2,005 results match your criteria California Encephalitis


Protozoal encephalitis associated with and during an epizootic involving Brandt's cormorants () in coastal Southern California, USA.

Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl 2020 Aug 13;12:185-191. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, University of California, Davis, 620 West Health Sciences Dr., Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Between March and May 2019, wildlife rehabilitation centers along coastal southern California admitted increased numbers of Brandt's cormorants () with neurological disease including head tilt, nystagmus, torticollis, tremors, paresis, paralysis, and ataxia. Seven cormorants from Los Angeles County and one cormorant from Orange County were submitted for postmortem examination. Gross findings included thin to fair body condition, generalized congestion/hyperemia, nematode parasites in the ventriculus, and diarrhea in the seven birds from Los Angeles County while the one bird from Orange County had icterus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijppaw.2020.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322481PMC

CANINE DISTEMPER VIRUS IN THE SEA OTTER () POPULATION IN WASHINGTON STATE, USA.

J Wildl Dis 2020 Jul 1. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA.

Before 2001, all serosurveys for morbilliviruses in sea otters () in California, Washington, and Alaska, USA, documented a 0% seroprevalence. The first published serologic detections of morbillivirus in sea otters occurred in 2001-02 in live-captured Washington sea otters, with a documented 80% seroprevalence. We conducted a retrospective study of sea otter cases from 1989 to 2010 compiled at the US Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center to identify cases of morbilliviral disease in Washington sea otters and to characterize the disease using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, genetic sequencing, virus isolation, and serology. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-19-00008DOI Listing

Neuroimaging and neurologic findings in COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: A systematic review in 116 patients.

J Neuroradiol 2020 Jun 27. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California (USC), Los Angles, CA, US; Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California (USC), 1520, San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA, US. Electronic address:

Various neurologic syndromes have been described in patients with COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the available imaging findings of patients diagnosed with neurological symptoms associated with coronavirus infections. Diverse radiologic results in the context of different neurologic presentations have been demonstrated using CT and MRI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurad.2020.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320684PMC

West Nile Virus-associated Hospitalizations, California, USA, 2004-2017.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Jun 11. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Infectious Diseases Branch, Division of Communicable Disease Control, California Department of Public Health, Sacramento and Richmond, California, USA.

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is the most commonly reported mosquito-borne disease in the United States. California reports more WNV disease than any other state.

Methods: We identified WNV-associated hospitalizations from 2004 through 2017 in California and estimated hospitalization incidence using California Patient Discharge Data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa749DOI Listing

Movement of St. Louis encephalitis virus in the Western United States, 2014- 2018.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 Jun 10;14(6):e0008343. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) is a flavivirus that circulates in an enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes and can also infect humans to cause febrile disease and sometimes encephalitis. Although SLEV is endemic to the United States, no activity was detected in California during the years 2004 through 2014, despite continuous surveillance in mosquitoes and sentinel chickens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7307790PMC

Embryo Microinjection Techniques for Efficient Site-Specific Mutagenesis in Culex quinquefasciatus.

J Vis Exp 2020 May 24(159). Epub 2020 May 24.

Section of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of California, San Diego; Tata Institute for Genetics and Society, University of California, San Diego;

Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of a diverse range of vector-borne diseases such as avian malaria, West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis, Eastern equine encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis, and Saint Louis encephalitis. Notably, avian malaria has played a major role in the extinction of numerous endemic island bird species, while WNV has become an important vector-borne disease in the United States. To gain further insight into C. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61375DOI Listing

Utilization, yield, and accuracy of the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel with diagnostic stewardship and testing algorithm.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA

The impact of diagnostic stewardship and testing algorithms on utilization and performance of the FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel has received limited investigation. We performed a retrospective single-center cohort study assessing all individuals with suspected ME between February 2017 and April 2019 for whom the ME Panel was ordered. Testing was restricted to patients with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00311-20DOI Listing

Autoimmune Encephalitis in Children: A Case Series at a Tertiary Care Center.

J Child Neurol 2020 Aug 27;35(9):591-599. Epub 2020 May 27.

UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Autoimmune encephalitis is the third most common cause of encephalitis in children. We provide a detailed account of presenting symptoms, diagnosis, and response to treatment in pediatric autoimmune encephalitis patients evaluated at University of California San Francisco within a 2.5-year period. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0883073820923834DOI Listing

Spatial epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus and other infections of the central nervous system infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011): A retrospective analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 05 26;14(5):e0008333. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, University of California, Irvine, United States of America.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important contributors to morbidity and mortality and the causative agents for ~50% patients are never identified. The causative agents of some CNS infections have distinct spatial and temporal patterns.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here we present the results of a spatial epidemiological and ecological analysis of CNS infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274481PMC

Measuring Alphavirus Fidelity Using Non-Infectious Virus Particles.

Viruses 2020 May 15;12(5). Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555, USA.

Mutations are incorporated into the genomes of RNA viruses at an optimal frequency and altering this precise frequency has been proposed as a strategy to create live-attenuated vaccines. However, determining the effect of specific mutations that alter fidelity has been difficult because of the rapid selection of the virus population during replication. By deleting residues of the structural polyprotein PE2 cleavage site, E3D56-59, in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) TC-83 vaccine strain, non-infectious virus particles were used to assess the effect of single mutations on mutation frequency without the interference of selection that results from multiple replication cycles. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12050546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291308PMC

SARS-CoV-2 Detected in Cerebrospinal Fluid by PCR in a Case of COVID-19 Encephalitis.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 07 6;87:149. Epub 2020 May 6.

Division of Infectious Disease, Good Samaritan Hospital, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7202824PMC

Anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A encephalitis: a review.

Curr Opin Neurol 2020 Jun;33(3):372-380

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To systematically review the clinical features, diagnosis, and management of anti-gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor Type A (GABAA) autoimmune encephalitis with a focus on recent data.

Recent Findings: In a review of published reports, we identified 50 cases of anti-GABAA receptor encephalitis with clinical features reported. The median age at presentation was 47 years old (range, 2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000814DOI Listing

Adult-Onset Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis With a 30-Year Latent Period.

Neurohospitalist 2020 Apr 18;10(2):127-132. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare progressive neuroinfectious disease due to a late complication of the measles virus. The hallmark clinical features of this disease include behavioral changes, myoclonus, dementia, visual disturbances, and pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs. The presence of characteristic high-amplitude periodic complexes on electroencephalography and raised antibody titers against measles in the cerebrospinal fluid help solidify the diagnosis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1941874419869713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191669PMC

COVID-19 and anosmia in Tehran, Iran.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Aug 23;141:109757. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Rhinology Research Society, Rhinology and Facial Plastic Surgery Clinic, No 2417 Valiasr Avenue, Tehran 1517843318, Iran. Electronic address:

Patients with acute olfactory disorders typically present to the otolaryngologist with both acute hyposmia and less often with anosmia. With the onset of COVID-19 we have noticed an increase in the number of patients who have presented with new onset of complete smell loss to the senior author's practice in Tehran, Iran. This anosmia and the frequency with which patients present is highly unusual. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177057PMC

Update on Avian Bornavirus and Proventricular Dilatation Disease: Diagnostics, Pathology, Prevalence, and Control.

Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract 2020 May;23(2):337-351

University of California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-Tulare, University of California, Davis, 18760 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274, USA.

Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a neurotropic virus that can cause gastrointestinal and/or neurologic signs of disease in birds. The disease process is called proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). The characteristic lesions observed in birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the proventriculus. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cvex.2020.01.006DOI Listing

Novel Ionophores Active against La Crosse Virus Identified through Rapid Antiviral Screening.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 May 21;64(6). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois, USA

Bunyaviruses are significant human pathogens, causing diseases ranging from hemorrhagic fevers to encephalitis. Among these viruses, La Crosse virus (LACV), a member of the California serogroup, circulates in the eastern and midwestern United States. While LACV infection is often asymptomatic, dozens of cases of encephalitis are reported yearly. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00086-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269492PMC

Identification of Mosquito Bloodmeals Collected in Diverse Habitats in Malaysian Borneo Using COI Barcoding.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2020 Apr 1;5(2). Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Biology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces NM 88003, USA.

Land cover and land use change (LCLUC) acts as a catalyst for spillover of arthropod-borne pathogens into novel hosts by shifting host and vector diversity, abundance, and distribution, ultimately reshaping host-vector interactions. Identification of bloodmeals from wild-caught mosquitoes provides insight into host utilization of particular species in particular land cover types, and hence their potential role in pathogen maintenance and spillover. Here, we collected 134 blood-engorged mosquitoes comprising 10 taxa across 9 land cover types in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, a region experiencing intense LCLUC and concomitant spillover of arthropod-borne pathogens. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed5020051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344668PMC

Evaluation of Diagnostic Criteria for Hashimoto Encephalopathy Among Children and Adolescents.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jun 8;107:41-47. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Stanford, California.

Background: The recently proposed adult diagnostic criteria for the Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) include a requirement of subclinical or mild thyroid disease. However, most reports indicate that most children treated for HE do not have evidence of thyroid disease. We aim to evaluate the impact of applying the current adult diagnostic criteria to pediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.12.011DOI Listing

Performance of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Viral Meningoencephalitis in a Resource-Limited Setting.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Mar 8;7(3):ofaa046. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Oxford University Clinical Research Unit, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

Background: Meningoencephalitis is a devastating disease worldwide. Current diagnosis fails to establish the cause in ≥50% of patients. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as pan-pathogen assays for infectious diseases diagnosis, but few studies have been conducted in resource-limited settings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051036PMC

Phase 1 study of epacadostat in combination with atezolizumab for patients with previously treated advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 Mar 6. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Epacadostat is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1). Here we report results from the open-label, dose-escalation, Phase 1b ECHO-110 study evaluating epacadostat plus atezolizumab in patients with previously treated Stage IIIB/IV nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Eligible patients had received ≥1 prior line of platinum-based chemotherapy (≥2 cycles) and no prior checkpoint/IDO inhibitors treatment. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32951DOI Listing

Genomic and serologic characterization of enterovirus A71 brainstem encephalitis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2020 May 5;7(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

From the Medical Scientist Training Program (K.E.L.), University of California, San Francisco; Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program (K.E.L., I.A.H.), University of California, San Francisco; Weill Institute for Neurosciences (R.D.S., I.A.H., P.S.R., A.R., M.R.W.), University of California, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (R.D.S., I.A.H., P.S.R., A.R., M.R.W.), University of California, San Francisco; Institut de Recerca Pediàtrica Hospital Sant Joan de Déu (D.C.-A., C.L., A.V.-R., C.M.-A.), Barcelona, Spain; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub (J.E.P., W.W., C.K.C., E.D.C., J.L.D.), San Francisco; Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics (L.M.K., H.A.S., K.C.Z., J.L.D.), University of California, San Francisco; CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (C.L., M.C., C.M.-A.), Health Institute Carlos III; Department of Pediatrics (C.L.), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona; Enterovirus Unit (M.C.), Spanish National Centre for Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Division of Infectious Diseases (C.L.), Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; and Department of Medicine. Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (C.M.-A.), Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: In 2016, Catalonia experienced a pediatric brainstem encephalitis outbreak caused by enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Conventional testing identified EV in the periphery but rarely in CSF. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and CSF pan-viral serology (VirScan) were deployed to enhance viral detection and characterization. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136061PMC

T Cell Responses Induced by Attenuated Flavivirus Vaccination Are Specific and Show Limited Cross-Reactivity with Other Flavivirus Species.

J Virol 2020 May 4;94(10). Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, California, USA

Members of the flavivirus genus share a high level of sequence similarity and often circulate in the same geographical regions. However, whether T cells induced by one viral species cross-react with other related flaviviruses has not been globally addressed. In this study, we tested pools of epitopes derived from dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV), and yellow fever (YFV) viruses by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals naturally exposed to DENV or immunized with DENV (TV005) or YF17D vaccine. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00089-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199411PMC
May 2020
4.439 Impact Factor

Rapid diagnostic tests for infectious diseases in the emergency department.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Feb 29. Epub 2020 Feb 29.

Service de Bactériologie-Hygiène Hospitalière, CHU de Rennes, Rennes, France; CNR de `la Résistance aux Antibiotiques (laboratoire associé'Entérocoques), Rennes, France; Unité Inserm U1230, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes, France. Electronic address:

Background: Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for infectious diseases, with a turnaround time of less than 2 hours, are promising tools that could improve patient care, antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention in the emergency department (ED) setting. Numerous RDTs have been developed, although not necessarily for the ED environment. Their successful implementation in the ED relies on their performance and impact on patient management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.02.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129254PMC
February 2020

Editorial: Multimodality Monitoring or Evaluation of Neuro-Function in Modern NICU.

Front Neurol 2019 4;10:1423. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Neurology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7010929PMC
February 2020

Pathogen or Bystander: Clinical Significance of Detecting Human Herpesvirus 6 in Pediatric Cerebrospinal Fluid.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Apr 23;58(5). Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is an important cause of meningitis and meningoencephalitis. As testing for HHV-6 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is more readily available using the FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis panel (FA-ME; BioFire Diagnostics, Salt Lake City, UT), we aimed to determine the clinical significance of detecting HHV-6 in order to identify true infections and to ensure appropriate antiviral initiation. Chart review on 25 patients positive for HHV-6 by FA-ME was performed to determine clinical presentation, comorbidity, treatment, and outcome. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00313-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7180253PMC

A Systematic Review of Sodium Disorders in HHV-6 Encephalitis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 May 3;26(5):1034-1039. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) encephalitis has a high mortality rate. Among those who survive, ~80% develop some type of permanent neurologic disorder. Early diagnosis and treatment may help prevent long-term sequelae. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.01.023DOI Listing

Powassan Virus in a Hunter Returning from a Trip in the Adirondack Park.

Wilderness Environ Med 2020 Mar 29;31(1):87-90. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Adult and Family Medicine, Kaiser Permanente Santa Rosa Medical Center, Santa Rosa, California.

Powassan virus is a rare flavivirus that may be transmitted by tick bite and is associated with encephalitis. Infections have been described in the northern United States, Canada, and Russia. We present the case of a 56-y-old man who presented to our hospital with symptoms of confusion, altered behavior, and headache. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2019.09.002DOI Listing

A systematic review of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymoma: Treatment modalities, recurrence, and outcomes in resected cases.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Jul 2;160(1):306-314.e14. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, Calif. Electronic address:

Objective: Paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymomas remain incompletely understood. The objective was to examine the association between surgically resected thymomas and paraneoplastic syndromes over the past half century.

Methods: A primary PubMed/MEDLINE search was used to identify published articles describing paraneoplastic syndromes associated with thymomas from 1960 to 2019. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2019.11.052DOI Listing

Exploratory analysis of the potential for advanced diagnostic testing to reduce healthcare expenditures of patients hospitalized with meningitis or encephalitis.

PLoS One 2020 15;15(1):e0226895. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Neurology, Weill Institute for Neurosciences, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Objective: To estimate healthcare expenditures that could be impacted by advanced diagnostic testing for patients hospitalized with meningitis or encephalitis.

Methods: Patients hospitalized with meningitis (N = 23,933) or encephalitis (N = 7,858) in the U.S. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226895PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6961903PMC
April 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

HHV-6-Associated Neurological Disease in Children: Epidemiologic, Clinical, Diagnostic, and Treatment Considerations.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 04 24;105:10-20. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Department of Neurology, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Neurology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B, often referred to collectively as human herpesvirus 6, are a pair of beta-herpesviruses known to cause a variety of clinical syndromes in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Most humans are infected with human herpesvirus 6B, and many with human herpesvirus 6A. Primary infection typically occurs in early childhood, although large-scale reviews on the topic are limited. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.10.004DOI Listing

Pediatric Paraneoplastic Necrotizing Encephalitis Associated With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 04 29;105:55-58. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Department of Neurosciences and Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California; Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, San Diego, California. Electronic address:

Background: Paraneoplastic encephalitis encompasses a diverse spectrum of neurological disorders associated with a variety of pediatric tumor types.

Methods: We describe a seven-year-old boy with paraneoplastic necrotizing encephalitis associated with precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Results: The initial presentation involved acute-onset upper extremity weakness, seizure-like activity, and agitation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.11.009DOI Listing

DNAJC14 Ameliorates Inner Ear Degeneration in the DFNB4 Mouse Model.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2020 Jun 30;17:188-197. Epub 2019 Nov 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea.

The His723Arg (H723R) mutation in , encoding pendrin, is the most prevalent mutation in East Asia, resulting in DFNB4, an autosomal recessive type of genetic hearing loss. Although the main pathological mechanism of H723R was identified as a protein-folding defect in pendrin, there is still no curative treatment for associated hearing loss. Here, we show that H723R-pendrin expression and activity are rescued by activation of the chaperonin DNAJC14. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtm.2019.11.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940655PMC

Acute Hippocampal Encephalopathy in Heavy Cannabis Users: About 2 Cases.

Am J Med 2020 Jul 24;133(7):e360-e364. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, CHU Henri Mondor, service de Neurologie, Créteil, France; INSERM U955 Equipe E01, Institut Mondor de recherche biomédicale, Neuropsychologie Interventionnelle, Créteil, France; Département d'Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL University, Paris, France; Université Paris Est, Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France; Global Brain Health Institute, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Cannabis use is increasing worldwide despite the various health effects of this substance.

Methods: We report 2 cases of acute hippocampal encephalopathy in heavy cannabis users (>10 joints/d).

Results: In both male patients, acute encephalitis was suspected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2019.11.018DOI Listing
July 2020
5.003 Impact Factor

A Probable Case of Recurrent Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis With Fulminant Course in a Pediatric Patient.

Neurologist 2020 Jan;25(1):14-16

Maternity and Children Hospital, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is a rare, often postinfectious, syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and altered consciousness. Here, we present a probable case of recurrent, pediatric Bickerstaff encephalitis, whereby the patient acutely developed loss of consciousness and eventually brain death despite optimal management.

Case Report: A 3-year-old male patient initially presented to the emergency department with progressive ataxia, following history of upper respiratory tract infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NRL.0000000000000255DOI Listing
January 2020
1.078 Impact Factor

Cerebrospinal Fluid Findings Are Poor Predictors of Appropriate FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel Utilization in Pediatric Patients.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 Feb 24;58(3). Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, USA

Molecular testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using the BioFire FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (FA-M/E) panel permits rapid, simultaneous pathogen detection. Due to the broad spectrum of targeted organisms, FA-M/E testing may be restricted to patients with abnormal CSF findings. We sought to determine if restriction is appropriate in our previously healthy and/or immunocompromised pediatric patients. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01592-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041564PMC
February 2020

Perivascular macrophages in the neonatal macaque brain undergo massive necroptosis after simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

Brain Pathol 2020 May 26;30(3):603-613. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

We previously showed that rhesus macaques neonatally infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) do not develop SIV encephalitis (SIVE) and maintain low brain viral loads despite having similar plasma viral loads compared to SIV-infected adults. We hypothesize that differences in myeloid cell populations that are the known target of SIV and HIV in the brain contribute to the lack of neonatal susceptibility to lentivirus-induced encephalitis. Using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence microscopy, we examined the frontal cortices from uninfected and SIV-infected infant and adult macaques (n = 8/ea) as well as adults with SIVE (n = 4) to determine differences in myeloid cell populations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12808DOI Listing

Treatment With Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Fails To Ameliorate Pathology In Cockatiels Experimentally Infected With Parrot Bornavirus-2.

Vet Med (Auckl) 2019 22;10:185-195. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Schubot Exotic Bird Health Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Purpose: Parrot bornavirus is the etiological agent of Parrot bornavirus syndrome, also referred to and comprising proventricular dilatation disease or PDD, macaw wasting disease, enteric ganglioneuritis and encephalitis, and avian ganglioneuritis. It has been suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be able to ameliorate this disease. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of two commonly used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, celecoxib and meloxicam, on cockatiels experimentally inoculated with Parrot bornavirus-2 (PaBV-2). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VMRR.S229936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6878917PMC
November 2019

Seizure outcomes in children with Rasmussen's encephalitis undergoing resective or hemispheric epilepsy surgery: an individual participant data meta-analysis.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2019 Dec 6:1-10. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

2Department of Neurosurgery, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Objective: The objective of this study was to perform an individual participant data meta-analysis to identify preoperative factors associated with a good seizure outcome in children with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) undergoing resective or hemispheric epilepsy surgery.

Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL) were searched with no language or date restrictions to identify cohort studies of consecutive participants undergoing resective surgery that reported seizure outcomes. The authors recorded all preoperative factors that could plausibly be associated with seizure outcomes and used Cox regression analysis to identify which of these variables were associated with seizure freedom (i. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.PEDS19380DOI Listing
December 2019
1.370 Impact Factor

Human SNORA31 variations impair cortical neuron-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 and underlie herpes simplex encephalitis.

Nat Med 2019 12 5;25(12):1873-1884. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

St. Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE) is typically sporadic. Inborn errors of TLR3- and DBR1-mediated central nervous system cell-intrinsic immunity can account for forebrain and brainstem HSE, respectively. We report five unrelated patients with forebrain HSE, each heterozygous for one of four rare variants of SNORA31, encoding a small nucleolar RNA of the H/ACA class that are predicted to direct the isomerization of uridine residues to pseudouridine in small nuclear RNA and ribosomal RNA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-019-0672-3DOI Listing
December 2019
27.363 Impact Factor

Therapeutic monoclonal antibody treatment protects nonhuman primates from severe Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus disease after aerosol exposure.

PLoS Pathog 2019 12 2;15(12):e1008157. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.

There are no FDA licensed vaccines or therapeutics for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) which causes a debilitating acute febrile illness in humans that can progress to encephalitis. Previous studies demonstrated that murine and macaque monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) provide prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy against VEEV peripheral and aerosol challenge in mice. Additionally, humanized versions of two neutralizing mAbs specific for the E2 glycoprotein, 1A3B-7 and 1A4A-1, administered singly protected mice against aerosolized VEEV. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907853PMC
December 2019

Transcriptomic immune profiles of human flavivirus-specific T-cell responses.

Immunology 2020 May 7;160(1):3-9. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, CA, USA.

The Flavivirus genus of viruses includes dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), yellow fever (YFV), Japanese encephalitis (JEV), and West Nile (WNV) viruses. Infections with these species combined are prevalent in tropical and sub-tropical areas, affecting millions of people and ranging from asymptomatic to severe forms of the disease. They therefore pose a serious threat to global public health. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imm.13161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160650PMC

Presence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is associated with greater HIV RNA and inflammation.

AIDS 2020 03;34(3):373-380

Unit of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino.

Objective: The current study aimed to investigate whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was associated with viral, inflammatory and neuronal damage biomarkers in people living with HIV (PLWH).

Design: A cross-sectional diagnostic study on CSF fluid samples in patients undergoing lumbar punctures for clinical reasons, to better understand the role of EBV and CMV in the CNS on HIV RNA replication, blood-brain-barrier (BBB) damage and biomarkers of neuronal damage/inflammation.

Methods: EBV, CMV DNA and HIV RNA were measured on CSF, through real time (RT)-PCR, from PLWHs undergoing lumbar punctures for clinical reasons (excluding oncho-haematological comorbidities). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002442DOI Listing
March 2020
5.554 Impact Factor

Surveillance of a kdr Resistance Mutation in Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) and Culex quinquefasciatus in California.

J Med Entomol 2020 Feb;57(2):645-648

California Department of Public Health, Vector-Borne Disease Section, Richmond, VA.

Culex pipiens Linnaeus and Culex quinquefasciatus Say are the primary vectors of West Nile and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in California. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids (synthetic pyrethrins) are the most widely used insecticides to control adult stage mosquitoes to prevent disease transmission. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044724PMC
February 2020

Neuronal maturation reduces the type I IFN response to orthobunyavirus infection and leads to increased apoptosis of human neurons.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Nov 18;16(1):229. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Laboratory of Persistent Viral Diseases, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 903 S. 4th Street, Hamilton, MT, 59840, USA.

Background: La Crosse virus (LACV) is the leading cause of pediatric arboviral encephalitis in the USA. LACV encephalitis can result in learning and memory deficits, which may be due to infection and apoptosis of neurons in the brain. Despite neurons being the primary cell infected in the brain by LACV, little is known about neuronal responses to infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1614-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6862864PMC
November 2019
5.408 Impact Factor

Jamestown Canyon virus encephalitis in a heart transplant patient.

Transpl Infect Dis 2020 Feb 25;22(1):e13210. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Jamestown Canyon virus (JtCV) is an arbovirus and a member of the California serogroup. To our knowledge, all the cases of JtCV have been reported in immunocompetent patients since it was first detected in 1997. We report a case of JtCV encephalitis in a solid organ transplant patient. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tid.13210DOI Listing
February 2020
4 Reads

Hypoxia and therapeutic treatment of EV-A71 with an immune modulator TLR7 agonist in a new immunocompetent mouse model.

J Biomed Sci 2019 Nov 11;26(1):93. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background: Enterovirus 71 (EV71 or EV-A71) was first identified in California about half a century ago. In recent years, outbreaks of EV-A71 were prevalent worldwide, including Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Japan, and China. Between 2008 and 2011, China alone reported 1894 deaths associated with EV-A71 infection. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12929-019-0585-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849267PMC
November 2019

Twenty years of West Nile virus spread and evolution in the Americas visualized by Nextstrain.

PLoS Pathog 2019 10 31;15(10):e1008042. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Epidemiology of Microbial Diseases, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

It has been 20 years since West Nile virus first emerged in the Americas, and since then, little progress has been made to control outbreaks caused by this virus. After its first detection in New York in 1999, West Nile virus quickly spread across the continent, causing an epidemic of human disease and massive bird die-offs. Now the virus has become endemic to the United States, where an estimated 7 million human infections have occurred, making it the leading mosquito-borne virus infection and the most common cause of viral encephalitis in the country. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822705PMC
October 2019
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ZikaPLAN: addressing the knowledge gaps and working towards a research preparedness network in the Americas.

Glob Health Action 2019 ;12(1):1666566

Fundacao de Apoio a Universidade de Sao Paulo , Sao Paulo , Brazil.

Zika Preparedness Latin American Network (ZikaPLAN) is a research consortium funded by the European Commission to address the research gaps in combating Zika and to establish a sustainable network with research capacity building in the Americas. Here we present a report on ZikaPLAN`s mid-term achievements since its initiation in October 2016 to June 2019, illustrating the research objectives of the 15 work packages ranging from virology, diagnostics, entomology and vector control, modelling to clinical cohort studies in pregnant women and neonates, as well as studies on the neurological complications of Zika infections in adolescents and adults. For example, the Neuroviruses Emerging in the Americas Study (NEAS) has set up more than 10 clinical sites in Colombia. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2019.1666566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818126PMC
March 2020
2 Reads

Environmental conditions for Jamestown Canyon virus correlated with population-level resource selection by white-tailed deer in a suburban landscape.

PLoS One 2019 7;14(10):e0223582. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Suburban landscapes can alter spatial patterns by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and increase animal contact with vectors, pathogens, and humans. Close-contact relationships at a landscape level can have broad implications for disease epidemiology. From 1995-1999, we captured and radio-collared 41 deer in two suburban forest preserves in Chicago, Illinois. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0223582PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6779236PMC
March 2020
3.234 Impact Factor

50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: The Clinical Spectrum and Early Diagnosis of Dawson's Encephalitis.

J Pediatr 2019 10;213:102

Departments of Neurology, Pediatrics, and Human Biology, Stanford University and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Palo Alto, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.03.049DOI Listing
October 2019
1 Read