2,084 results match your criteria California Encephalitis


GABAA receptor encephalitis associated with human parvovirus B19 virus infection: Case report.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jun;100(23):e26324

Faculdades Pequeno Principe.

Rationale: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection can produce a spectrum of clinical syndromes, including neurological manifestations, most notably encephalitis. Although symptoms suggestive of autoimmune disease in patients with B19 infection have been previously described, a clear association of autoimmune encephalitis with B19 infection has yet to be established.

Patient Concerns: We describe the case of a 6-year-old boy who was hospitalized due to status epilepticus, which evolved to super-refractory status epilepticus that was only mildly responsive to anticonvulsant drugs. Read More

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Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for Pathogen Detection and Transcriptomic Analysis in Pediatric Central Nervous System Infections.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 6;8(6):ofab104. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Rady Children's Institute for Genomic Medicine, San Diego, California, USA.

Background: Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) infections are potentially life-threatening and may incur significant morbidity. Identifying a pathogen is important, both in terms of guiding therapeutic management and in characterizing prognosis. Usual care testing by culture and polymerase chain reaction is often unable to identify a pathogen. Read More

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A 64-year-old woman with rapid neurologic decline diagnosed with encephalitis after presumed metastatic cancer.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2021 24;9:2050313X211019784. Epub 2021 May 24.

University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA.

In an era of fragmented medical care, concurrent clinical features that ultimately lead to a unified diagnosis may not be prioritized appropriately. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman referred to hematology clinic for anemia, with recent memory loss and gait disturbance. Two months later, she developed pneumonia; imaging workup showed a left renal mass. Read More

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Psychiatric Phenotypes of Pediatric Patients With Seropositive Autoimmune Encephalitis.

Hosp Pediatr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Objectives: Patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) often present with symptoms that are broadly characterized as psychiatric or behavioral, yet little attention is given to the precise symptomatology observed. We sought to more fully define the psychiatric symptoms observed in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), anti-glutamic-acid-decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), and anti-voltage-gated-potassium-channel complex (VGKC) antibody-mediated AE using the nomenclature.

Methods: We present a case series ( = 25) using a retrospective chart review of 225 patients evaluated for AE in a tertiary care academic medical center between 2014 and 2018. Read More

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Distinctive waves of innate immune response in the retina in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Neurodegeneration mediates neurological disability in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS. The role of innate immune cells in mediating this damage has remained controversial with evidence for destructive and protective effects. This has complicated efforts to develop treatment. Read More

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Identification of Chemicals Associated Gambusia affinis (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae), and Their Effect on Oviposition Behavior of Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Laboratory.

J Med Entomol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Entomology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

The western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Baird & Girard), has been used worldwide for the control of larval mosquitoes for more than 100 yr. We found that the western encephalitis mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae), can detect the presence of G. affinis in oviposition sites based on associated chemicals, leading to a decrease in the number of egg rafts laid. Read More

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COVID-19-Induced Encephalitis: A Case Report of a Rare Presentation With a Prolonged Electroencephalogram.

Cureus 2021 Apr 13;13(4):e14476. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Internal Medicine, Dr. Sulaiman Al-Habib Hospital, Khobar, SAU.

Encephalitis is one of the rare complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that can be missed and confused with other causes of encephalitis. There was a 36-year-old male known to have glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who was brought to the emergency department with fever and confusion of one-week duration. Altered mental status work-up, including cerebrospinal fluid analysis, was done and turned out to be nondiagnostic. Read More

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Toxoplasma gondii Matrix Antigen 1 Is a Secreted Immunomodulatory Effector.

mBio 2021 May 18;12(3). Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Our studies on novel cyst wall proteins serendipitously led us to the discovery that cyst wall and vacuolar matrix protein MAG1, first identified a quarter of a century ago, functions as a secreted immunomodulatory effector. MAG1 is a dense granular protein that is found in the parasitophorous vacuolar matrix in tachyzoite vacuoles and the cyst wall and matrix in bradyzoite vacuoles. In the current study, we demonstrated that MAG1 is secreted beyond the parasitophorous vacuole into the host cytosol in both tachyzoites and bradyzoites. Read More

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Functional hemispherectomy: can preoperative imaging predict outcome?

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2020 Jun 21;25(6). Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Brain Institute, Miami Children's Hospital, Miami, Florida.

Objective: Although hemispherectomy is an effective treatment for children with intractable hemispheric epilepsy syndromes, as many as 40% of patients eventually develop seizure recurrence. The causes of seizure recurrence in these patients are incompletely understood. The authors sought to evaluate the efficacy of hemispherectomy at their center and determine whether contralateral MRI abnormalities can predict seizure recurrence. Read More

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Surveillance for West Nile virus disease - United States, 2009-2018.

Am J Transplant 2021 05;21(5):1959-1974

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Read More

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Keratitis: an update on amebicidal and cysticidal drug screening methodologies and potential treatment with azole drugs.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 May 19:1-15. Epub 2021 May 19.

Center for Discovery and Innovation in Parasitic Diseases, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

: encompasses several species of free-living ameba encountered commonly throughout the environment. Unfortunately, these species of ameba can cause opportunistic infections that result in keratitis, granulomatous amebic encephalitis, and occasionally systemic infection.: This review discusses relevant literature found through PubMed and Google scholar published as of January 2021. Read More

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Missense variants in DPYSL5 cause a neurodevelopmental disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and cerebellar abnormalities.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 May 23;108(5):951-961. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Service de Génétique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 86021 Poitiers, France; Equipe d'Accueil 3808, Université de Poitiers, 86034 Poitiers, France.

The collapsin response mediator protein (CRMP) family proteins are intracellular mediators of neurotrophic factors regulating neurite structure/spine formation and are essential for dendrite patterning and directional axonal pathfinding during brain developmental processes. Among this family, CRMP5/DPYSL5 plays a significant role in neuronal migration, axonal guidance, dendrite outgrowth, and synapse formation by interacting with microtubules. Here, we report the identification of missense mutations in DPYSL5 in nine individuals with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis and/or posterior fossa abnormalities, associated with variable degrees of intellectual disability. Read More

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Clonally Focused Public and Private T Cells in Resected Brain Tissue From Surgeries to Treat Children With Intractable Seizures.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:664344. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

Using a targeted transcriptomics approach, we have analyzed resected brain tissue from a cohort of 53 pediatric epilepsy surgery cases, and have found that there is a spectrum of involvement of both the innate and adaptive immune systems as evidenced by the differential expression of immune-specific genes in the affected brain tissue. The specimens with the highest expression of immune-specific genes were from two Rasmussen encephalitis cases, which is known to be a neuro-immunological disease, but also from tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), focal cortical dysplasia, and hemimegalencephaly surgery cases. We obtained T cell receptor (TCR) Vβ chain sequence data from brain tissue and blood from patients with the highest levels of T cell transcripts. Read More

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A 3-Year-Old Girl With Recent Onset of Seizures and Asymmetric Hypermetabolic Activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 06;46(6):e325-e326

From the Ahmanson Translational Theranostics Division, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Abstract: A 3-year-old, previously healthy girl started having clusters of seizures, not responsive to multiple antiepileptic medications. High-dose prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin could partially control the seizures. Lumbar puncture and CT were normal. Read More

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Broad and potent neutralizing human antibodies to tick-borne flaviviruses protect mice from disease.

J Exp Med 2021 May;218(5)

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY.

Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging human pathogen that causes potentially fatal disease with no specific treatment. Mouse monoclonal antibodies are protective against TBEV, but little is known about the human antibody response to infection. Here, we report on the human neutralizing antibody response to TBEV in a cohort of infected and vaccinated individuals. Read More

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The transcriptional landscape of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC-83) infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 31;15(3):e0009306. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a major biothreat agent that naturally causes outbreaks in humans and horses particularly in tropical areas of the western hemisphere, for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. The host response to VEEV and the cellular factors this alphavirus hijacks to support its effective replication or evade cellular immune responses are largely uncharacterized. We have previously demonstrated tremendous cell-to-cell heterogeneity in viral RNA (vRNA) and cellular transcript levels during flaviviral infection using a novel virus-inclusive single-cell RNA-Seq approach. Read More

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Ovarian teratoma masquerading as encephalitis in an adolescent.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Jul 27;68(7):e29027. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Valley Children's Hospital, Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Madera, California, USA.

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Management of West Nile Encephalitis: An Uncommon Complication of West Nile Virus.

Cureus 2021 Feb 6;13(2):e13183. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

General Practice, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, USA.

West Nile virus disease (WNVD) is a mosquito-borne disease that affects the meninges and central nervous system, causing West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis, a debilitating, life-threatening condition, especially in the elderly. While there is a lot of research discussing different aspects of the disease, the treatment is mainly unknown. We conducted a literature review to explore the wide variety of treatment options that consolidate the knowledge about the most recent management of WNV encephalitis. Read More

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February 2021

Surveillance for West Nile Virus Disease - United States, 2009-2018.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2021 03 5;70(1):1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropodborne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Read More

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Overwintering of Culex modestus and Other Mosquito Species in a Reedbed Ecosystem, Including Arbovirus Findings.

J Am Mosq Control Assoc 2020 12;36(4):257-260

The overwintering strategy of the mosquito Culex modestus, an important West Nile virus (WNV) vector in Europe, was explored under field conditions in reedbed (Phragmites australis) ecosystems in early 2019. A total of 30 Cx. modestus females were found in a BG-Sentinel trap placed in a plastic greenhouse as well as in a reference BG-Sentinel trap placed under the open sky, both set up within the reedbeds and inspected every 2-3 days from February 27 to April 10, 2019. Read More

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December 2020

Anti-NMDAR encephalitis induced in mice by active immunization with a peptide from the amino-terminal domain of the GluN1 subunit.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Feb 21;18(1):53. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Department of Neurology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, 1838 North Guangzhou Avenue, Guangzhou, Guangdong, 510515, People's Republic of China.

Background: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesia, and seizures. However, the underlying mechanisms of this disease remain unclear, in part because of a lack of suitable animal models.

Methods: This study describes a novel female C57BL/6 mouse model of anti-NMDAR encephalitis that was induced by active immunization against NMDARs using an amino terminal domain (ATD) peptide from the GluN1 subunit (GluN1). Read More

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February 2021

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody encephalitis following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in a pediatric patient.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jun 1;64(6):310-312. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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Ethics of emerging infectious disease outbreak responses: Using Ebola virus disease as a case study of limited resource allocation.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(2):e0246320. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Médecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium.

Emerging infectious diseases such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), Nipah Virus Encephalitis and Lassa fever pose significant epidemic threats. Responses to emerging infectious disease outbreaks frequently occur in resource-constrained regions and under high pressure to quickly contain the outbreak prior to potential spread. As seen in the 2020 EVD outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the current COVID-19 pandemic, there is a continued need to evaluate and address the ethical challenges that arise in the high stakes environment of an emerging infectious disease outbreak response. Read More

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February 2021

Discovery of PIPE-359, a Brain-Penetrant, Selective M Receptor Antagonist with Robust Efficacy in Murine MOG-EAE.

ACS Med Chem Lett 2021 Jan 24;12(1):155-161. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Pipeline Therapeutics, 10578 Science Center Drive, Suite 200, San Diego, California 92121, United States.

The discovery of PIPE-359, a brain-penetrant and selective antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype 1 is described. Starting from a literature-reported M antagonist, linker replacement and structure-activity relationship investigations of the eastern 1-(pyridinyl)piperazine led to the identification of a novel, potent, and selective antagonist with good MDCKII-MDR1 permeability. Continued semi-iterative positional scanning facilitated improvements in the metabolic and hERG profiles, which ultimately delivered PIPE-359. Read More

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January 2021

Acute Influenza Encephalitis/Encephalopathy Associated with Influenza A in an Incompetent Adult.

Case Rep Crit Care 2020 22;2020:6616805. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

St. Joseph Medical Center, 1800 N California Street, Stockton, California 95204, USA.

A 32-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with a productive cough for 4 days and confusion for 2 days prior to presentation. He was febrile, tachycardic, and hypotensive. Initially, labs and influenza A/B PCR were performed. Read More

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December 2020

Transdiagnostic hippocampal damage patterns in neuroimmunological disorders.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 27;28:102515. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, Berlin, Germany; Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Hippocampal damage and associated cognitive deficits are frequently observed in neuroimmunological disorders, but comparative analyses to identify shared hippocampal damage patterns are missing. Here, we adopted a transdiagnostic analytical approach and investigated hippocampal shape deformations and associated cognitive deficits in four neuroimmunological diseases. We studied 120 patients (n = 30 in each group), including patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), anti-NMDAR and anti-LGI1 encephalitis. Read More

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November 2020

Serological Responses to Toxoplasma gondii and Matrix Antigen 1 Predict the Risk of Subsequent Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in People Living with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD , USA.

Background: Clinically useful predictors for fatal toxoplasmosis are lacking. We investigated the value of serological assays for antibodies to whole Toxoplasma antigens and to peptide antigens of the Toxoplasma cyst protein MAG1, for predicting incident toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in people living with HIV (PLWH).

Methods: We performed a nested case control study, conducted within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), using serum samples obtained 2 years prior to diagnosis of TE from 28 cases, and 37 HIV disease-matched Toxoplasma seropositive controls at matched time-points. Read More

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January 2021

Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19 Feature T Cell Exhaustion and Dedifferentiated Monocytes in Cerebrospinal Fluid.

Immunity 2021 01 23;54(1):164-175.e6. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Neurology with Institute of Translational Neurology, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Patients suffering from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can develop neurological sequelae, such as headache and neuroinflammatory or cerebrovascular disease. These conditions-termed here as Neuro-COVID-are more frequent in patients with severe COVID-19. To understand the etiology of these neurological sequelae, we utilized single-cell sequencing and examined the immune cell profiles from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of Neuro-COVID patients compared with patients with non-inflammatory and autoimmune neurological diseases or with viral encephalitis. Read More

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January 2021

Thrombotic Microangiopathy among Hospitalized Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in the United States.

Diseases 2020 Dec 24;9(1). Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.

Background: This study aimed to evaluate thrombotic microangiopathy's (TMA) incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcomes and resource use in hospitalized patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: We used the National Inpatient Sample to construct a cohort of hospitalized patients with SLE from 2003-2014. We compared clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatments, outcomes, and resource use between SLE patients with and without TMA. Read More

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December 2020

Anesthesia for pediatric patients with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis: A retrospective case series.

Paediatr Anaesth 2021 Mar 17;31(3):316-322. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is caused by auto-antibodies that target the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Autonomic instability is a hallmark of the disease. The objective of this case series is to examine how anesthesia affects pediatric patients with this disease. Read More

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