198,378 results match your criteria Cambridge Journal Of Education[Journal]


A luminescent solar concentrator ray tracing simulator with a graphical user interface: Features and applications.

Methods Appl Fluoresc 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

University of Melbourne School of Chemistry, Parkville, Victoria, AUSTRALIA.

A Monte-Carlo ray tracing simulator with a graphical user interface (MCRTS-GUI) has been developed to provide a quantitative description, performance evaluation and photon loss analysis of luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The algorithm is applied to several practical LSC device structures including multiple dyes in the same waveguiding layer, and structures where a dye layer is sandwiched between clear substrates. The effect of the host matrix absorption and the influence of the neighboring layers are investigated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/2050-6120/ab993dDOI Listing

Analysis of Genetically Regulated Gene Expression Identifies a Prefrontal PTSD Gene, SNRNP35, Specific to Military Cohorts.

Cell Rep 2020 Jun;31(9):107716

Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA; Department of Psychiatry, McLean Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Belmont, MA 02478, USA; Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

To reveal post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) genetic risk influences on tissue-specific gene expression, we use brain and non-brain transcriptomic imputation. We impute genetically regulated gene expression (GReX) in 29,539 PTSD cases and 166,145 controls from 70 ancestry-specific cohorts and identify 18 significant GReX-PTSD associations corresponding to specific tissue-gene pairs. The results suggest substantial genetic heterogeneity based on ancestry, cohort type (military versus civilian), and sex. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107716DOI Listing

Neuronal Inactivity Co-opts LTP Machinery to Drive Potassium Channel Splicing and Homeostatic Spike Widening.

Cell 2020 May 29. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, Neuroscience Institute, NYU Grossman Medical Center, New York, NY 10016, USA; Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY 10003, USA. Electronic address:

Homeostasis of neural firing properties is important in stabilizing neuronal circuitry, but how such plasticity might depend on alternative splicing is not known. Here we report that chronic inactivity homeostatically increases action potential duration by changing alternative splicing of BK channels; this requires nuclear export of the splicing factor Nova-2. Inactivity and Nova-2 relocation were connected by a novel synapto-nuclear signaling pathway that surprisingly invoked mechanisms akin to Hebbian plasticity: Ca-permeable AMPA receptor upregulation, L-type Ca channel activation, enhanced spine Ca transients, nuclear translocation of a CaM shuttle, and nuclear CaMKIV activation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.013DOI Listing

Exome Sequencing Identifies Genes and Gene Sets Contributing to Severe Childhood Obesity, Linking PHIP Variants to Repressed POMC Transcription.

Cell Metab 2020 Jun;31(6):1107-1119.e12

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK; University of Cambridge MRC Epidemiology Unit, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Obesity is genetically heterogeneous with monogenic and complex polygenic forms. Using exome and targeted sequencing in 2,737 severely obese cases and 6,704 controls, we identified three genes (PHIP, DGKI, and ZMYM4) with an excess burden of very rare predicted deleterious variants in cases. In cells, we found that nuclear PHIP (pleckstrin homology domain interacting protein) directly enhances transcription of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), a neuropeptide that suppresses appetite. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.05.007DOI Listing

Rituximab for High-Risk, Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in Children.

N Engl J Med 2020 Jun;382(23):2207-2219

From the Departments of Pediatric and Adolescent Oncology (V.M.-C., C.P.) and Clinical Research (G.V.), INSERM Unité 1015 (V.M.-C.), and the Unit of Biostatistics and Epidemiology and INSERM Unité 1018 (A.A.), Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France; the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Padua, Padua, Italy (M.P.); the Department of Paediatric Haematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge (G.A.A.B.), Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit, Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (K.W.), and the Department of Histopathology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (A.W.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles (D.A.B.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain (R.F.D.); the Division of Haematology-Oncology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (S.A.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium (A.U.); the Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's National Health System and George Washington University, Washington, DC (C.M.B.); Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands (J.Z.); the Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary (M.C.); the Department of Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation, Oncology, and Hematology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland (B.K.); the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (A.K.C.); the Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (R.R.M.); Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia (P.C.A.); and the National Cancer Institute, Center for Global Health, Rockville, MD (T.G.G.).

Background: Rituximab added to chemotherapy prolongs survival among adults with B-cell cancer. Data on its efficacy and safety in children with high-grade, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are limited.

Methods: We conducted an open-label, international, randomized, phase 3 trial involving patients younger than 18 years of age with high-risk, mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (stage III with an elevated lactate dehydrogenase level or stage IV) or acute leukemia to compare the addition of six doses of rituximab to standard lymphomes malins B (LMB) chemotherapy with standard LMB chemotherapy alone. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1915315DOI Listing

Mass spectrometric characterisation of the circulating peptidome following oral glucose ingestion in control and gastrectomised patients.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2020 Jun 3:e8849. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Wellcome Trust - MRC Institute of Metabolic Science Metabolic Research Laboratories, Cambridge University, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

Rationale: Meal ingestion triggers secretion of a variety of gut and endocrine peptides important in diabetes research which are routinely measured by immunoassays. However, similarities between some peptides (glucagon, oxyntomodulin and glicentin) can cause specificity issues with immunoassays. We used an LC/MS/MS methodology for unambiguously monitoring multiple gut peptides in human plasma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8849DOI Listing

Potential Neuroinvasive Pathways of SARS-CoV-2: Deciphering the Spectrum of Neurological Deficit Seen in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Mount Auburn Hospital, Boston Urogynecology Associates, Cambridge, MA, USA.

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic on March 11, 2020. Scientists and clinicians must acknowledge that Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to attack the human body in multiple ways simultaneously and exploit any weaknesses of its host. A multipronged attack could potentially explain the severity and extensive variety of signs and symptoms observed in patients with COVID-19. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26105DOI Listing

A de novo approach to inferring within-host fitness effects during untreated HIV-1 infection.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jun 3;16(6):e1008171. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In the absence of effective antiviral therapy, HIV-1 evolves in response to the within-host environment, of which the immune system is an important aspect. During the earliest stages of infection, this process of evolution is very rapid, driven by a small number of CTL escape mutations. As the infection progresses, immune escape variants evolve under reduced magnitudes of selection, while competition between an increasing number of polymorphic alleles (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008171DOI Listing

A drive for structure: A longitudinal qualitative study of the implementation of the Carer Support Needs Assessment Tool (CSNAT) intervention during hospital discharge at end of life.

Palliat Med 2020 Jun 3:269216320930935. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

School of Health Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Informal carers are essential in enabling discharge home from hospital at end of life and supporting palliative patients at home, but are often ill-prepared for the role. Carers' support needs are rarely considered at discharge. If carers are less able to cope with home care, patient care may suffer and readmission may become more likely. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269216320930935DOI Listing

Cabozantinib in combination with atezolizumab sorafenib in treatment-naive advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: COSMIC-312 Phase III study design.

Future Oncol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Medical Oncology & Hematology Unit, Humanitas Cancer Center, Humanitas Clinical & Research Center, IRCCS, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Cabozantinib is an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGFR, MET and the TAM (TYRO3, AXL, MER) family of kinase receptors. In addition to their role in tumor growth and angiogenesis, cabozantinib targets promote an immune-suppressive microenvironment. Cabozantinib is approved as single-agent therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who received prior sorafenib. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0283DOI Listing

Application of a Simple Parkinson's Disease Risk Score in a Longitudinal Population-Based Cohort.

Mov Disord 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Neurology, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Identifying individuals at risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is critical to define target populations for future neuroprotective trials.

Objective: The objective of this study was to apply the PREDICT-PD algorithm of risk indicators for PD in a prospective community-based study (the Bruneck study), representative of the general elderly population.

Methods: PREDICT-PD risk scores were calculated based on risk factor assessments obtained at baseline (2005, n = 574 participants). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.28127DOI Listing

How can we improve antidepressant adherence in the management of depression? A targeted review and 10 clinical recommendations.

Braz J Psychiatry 2020 Jun 1. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Adherence to antidepressants is crucial for optimal treatment outcomes when treating depressive disorders. However, poor adherence is common among patients prescribed antidepressants. This targeted review summarizes the main factors associated with poor adherence, interventions that promote antidepressant adherence, pharmacological aspects related to antidepressant adherence, and formulates 10 clinical recommendations to optimize antidepressant adherence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0935DOI Listing

Clinical decision support tool and rapid point-of-care platform for determining disease severity in patients with COVID-19.

Lab Chip 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biomaterials, Bioengineering Institute, New York University, 433 First Avenue, Room 820, New York, NY 10010-4086, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19) which has reached pandemic levels resulting in significant morbidity and mortality affecting every inhabited continent. The large number of patients requiring intensive care threatens to overwhelm healthcare systems globally. Likewise, there is a compelling need for a COVID-19 disease severity test to prioritize care and resources for patients at elevated risk of mortality. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00373eDOI Listing

Predicting Onset of Dementia Using Clinical Notes and Machine Learning: Case-Control Study.

JMIR Med Inform 2020 Jun 3;8(6):e17819. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

OptumLabs, Optum, Cambridge, MA, United States.

Background: Clinical trials need efficient tools to assist in recruiting patients at risk of Alzheimer disease and related dementias (ADRD). Early detection can also assist patients with financial planning for long-term care. Clinical notes are an important, underutilized source of information in machine learning models because of the cost of collection and complexity of analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/17819DOI Listing

2019 meeting report.

J Med Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7BE, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.001208DOI Listing

Real-World Treatment Patterns and Progression-Free Survival Associated with Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapies for ALK+ Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncologist 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, Orlando, Florida, USA.

Background: Little is known about real-world treatment and outcomes of patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Materials And Methods: This retrospective study of the Flatiron Health EHR-derived deidentified database included patients with a lung cancer diagnosis and confirmed advanced NSCLC who received ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy (January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2018). Patient characteristics and treatment patterns were characterized. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0011DOI Listing

C(sp)-H arylation to construct all-syn cyclobutane-based heterobicyclic systems: a novel fragment collection.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK.

All-syn fused cyclobutanes remain an elusive chemotype and thus present an interesting synthetic challenge. Herein, we report the successful application of Pd-catalysed C(sp3)-H arylation of cyclobutane compounds to generate all-syn heterobicyclic fragments using an innovative 'inside-out' approach. Through this strategy we generate a virtual collection of 90 fragments, which we demonstrate to have enhanced three-dimensionality and superior fragment-like properties compared to existing collections. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc03237aDOI Listing

Luminescent silicon nanostructures and COVID-19.

Faraday Discuss 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry "Giacomo Ciamician", University of Bologna, via Selmi 2, Bologna, Italy.

This Faraday Discussion volume is unique in the hundred plus year history of the Faraday Discussion series, being produced at a time of unprecedented circumstances worldwide and without the preceding Faraday Discussion conference having taken place. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fd90009eDOI Listing

A simple approach to prepare self-assembled, nacre-inspired clay/polymer nanocomposites.

Authors:
P Xu T Erdem E Eiser

Soft Matter 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK.

Inspired by the relationship between the well-ordered architecture of aragonite crystals and biopolymers found in natural nacre, we present a facile strategy to construct large-scale organic/inorganic nacre-mimetics with hierarchical structure via a water-evaporation driven self-assembly process. We connect LAPONITE®-nanoclay platelets with each other using carboxymethyl cellulose, a cellulose derivative, thus creating thin, flexible films with a local brick-and-mortar architecture. The dried films show a pronounced resistance against tensile forces allowing for stronger thin films than nacre. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm01585jDOI Listing

Associations between PTSD-Related extinction retention deficits in women and plasma steroids that modulate brain GABA and NMDA receptor activity.

Neurobiol Stress 2020 Nov 15;13:100225. Epub 2020 May 15.

National Center for PTSD Women's Health Sciences Division at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, 02130, USA.

Several studies have demonstrated poor retention of extinction learning among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Gonadal hormone signaling in brain appears to influence the retention of extinction learning differently in women with and without PTSD. Women with PTSD, compared to trauma-exposed women without PTSD, show relative deficits in extinction retention during the mid-luteal phase (mLP) of the menstrual cycle, compared to the early follicular phase (eFP). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2020.100225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256058PMC
November 2020

Impact of Diabetes on Complications, Long Term Mortality and Recurrence in 608,890 Hospitalised Patients with Stroke.

Glob Heart 2020 Feb 6;15(1). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research (ACER) Team, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences and Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have been found to be at an increased risk of suffering a stroke. However, research on the impact of DM on stroke outcomes is limited.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the influence of DM on outcomes in ischaemic (IS) and haemorrhagic stroke (HS) patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/gh.364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218766PMC
February 2020

Validation of the Khorana Score to Assess Venous Thromboembolism and Its Association with Mortality in Cancer Patients: A Retrospective Community-based Observational Experience.

Cureus 2020 Apr 29;12(4):e7883. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Internal Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, USA.

Introduction: Khorana score (KS) stratifies patients into low, intermediate, and high risk groups for venous thromboembolism (VTE). We examined the generalizability of the KS to risk of VTE and association with mortality.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Mount Auburn Hospital, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255532PMC

Recent trends in airway management.

F1000Res 2020 13;9. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of General Anesthesiology, Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

Clinical airway management continues to advance at a fast pace. To help update busy anesthesiologists, this abbreviated review summarizes notable airway management advances over the past few years. We briefly discuss advances in video laryngoscopy, in flexible intubation scopes, in jet ventilation, and in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.21914.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222034PMC

Lasting the distance: The survival of alien birds shipped to New Zealand in the 19th century.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 7;10(9):3944-3953. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Invasion Ecology Czech Academy of Sciences Institute of Botany Průhonice Czech Republic.

Invasive alien species are a major threat to biodiversity and human activities, providing a strong incentive to understand the processes by which alien invasion occurs. While it is important to understand the determinants of success at each of several invasion stages-transport, introduction, establishment, and spread-few studies have explored the first of these stages. Here, we quantify and analyze variation in the success of individual animals in surviving the transport stage, based on shipping records of European passerines destined for New Zealand. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244811PMC

Species specificity and intraspecific variation in the chemical profiles of butterflies across a large geographic range.

Ecol Evol 2020 May 3;10(9):3895-3918. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Zoology University of Cambridge Cambridge UK.

In many animals, mate choice is important for the maintenance of reproductive isolation between species. Traits important for mate choice and behavioral isolation are predicted to be under strong stabilizing selection within species; however, such traits can also exhibit variation at the population level driven by neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes. Here, we describe patterns of divergence among androconial and genital chemical profiles at inter- and intraspecific levels in mimetic butterflies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244815PMC

affect behavior and possibly reproductive compatibility but not thermoresistance, fecundity, and morphology in a novel transinfected host, .

Ecol Evol 2020 May 12;10(10):4457-4470. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Department of Ecology University of Innsbruck Innsbruck Austria.

, intracellular endosymbionts, are estimated to infect about half of all arthropod species. These bacteria manipulate their hosts in various ways for their maximum benefits. The rising global temperature may accelerate species migration, and thus, horizontal transfer of may occur across species previously not in contact. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246211PMC

Anthropometry of Nonarthritic Asian Knees: Is It Time for a Race-Specific Knee Implant?

Clin Orthop Surg 2020 Jun 14;12(2):158-165. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Orthopaedics, Sir HN Reliance Foundation Hospital and Research Center, Mumbai, India.

Background: This study was done to study the anthropometry of nonarthritic Asian knees; to determine the differences in morphology between knees of different ethnicities and to compare the knee anthropometry values with sizes of available knee implants.

Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging scans of 100 nonarthritic Indian knees were analyzed. Anteroposterior (AP) length, mediolateral (ML) length, and aspect ratio of the distal femur and proximal tibia, patellar length, and patellar tendon length were measured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4055/cios19069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7237262PMC

And whatsoever I shall see or hear …I will never divulge. Confidentiality and disclosure for intensivists.

J Intensive Care Soc 2020 May 5;21(2):158-164. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Police requests to provide information about unconscious patients frequently cause difficulty for intensivists. This article reviews the circumstances where an intensive care doctor may and should disclose information about unconscious patients to the police. It first considers what constitutes private and confidential information and explains why this information should be protected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143719870081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238473PMC

Mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation service for severe acute respiratory failure - A review of five years of experience.

J Intensive Care Soc 2020 May 10;21(2):134-139. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Provision of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as part of support escalation in severe refractory acute respiratory failure in England is provided by five specialist centres that operate within a well-defined quality and safety framework. We conducted a qualitative study of the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation retrieval service provided by one of the five centres. We analysed 176 consecutive debrief reports written between October 2013 and April 2018 by the consultant. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143719855207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238467PMC

Reconsidering critical illness as an uncharacterised acquired mitochondrial disorder.

J Intensive Care Soc 2020 May 10;21(2):102-104. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1751143719892788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238470PMC

The rK39 Antigen from an Iranian Strain of : Detection of Anti- Antibodies in Humans and Dogs.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Jan-Mar;15(1):48-56

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis in Iran with high mortality rates in the case of inaccurate diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to prepare and evaluate a new rk39 recombinant antigen from an Iranian strain of for diagnosis of VL in humans and dogs.

Methods: rK39-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was compared with the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti antibodies. Read More

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Neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure alters cardiovascular function in young adult horses in a sex-linked manner.

J Dev Orig Health Dis 2020 Jun 3:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, CambridgeCB2 3EG, UK.

Prenatal glucocorticoid overexposure has been shown to programme adult cardiovascular function in a range of species, but much less is known about the long-term effects of neonatal glucocorticoid overexposure. In horses, prenatal maturation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the normal prepartum surge in fetal cortisol occur late in gestation compared to other precocious species. Cortisol levels continue to rise in the hours after birth of full-term foals and increase further in the subsequent days in premature, dysmature and maladapted foals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S2040174420000446DOI Listing

Quantitative Proteomics Analysis by Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra-Mass Spectrometry Reveals a Cross-Protection Mechanism for To Tolerate High-Concentration Ammonium Chloride.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Hunan Key Laboratory of Forestry Edible Sources Safety and Processing, Changsha, Hunan 410004, People's Republic of China.

To achieve the accumulation of targeted secondary metabolites, microorganisms must adopt various protection mechanisms to avoid or reduce damage to cells caused by abiotic stresses, which formed from the changes of physical and chemical culture conditions. The protection mechanism of sp. to tolerate high-concentration ammonium chloride was analyzed by sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra-mass spectrometry proteomics in this work, and the results indicated that abiotic stresses caused by high-concentration ammonium chloride inhibited the synthesis of chitin and glycoprotein, leading to a decrease in cell wall integrity and, thus, affecting cell growth. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c01607DOI Listing

Phase 1 Study to Evaluate the Effect of the Investigational Anticancer Agent Sapanisertib on the QTc Interval in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

The aim of this phase 1 study was to determine the effects of sapanisertib on the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval in patients with advanced solid tumors. Adult patients with advanced solid tumors were enrolled to receive a single sapanisertib 40-mg dose. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic analysis were collected and electrocardiogram readings were recorded at baseline and up to 48 hours after dosing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.808DOI Listing

Recognition of Girls on the Autism Spectrum by Primary School Educators: An Experimental Study.

Autism Res 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.

Autism has long been considered a predominantly male condition. It is increasingly understood, however, that autistic females are under-recognized. This may reflect gender stereotyping, whereby symptoms are missed in females, because it is assumed that autism is mainly a male condition. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aur.2316DOI Listing

Effect of low-dose aspirin on health outcomes: An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Centre for Global Health Research, Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Aims: This study aimed to use an umbrella review methodology to capture the range of outcomes that were associated with low-dose aspirin and to systematically assess the credibility of this evidence.

Methods: Aspirin is associated with several health outcomes, but the overall benefit/risk balance related to aspirin use is unclear. We searched three major databases up to 15 August 2019 for meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including low-dose aspirin compared to placebo or other treatments. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14310DOI Listing

Empathic Accuracy in Female Adolescents with Conduct Disorder and Sex Differences in the Relationship Between Conduct Disorder and Empathy.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, UK.

Research on empathy in youth with Conduct Disorder (CD) has primarily focused on males, with the few studies that have investigated empathy in females relying on questionnaire measures. Our primary aim was to investigate whether females with CD show empathy deficits when using a more ecologically-valid task. We used an empathic accuracy (EA) paradigm that involved watching videos of actors recalling emotional experiences and providing continuous ratings of emotional intensity (assessing EA), naming the emotion expressed (emotion recognition), and reporting whether they shared the emotion expressed (affective empathy). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-020-00659-yDOI Listing

Consumption of Fish and ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cancer Risk: An Umbrella Review of Meta-Analyses of Observational Studies.

Adv Nutr 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Internal Medicine V, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Multiple studies have suggested that ω-3 fatty acid intake may have a protective effect on cancer risk; however, its true association with cancer risk remains controversial. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses to summarize and evaluate the evidence for the association between ω-3 fatty acid intake and cancer outcomes. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to December 1, 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa055DOI Listing

Reproducibility of animal research in light of biological variation.

Nat Rev Neurosci 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Animal Welfare Division, Vetsuisse, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Context-dependent biological variation presents a unique challenge to the reproducibility of results in experimental animal research, because organisms' responses to experimental treatments can vary with both genotype and environmental conditions. In March 2019, experts in animal biology, experimental design and statistics convened in Blonay, Switzerland, to discuss strategies addressing this challenge. In contrast to the current gold standard of rigorous standardization in experimental animal research, we recommend the use of systematic heterogenization of study samples and conditions by actively incorporating biological variation into study design through diversifying study samples and conditions. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0313-3DOI Listing

High permeability sub-nanometre sieve composite MoS membranes.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 2;11(1):2747. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Two-dimensional membranes have gained enormous interest due to their potential to deliver precision filtration of species with performance that can challenge current desalination membrane platforms. Molybdenum disulfide (MoS) laminar membranes have recently demonstrated superior stability in aqueous environment to their extensively-studied analogs graphene-based membranes; however, challenges such as low ion rejection for high salinity water, low water flux, and low stability over time delay their potential adoption as a viable technology. Here, we report composite laminate multilayer MoS membranes with stacked heterodimensional one- to two-layer-thick porous nanosheets and nanodisks. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16577-yDOI Listing

The impact of climate and antigenic evolution on seasonal influenza virus epidemics in Australia.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 2;11(1):2741. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Although seasonal influenza viruses circulate globally, prevention and treatment occur at the level of regions, cities, and communities. At these scales, the timing, duration and magnitude of epidemics vary substantially, but the underlying causes of this variation are poorly understood. Here, based on analyses of a 15-year city-level dataset of 18,250 laboratory-confirmed and antigenically-characterised influenza virus infections from Australia, we investigate the effects of previously hypothesised environmental and virological drivers of influenza epidemics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16545-6DOI Listing

Multiplexed relative and absolute quantitative immunopeptidomics reveals MHC I repertoire alterations induced by CDK4/6 inhibition.

Nat Commun 2020 Jun 2;11(1):2760. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA.

Peptides bound to class I major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) play a critical role in immune cell recognition and can trigger an antitumor immune response in cancer. Surface MHC levels can be modulated by anticancer agents, altering immunity. However, understanding the peptide repertoire's response to treatment remains challenging and is limited by quantitative mass spectrometry-based strategies lacking normalization controls. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16588-9DOI Listing

Neural responsivity to social rewards in autistic female youth.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 Jun 2;10(1):178. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, USA.

Autism is hypothesized to be in part driven by a reduced sensitivity to the inherently rewarding nature of social stimuli. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated that autistic males do indeed display reduced neural activity to social rewards, but it is unknown whether this finding extends to autistic females, particularly as behavioral evidence suggests that affected females may not exhibit the same reduction in social motivation as their male peers. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine social reward processing during an instrumental implicit learning task in 154 children and adolescents (ages 8-17): 39 autistic girls, 43 autistic boys, 33 typically developing girls, and 39 typically developing boys. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0824-8DOI Listing

Demonstration of In Vitro to In Vivo Translation of a TYK2 Inhibitor That Shows Cross Species Potency Differences.

Sci Rep 2020 Jun 2;10(1):8974. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Medicine Design, Pfizer Inc, Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut, 06340, United States.

Translation of modulation of drug target activity to therapeutic effect is a critical aspect for all drug discovery programs. In this work we describe the profiling of a non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase (TYK2) inhibitor which shows a functionally relevant potency shift between human and preclinical species (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65762-yDOI Listing

Stratification and prediction of drug synergy based on target functional similarity.

NPJ Syst Biol Appl 2020 Jun 2;6(1):16. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

RWTH Aachen University, Faculty of Medicine, Joint Research Centre for Computational Biomedicine (JRC-COMBINE), Aachen, Germany.

Drug combinations can expand therapeutic options and address cancer's resistance. However, the combinatorial space is enormous precluding its systematic exploration. Therefore, synergy prediction strategies are essential. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41540-020-0136-xDOI Listing

A Novel Simulated Training Platform and Study of Performance Among Different Levels of Learners in Flexible Cystoscopy.

Simul Healthc 2020 Jun;15(3):214-220

From the School of Engineering (P.C.-M., H.A.J., M.D., C.O.), University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; Institut de Chirurgie Guidée par l'Image (P.C.-M., H.A.J., J.M.), Strasbourg, France; Department of Mechanical Engineering (L.S.), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA; Department of Urology (P.S.), Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland; IRCAD France (J.M.), Strasbourg; and Clinique Saint Augustin (T.P.), Bordeaux, France.

Introduction: The aims of this study were to test a novel simulation platform suitable for flexible cystoscopy using a standard scope, to assess the platform's proposed use as a training tool for flexible cystoscopy, and to assess the user experience through surveyed response.

Methods: Thirty-one urologists (11 novices, 20 experts) were evaluated using a novel light-based bladder model and standard flexible cystoscope. Time to complete full inspection of the simulated bladder was measured, and the scope trajectory was recorded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000430DOI Listing

A G protein-biased S1P agonist, SAR247799, protects endothelial cells without affecting lymphocyte numbers.

Sci Signal 2020 Jun 2;13(634). Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Diabetes and Cardiovascular Research, Sanofi US Services, 55 Corporate Drive, Bridgewater, NJ 08807, USA.

Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of tissue injury and is believed to initiate the development of vascular diseases. Sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor-1 (S1P) plays fundamental physiological roles in endothelial function and lymphocyte homing. Currently available clinical molecules that target this receptor are desensitizing and are essentially S1P functional antagonists that cause lymphopenia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aax8050DOI Listing

Killed in action (KIA): an analysis of military personnel who died of their injuries before reaching a definitive medical treatment facility in Afghanistan (2004-2014).

BMJ Mil Health 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Academic Department of Military Emergency Medicine, Royal Centre for Defence Medicine (Research and Academia), Birmingham, UK.

Introduction: The majority of combat deaths occur before arrival at a medical treatment facility but no previous studies have comprehensively examined this phase of care.

Methods: The UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was used to identify all UK military personnel who died in Afghanistan (2004-2014). These data were linked to non-medical tactical and operational records to provide an accurate timeline of events. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjmilitary-2020-001490DOI Listing

Evolution, Composition, Assembly, and Function of the Conoid in Apicomplexa.

Trends Parasitol 2020 May 31. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, CMU, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The phylum Apicomplexa has been defined by the presence of the apical complex, a structure composed of secretory organelles and specific cytoskeletal elements. A conspicuous feature of the apical complex in many apicomplexans is the conoid, a hollow tapered barrel structure composed of tubulin fibers. In Toxoplasma gondii, the apical complex is a central site of convergence for calcium-related and lipid-mediated signaling pathways that coordinate conoid protrusion, microneme secretion, and actin polymerization, to initiate gliding motility. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2020.05.001DOI Listing