for ethics by scientific findings about the way we make moral decisions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000087DOI Listing
October 2018

Neurolaw and Neuroethics.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):590-598

This short article proposes a conceptual structure for "neurolaw," modeled loosely on the bipartite division of the sister field of neuroethics by Adina Roskies into the "ethics of neuroscience" and the "neuroscience of ethics." As normative fields addressing the implications of scientific discoveries and expanding technological capacities affecting the brain, "neurolaw" and neuroethics have followed parallel paths. Similar foundational questions arise for both about the validity and utility of recognizing them as distinct subfields of law and ethics, respectively. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000117DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Two Problematic Foundations of Neuroethics and Pragmatist Reconstructions.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):566-577

Common understandings of neuroethics, that is, of its distinctive nature, are premised on two distinct sets of claims: (1) neuroscience can change views about the nature of ethics itself and neuroethics is dedicated to reaping such an understanding of ethics, and (2) neuroscience poses challenges distinct from other areas of medicine and science and neuroethics tackles those issues. Critiques have rightfully challenged both claims, stressing how the first may lead to problematic forms of reductionism whereas the second relies on debatable assumptions about the nature of bioethics specialization and development. Informed by philosophical pragmatism and our experience in neuroethics, we argue that these claims are ill founded and should give way to pragmatist reconstructions; namely, that neuroscience, much like other areas of empirical research on morality, can provide useful information about the nature of morally problematic situations, but does not need to promise radical and sweeping changes to ethics based on neuroscientism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000099DOI Listing
October 2018

Advance Directives and Code Status Information Exchange: A Consensus Proposal for a Minimum Set of Attributes.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):178-185

Documentation of code status and advance directives for end-of-life (EOL) care improves care and quality of life, decreases cost of care, and increases the likelihood of an experience desired by the patient and his/her family. However, the use of advance directives and code status remains low and only a few organizations maintain code status in electronic form. Members of the American Medical Informatics Association's Ethics Committee identified a need for a patient's EOL care wishes to be documented correctly and communicated easily through the electronic health record (EHR) using a minimum data set for the storage and exchange of code status information. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096318011800052XDOI Listing
January 2019
21 Reads
0.584 Impact Factor

"Go Ask Alice": The Case for Researching Schedule I Drugs.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):168-177

The available treatments for disorders affecting large segments of the population are often costly, complex, and only marginally effective, and many have numerous side effects. These disorders include dementias, debilitating neurological disorders, the multiple types of drug addiction, and the spectrum of mental health disorders.Preliminary studies have shown that a variety of psychedelic and similar U. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000518DOI Listing
January 2019
10 Reads

John Harris: An Appreciation.

Authors:
John J Paris

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):165-167

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000506DOI Listing
January 2019

Editorial: Looking for Justice from the Health Industry.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):121-123

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000452DOI Listing
January 2019

A Defense of Limited Regulation of Human Genetic Therapies.

Authors:
James J Hughes

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):112-120

There is a role for regulatory oversight over new genetic technologies. Research must ensure the rights of human subjects, and all medical products and techniques should be ensured to be safe and effective. In the United States, these forms of regulation are largely the purview of the National Institutes of Health and the Food and Drug Administration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000440DOI Listing
January 2019

Let Us Assume That Gene Editing is Safe-The Role of Safety Arguments in the Gene Editing Debate.

Authors:
Søren Holm

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):100-111

This paper provides an analysis of the statement, made in many papers and reports on the use of gene editing in humans, that we should only use the technology when it is safe. It provides an analysis of what the statement means in the context of nonreproductive and reproductive gene editing and argues that the statement is inconsistent with the philosophical commitments of some of the authors, who put it forward in relation to reproductive uses of gene editing, specifically their commitment to Parfitian nonidentity considerations and to a legal principle of reproductive liberty.But, if that is true it raises a question about why the statement is made. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000439DOI Listing
January 2019

Gene Drives and Genome Modification in Nonhuman Animals: A Concern for Informed Consent?

Authors:
Joanna Smolenski

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):93-99

In recent years, CRISPR-Cas9 has become one of the simplest and most cost-effective genetic engineering techniques among scientists and researchers aiming to alter genes in organisms. As Zika came to the fore as a global health crisis, many suggested the use of CRISPR-Cas9 gene drives in mosquitoes as a possible means to prevent the transmission of the virus without the need to subject humans to risky experimental treatments. This paper suggests that using gene drives or other forms of genome editing in nonhumans (like mosquitos) for the purposes of disease prevention raises important issues about informed consent. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000427DOI Listing
January 2019

Commentary: Enlightened Democracy in Practice.

Authors:
Oliver Feeney

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):89-92

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000415DOI Listing
January 2019

Regulating Genome Editing: For an Enlightened Democratic Governance.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):76-88

How should we regulate genome editing in the face of persistent substantive disagreement about the moral status of this technology and its applications? In this paper, we aim to contribute to resolving this question. We first present two diametrically opposed possible approaches to the regulation of genome editing. A first approach, which we refer to as "elitist," is inspired by Joshua Greene's work in moral psychology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6316359PMC
January 2019

Can the Thought of Teilhard de Chardin Carry Us Past Current Contentious Discussions of Gene Editing Technologies?

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):62-75

The advent of CRISPR-Cas9 technology has increased attention, and contention, regarding the use and regulation of genome editing technologies. Public discussions continue to give evidence of this debate falling back into the previous polarized positions of technological enthusiasts versus those who are more cautious in their approach. One response to this contentious relapse could be to view this promising and problematic new technology from a radically different perspective that embraces both the excitement of this technological advance and the prudence necessary to use it well. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S096318011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000397DOI Listing
January 2019
3 Reads

Commentary: The Implementation Ethics of Moral Enhancement.

Authors:
Nicholas Agar

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):55-61

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000385DOI Listing
January 2019

Genome Editing for Involuntary Moral Enhancement.

Authors:
Vojin Rakić

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):46-54

During the previous years, voluntary moral bioenhancement (VMBE) has been contrasted to compulsory moral bioenhancement (CMBE). In this paper a third possible type of moral bioenhancement is discussed: genome editing for moral enhancement of the unborn that is neither voluntary nor compulsory, but involuntary. Involuntary moral bioenhancement (IMBE) might engineer people who will be more moral than they otherwise would have been. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000373DOI Listing
January 2019

Commentary: Setting the Bar Higher.

Authors:
Nicolas Delon

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):40-45

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000361DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Gene Doping-in Animals? Ethical Issues at the Intersection of Animal Use, Gene Editing, and Sports Ethics.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):26-39

Gene editors such as CRISPR could be used to create stronger, faster, or more resilient nonhuman animals. This is of keen interest to people who breed, train, race, and profit off the millions of animals used in sport that contribute billions of dollars to legal and illegal economies across the globe. People have tried for millennia to perfect sport animals; CRISPR proposes to do in one generation what might have taken decades previously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096318011800035XDOI Listing
January 2019

Commentary: From Liberal Eugenics to Political Biology.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):20-25

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000348DOI Listing
January 2019

Why We Should Defend Gene Editing as Eugenics.

Authors:
Nicholas Agar

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2019 Jan;28(1):9-19

This paper considers the relevance of the concept of "eugenics,"-a term associated with some of the most egregious crimes of the twentieth century-to the possibility of editing human genomes. The author identifies some uses of gene editing as eugenics but proposes that this identification does not suffice to condemn them. He proposes that we should distinguish between "morally wrong" practices, which should be condemned, and "morally problematic" practices that call for solutions, and he suggests that eugenic uses of gene editing fall into this latter category. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000336DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Neuroscience and Social Problems: The Case of Neuropunishment.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):628-634

Neuroscientific interventions are increasingly proposed as solutions for social problems, beyond their application in biomedicine. For example, there is increasing interest, particularly from outside commentators, in harnessing neuroscientific advances as an alternative method of punishing criminal offenders. Such neuropunishments are seen as a potentially more effective, less costly, and more humane alternative to incarceration, with overall better results for offender, communities, and societies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000269DOI Listing
October 2018

Commentary: Treating the Patient Who Has the Disease.

Authors:
Eric H Denys

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):738-740

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000245DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

The Case: Medically Disabled or Malingering?

Authors:

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):738

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S096318011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000233DOI Listing
October 2018
4 Reads

Looking Ahead: The Importance of Views, Values, and Voices in Neuroethics-Now.

Authors:
James Giordano

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):728-731

The body-to-head transplant (BHT) planned to be undertaken later this year at China's Harbin Medical University by neurosurgeons Sergio Canavero and Xiaoping Ren has attracted considerable attention and criticism. The intended operation gives rise to philosophical queries about the body-brain-mind relationship and nature of the subjective self; technical and ethical issues regarding the scientific soundness, safety, and futility of the procedure; the adequacy of prior research; and the relative merit, folly, and/or danger of forging new boundaries of what is biomedically possible. Moreover, that this procedure, which has been prohibited from being undertaken in other countries, has been sanctioned in China brings into stark relief ways that differing social and political values, philosophies, ethics, and laws can affect the scope and conduct of research. Read More

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https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S096318011
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096318011800021XDOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Concussion in Sport: The Unheeded Evidence.

Authors:
Grant Gillett

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):710-716

Patients with repeated minor head injury are a challenge to our clinical skills of neurodiagnosis because the relevant evidence objectively demonstrating their impairment was collected in New Zealand (although published in the BMJ and Lancet) and, at the time, was mired in controversy. The effects of repeated closed diffuse head injury are increasingly recognized worldwide, but now suffer from the relentless advance of imaging technology as the dominant form of neurodiagnosis and the considerable financial interests that underpin the refusal to recognize that acute accelerational injury is the most subtle and insidiously damaging (especially when seen in the light of biopsychosocial medicine), and potentially one of the most financially momentous (given the large incomes impacted and needing compensation) phenomena in modern sports medicine. The vested interests in downplaying this phenomenon are considerable and concentrated in North America where diffuse head injury is a widespread feature of the dominant winter sports code: Gridiron or American Rules football. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000191DOI Listing
October 2018
1 Read

Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):717-727

In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000208DOI Listing
October 2018

Doing Good, Choosing Freely: How Moral Enhancement Can Be Compatible with Individual Freedom.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):698-709

Moral enhancement has been accused of curtailing human freedoms. In this article, I suggest the opposite: moral enhancement and individual freedom can go hand in hand. The first section defines freedom, enhancement, and morality and argues that only a naturalistic account of morality allows for the concept of enhancement. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096318011800018XDOI Listing
October 2018

Do New Neuroimaging Findings Challenge the Ethical Basis of Advance Directives in Disorders of Consciousness?

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):675-685

Some authors have questioned the moral authority of advance directives (ADs) in cases in which it is not clear if the author of the AD is identical to the person to whom it later applies. This article focuses on the question of whether the latest results of neuroimaging studies have moral significance with regard to the moral authority of ADs in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOCs). Some neuroimaging findings could provide novel insights into the question of whether patients with DOCs exhibit sufficient psychological continuity to be ascribed diachronic personal identity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000166DOI Listing
October 2018

Call of Duty at the Frontier of Research: Normative Epistemology for High-Risk/High-Gain Studies of Deep Brain Stimulation.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):647-659

Research participants are entitled to many rights that may easily come into conflict. The most important ones are that researchers respect their autonomy as persons and act on the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Since 2014, research subjects from numerous states in the United States of America also have a legal "right to try" that allows them, under certain circumstances, to receive experimental (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000142DOI Listing
October 2018

Amplio, Ergo Sum.

Authors:
David R Lawrence

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):686-697

This article aims to explore the idea that enhancement technologies have been and will continue to be an essential element of what we might call the "human continuum," and are indeed key to our existence and evolution into persons. Whereas conservative commentators argue that enhancement is likely to cause us to lose our humanity and become something other, it is argued here that the very opposite is true: that enhancement is the core of what and who we are. Using evidence from paleoanthropology to examine the nature of our predecessor species, and their proclivities for tool use, we can see that there is good reason to assume that the development of Homo sapiens is a direct result of the use of enhancement technologies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000178DOI Listing
October 2018
3 Reads

Ethical Considerations in Ending Exploratory Brain-Computer Interface Research Studies in Locked-in Syndrome.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):660-674

Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a promising technology for restoring communication in individuals with locked-in syndrome (LIS). BCI technology offers a potential tool for individuals with impaired or absent means of effective communication to use brain activity to control an output device such as a computer keyboard. Exploratory studies of BCI devices for communication in people with LIS are underway. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000154DOI Listing
October 2018

Brain-Computer Interfaces: Lessons to Be Learned from the Ethics of Algorithms.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):635-646

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are driven essentially by algorithms; however, the ethical role of such algorithms has so far been neglected in the ethical assessment of BCIs. The goal of this article is therefore twofold: First, it aims to offer insights into whether (and how) the problems related to the ethics of BCIs (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000130DOI Listing
October 2018

Neurophilosophical and Ethical Aspects of Virtual Reality Therapy in Neurology and Psychiatry.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):610-627

Highly immersive virtual reality (VR) systems have been introduced into the consumer market in recent years. The improved technological capabilities of these systems as well as the combination with biometric sensors, for example electroencephalography (EEG), in a closed-loop hybrid VR-EEG, opens up a range of new potential medical applications. This article first provides an overview of the past and current clinical applications of VR systems in neurology and psychiatry and introduces core concepts in neurophilosophy and VR research (such as agency, trust, presence, and others). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000129DOI Listing
October 2018
2 Reads

Constructive Disappointment and Disbelief: Building a Career in Neuroethics.

Authors:
Joseph J Fins

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct;27(4):544-553

Sometimes one's greatest academic disappointments can have unexpected outcomes. This is especially true when one is trying to change career trajectories or do something that others did not take seriously. My path into neuroethics was an unexpected journey catalyzed in part by constructive disappointment and the disbelief of colleagues who thought that the work I was pursuing nearly two decades prior was a fool's errand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000063DOI Listing
October 2018

Who Owns My Autonomous Vehicle? Ethics and Responsibility in Artificial and Human Intelligence.

Authors:
John Harris

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Oct 6;27(4):599-609. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

This article investigates both the claims made for, and the dangers or opportunities posed by, the development of (allegedly), aspiring or "would-be" autonomous vehicles and other artificially superintelligent machines. It also examines the dilemmas posed by the fact that these individuals might develop ideas above their station. These ideas may also limit or challenge the legitimacy of the proposed management and safety strategies that might be devised to limit the ways in which they might function or malfunction. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000038DOI Listing
October 2018

Contributors-Corrigendum.

Authors:

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 Jun 19. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180118000282DOI Listing

An Archeology of Corruption in Medicine.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):525-535

Corruption is a word used loosely to describe many kinds of action that people find distasteful. We prefer to reserve it for the intentional misuse of the good offices of an established social entity for private benefit, posing as fair trading. The currency of corruption is not always material or financial. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000925DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads

"I Left the Museum Somewhat Changed": Visual Arts and Health Ethics Education.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):511-524

A common goal of ethics education is to equip students who later become health practitioners to not only know about the ethical principles guiding their practice, but to also autonomously recognize when and how these principles might apply and assist these future practitioners in providing care for patients and families. This article aims to contribute to discussions about ethics education pedagogy and teaching, by presenting and evaluating the use of the visual arts as an educational approach designed to facilitate students' moral imagination and independent critical thinking about ethics in clinical practice. We describe a sequence of ethics education strategies over a 3 year Doctor of Physiotherapy program, focusing on the final year professional ethics assessment task, which involved the use of visual arts to stimulate the exploration of ethics in healthcare. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000913DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Robots as Imagined in the Television Series Humans.

Authors:
Mark R Wicclair

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):497-510

Humans is a science fiction television series set in what appears to be present-day London. What makes it science fiction is that in London and worldwide, there are robots that look like humans and can mimic human behavior. The series raises several important ethical and philosophical questions about artificial intelligence and robotics, which should be of interest to bioethicists. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000901DOI Listing

Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):470-473

This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S096318011700086XDOI Listing

A Closer Look at the Junior Doctor Crisis in the United Kingdom's National Health Services: Is Emigration Justifiable?

Authors:
Wendy Zi Wei Teo

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):474-486

This article attempts to tackle the ethically and morally troubling issue of emigration of physicians from the United Kingdom, and whether it can be justified. Unlike most research that has already been undertaken in this field, which looks at migration from developing countries to developed countries, this article takes an in-depth look at the migration of physicians between developed countries, in particular from the United Kingdom (UK) to other developed countries such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (US). This examination was written in response to a current and critical crisis in the National Health Service (NHS), where impending contract changes may bring about a potential exodus of junior doctors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000871DOI Listing

Moral Enhancement in Russia: Lessons from the Past.

Authors:
Pavel Tischenko

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):467-469

Against the contemporary debates on techniques of "moral enhancement," this article reviews the interpretation and methods of moral enhancement during the Stalin years in Russia: (1) the GULAG and (2) the abuse of psychiatry. The article serves as a cautionary tale for today's policy debates, from the personal experiences of the author. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000858DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

Ethical Reflections on the Equity of the Current Basic Health Insurance System Reform in China: A Case Study in Hunan Province.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):447-458

China's current basic health insurance reform aims at promoting equity in the economic accessibility of health services for all citizens, to better ensure healthcare justice. Therefore, it is important to assess equity not only from a socioeconomic perspective but also from an ethical angle. This article investigates the basic health insurance system of Hunan Province in China by focusing on insurance types as well as their classification standards, mechanisms, and utilization according to local policy documents and data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000834DOI Listing
July 2018
1 Read

The Understanding of Death in Terminally Ill Cancer Patients in China: An Initial Study.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):421-430

Patient's needs and rights are the key to delivering state-of-the-art modern nursing care. It is especially challenging to provide proper nursing care for patients who are reaching the end of life (EOL). In Chinese culture nursing practice, the perception and expectations of these EOL patients are not well known. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000809DOI Listing
July 2018
9 Reads

Determination of Death in Execution by Lethal Injection in China.

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2018 07;27(3):459-466

Since 1997, execution in China has been increasingly performed by lethal injection. The current criteria for determination of death for execution by lethal injection (cessation of heartbeat, cessation of respiration, and dilated pupils) neither conform to current medical science nor to any standard of medical ethics. In practice, death is pronounced in China within tens of seconds after starting the lethal injection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180117000846DOI Listing
July 2018
2 Reads