714,042 results match your criteria California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports[Journal]


Warming acts through earlier snowmelt to advance but not extend alpine community flowering.

Ecology 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Energy and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050, USA.

Large-scale warming will alter multiple local climate factors in alpine tundra, yet very few experimental studies examine the combined yet distinct influences of earlier snowmelt, higher temperatures and altered soil moisture on alpine ecosystems. This limits our ability to predict responses to climate change by plant species and communities. To address this gap, we used infrared heaters and manual watering in a fully factorial experiment to determine the relative importance of these climate factors on plant flowering phenology, and response differences among plant functional groups. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3108DOI Listing

Does Formation of Multicellular Colonies by Choanoflagellates Affect Their Susceptibility to Capture by Passive Protozoan Predators?

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, California, 94720-3140, USA.

Microbial eukaryotes, critical links in aquatic food webs, are unicellular, but some, such as choanoflagellates, form multicellular colonies. Are there consequences to predator avoidance of being unicellular versus forming larger colonies? Choanoflagellates share a common ancestor with animals and are used as model organisms to study the evolution of multicellularity. Escape in size from protozoan predators is suggested as a selective factor favoring evolution of multicellularity. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12808DOI Listing

Year effects: Inter-annual variation as a driver of community assembly dynamics.

Ecology 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Plant Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Environmental conditions that vary from year-to-year can be strong drivers of ecological dynamics, including the composition of newly assembled communities. However, ecologists often chalk such dynamics up to "noise" in ecological experiments. Our lack of attention to such "year effects" hampers our understanding of contingencies in ecological assembly mechanisms and limits the generalizability of research findings. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ecy.3104DOI Listing

Interdisciplinary approach to enhance trauma residents education of Extended-Focused Assessment for Sonography in Trauma in the emergency department.

ANZ J Surg 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Emergency Ultrasound, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Despite the utilization of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) by trauma surgeons, formal POCUS requirements do not exist for general surgery residents. We sought to evaluate surgery resident comfort with performing and interpreting of Extended-Focused Assessment for Sonography in Trauma (E-FAST) scans after a brief educational session.

Methods: A pre-survey, sent to PGY-2 and -3 surgical residents before their trauma rotation, evaluated comfort with eight components of the E-FAST. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16000DOI Listing

Validation of Postpartum Hemorrhage Admission Risk Factor Stratification in a Large Obstetrics Population.

Am J Perinatol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, California.

Objective:  This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative (CMQCC) admission risk criteria for stratifying postpartum hemorrhage risk in a large obstetrics population.

Study Design:  Using detailed electronic health record data, we classified 261,964 delivery hospitalizations from Kaiser Permanente Northern California hospitals between 2010 and 2017 into high-, medium-, and low-risk groups based on CMQCC criteria. We used logistic regression to assess associations between CMQCC risk groups and postpartum hemorrhage using two different postpartum hemorrhage definitions, standard postpartum hemorrhage (blood loss ≥1,000 mL) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (based on transfusion, laboratory, and blood loss data). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1712166DOI Listing

Urinary Estrogen Metabolites and Long-Term Mortality Following Breast Cancer.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Jun 2;4(3):pkaa014. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Background: Estrogen metabolite concentrations of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE) and 16-hydroxyestrone (16-OHE) may be associated with breast carcinogenesis. However, no study has investigated their possible impact on mortality after breast cancer.

Methods: This population-based study was initiated in 1996-1997 with spot urine samples obtained shortly after diagnosis (mean = 96 days) from 683 women newly diagnosed with first primary breast cancer and 434 age-matched women without breast cancer. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236781PMC

Modified CHADS-VASc score predicts in-hospital mortality and procedural complications in acute coronary syndrome treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc 2020 Jun 17;28:100532. Epub 2020 May 17.

Wayne State University/Detroit Medical Center, Detroit, MI, United States.

Background: Current risk prediction models in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI are mathematically complex. This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of a modified CHADS-VASc score, comprised of easily accessible clinical factors in predicting adverse events.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for ACS patients who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2014. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2020.100532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235953PMC

Circulating sclerostin is associated with bone mineral density independent of HIV-serostatus.

Bone Rep 2020 Jun 11;12:100279. Epub 2020 May 11.

Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, United States of America.

Background: Low bone mineral density (BMD) is commonly observed in people living with HIV (PLWH), however the cause for this BMD loss remains unclear. Sclerostin, a bone-derived antagonist to the Wnt/β-catenin-pathway, suppresses bone remodeling and is positively associated with BMD. The goal of the current study was to investigate associations between sclerostin and BMD in a cohort of HIV-seropositive and demographically-matched seronegative women. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bonr.2020.100279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235609PMC

The therapeutic efficacy of Qigong exercise on the main symptoms of fibromyalgia: A pilot randomized clinical trial.

Integr Med Res 2020 Dec 25;9(4):100416. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States.

Background: Some of the most debilitating symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM) include widespread chronic pain, sleep disturbances, chronic fatigue, anxiety, and depression. Yet, there is a lack of effective self-management exercise interventions capable of alleviating FM symptoms. The objective of this study is to examine the efficacy of a 10-week daily Qigong, a mind-body intervention program, on FM symptoms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2020.100416DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235941PMC
December 2020

Modeling Study of the Air Quality Impact of Record-Breaking Southern California Wildfires in December 2017.

J Geophys Res Atmos 2019 Jun 4;124(12):6554-6570. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA.

We investigate the air quality impact of record-breaking wildfires in Southern California during 5-18 December 2017 using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry in combination with satellite and surface observations. This wildfire event was driven by dry and strong offshore Santa Ana winds, which played a critical role in fire formation and air pollutant transport. By utilizing fire emissions derived from the high-resolution (375 × 375 m) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite active fire detections, the simulated magnitude and temporal evolution of fine particulate matter (PM) concentrations agree reasonably well with surface observations (normalized mean bias = 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019jd030472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243153PMC

Depression Onset in Long-term Adolescent Cannabinoid Use: A Neurobiological Review.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7759. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Internal Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences and Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Escalating cannabis use may be linked to decreased motivation and anhedonia, which are symptoms of depression. Adolescent cannabis users with subthreshold depressive symptoms such as reduced motivation may be susceptible to the development of significant anhedonia in addition to impaired emotional development. The main issue regarding depression within the context of cannabis use is whether or not there is a neurobiological basis linking the two variables. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243066PMC

Iatrogenic Acute Ischemic Necrosis Due to Emergent Bleeding Control in Ventral Foramen Magnum Meningioma with Spinal Instability.

Cureus 2020 Apr 21;12(4):e7754. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Neurological Surgery, Paul Kaloostian M.D. Inc., Riverside, USA.

Meningiomas are the most common benign intracranial tumors. They often require surgical resection and postoperative radiation/chemotherapy based on their histologic grade. While necrosis caused by preoperative embolization and spontaneous tumor infarction is appreciated by pathologists when staging meningiomas, intraoperative events including large bore artery occlusion may also alter the histopathologic picture of a benign meningioma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7754DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243071PMC

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy of an Adolescent Stem Cell Transplantation Recipient with Hemorrhagic Cystitis and BK Virus.

Case Rep Pulmonol 2020 13;2020:3465412. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Cardiopulmonary Sciences, School of Allied Health Professions, Loma Linda University, California, USA.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) continues to show effectiveness in the treatment of several diseases and benefits such as fibroblast proliferation, capillary angiogenesis, and decreasing edema, especially in hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). We report a case of a 15-year-old male with chronic myelogenous leukemia status posthaploidentical stem cell transport with BK virus in the United States to be treated by HBOT. The patient received a total of 30 HBOT treatments for 90 minutes at 2 ATA. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3465412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243008PMC

Muscle-Bone Interactions in Chinese Men and Women Aged 18-35 Years.

J Osteoporos 2020 9;2020:8126465. Epub 2020 May 9.

Neuromuscular Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, USA.

To characterize bone mineral density (BMD), bone strength, muscle and fat mass, and muscle strength and power in Chinese women ( = 25) and men ( = 28) classified as in the bone accrual phase (18-25 years) or in the peak bone mass phase (26-35 years). Calcium intakes, physical activity levels, and serum vitamin D were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessed body composition, lumbar spine, and hip areal BMD (aBMD) variables and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) assessed cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD) and bone strength. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8126465DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238353PMC

Fluid Structure Interaction on Paravalvular Leakage of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Related to Aortic Stenosis: A Patient-Specific Case.

Comput Math Methods Med 2020 4;2020:9163085. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.

This study investigated the impact of paravalvular leakage (PVL) in relation to the different valve openings of the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) valve using the fluid structure interaction (FSI) approach. Limited studies were found on the subject of FSI with regards to TAVI-PVL condition, which involves both fluid and structural responses in coupling interaction. Hence, further FSI simulation with the two-way coupling method is implemented to investigate the effects of hemodynamics blood flow along the patient-specific aorta model subjected to the interrelationship between PVL and the different valve openings using the established FSI software ANSYS 16. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/9163085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219000PMC

Where Dysphagia Begins: Polypharmacy and Xerostomia.

Fed Pract 2020 May;37(5):234-241

is a Medical Student; is an Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology; is an Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology; is an Otolaryngology Resident; and is a Clinical Associate Professor of Otolaryngology; all at Stanford University School of Medicine in California. is a Nurse Practitioner, and Davud Sirjani is the Chief of Otolaryngology at the Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System in California.

Background: Xerostomia, the subjective sensation of dry mouth, contributes to dysarthria, dysphagia, and diminished quality of life. Polypharmacy is a known and modifiable risk factor for xerostomia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dry mouth, the relationship between dry mouth and other oral conditions, and the impact of polypharmacy on dry mouth. Read More

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DNA Condensation with a Boron-Containing Cationic Peptide for Modeling Boron Neutron Capture Therapy.

Radiat Phys Chem Oxf Engl 1993 2020 Jan 10;166. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Basic Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, 11085 Campus Street, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA.

The amino acid derivative 4-borono--phenylalanine (BPA) has been used in the radiation medicine technique boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). Here we have characterized its interaction with DNA when incorporated into a positively charged hexa--arginine peptide. This ligand binds strongly to DNA and induces its condensation, an effect which is attenuated at higher ionic strengths. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.108521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7243597PMC
January 2020

State-dependent foraging by caribou with different nutritional requirements.

J Mammal 2020 May 2;101(2):544-557. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia, Canada.

Foraging by animals is hypothesized to be state-dependent, that is, varying with physiological condition of individuals. State often is defined by energy reserves, but state also can reflect differences in nutritional requirements (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jmammal/gyaa003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236907PMC

Adaptive nonparametric regression with the -nearest neighbour fused lasso.

Biometrika 2020 Jun 29;107(2):293-310. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Statistics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A.

The fused lasso, also known as total-variation denoising, is a locally adaptive function estimator over a regular grid of design points. In this article, we extend the fused lasso to settings in which the points do not occur on a regular grid, leading to a method for nonparametric regression. This approach, which we call the [Formula: see text]-nearest-neighbours fused lasso, involves computing the [Formula: see text]-nearest-neighbours graph of the design points and then performing the fused lasso over this graph. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/biomet/asz071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7228543PMC

Primary Synovial Sarcoma of the Thyroid: Challenges in Cytologic Diagnosis and Review of the Literature.

Acta Cytol 2020 May 26:1-9. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Irvine, California, USA.

Background: Primary synovial sarcoma (SS) of the thyroid (PSST) is extremely rare. Its differential diagnosis from other neoplasms is essential since it has different management protocols and prognosis.

Case: A 26-year-old man with a 4. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507312DOI Listing

Body Mass Index Predicts Decline in Executive Function in Bipolar Disorder: Preliminary Data of a 12-Month Follow-up Study.

Neuropsychobiology 2020 May 26:1-11. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapeutic Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

Introduction: Obesity and associated risk factors have been linked to cognitive decline before.

Objectives: In the present study, we evaluated potential cumulative negative effects of overweight and obesity on cognitive performance in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a longitudinal design.

Methods: Neurocognitive measures (California Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test [TMT] A/B, Digit-Symbol-Test, Digit-Span, d2 Test), anthropometrics (e. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505784DOI Listing

UV light and temperature induced fluridone degradation in water and sediment and potential transport into aquifer.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 17;265(Pt A):114750. Epub 2020 May 17.

Land Air and Water Resources Department, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Fluridone is widely used in ambient water bodies to control the spread of invasive aquatic plants. While the ability of fluridone to control aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth is well reported, an improved understanding of fluridone persistence in water and sediment is still needed to determine potential residues of fluridone in the water column and bed sediment of ambient water bodies. In this study, experiments were conducted over a three-month period to examine the degradation of fluridone in saturated sediment and water under various levels of UV-light (0-1000 μW/cm), and temperature (4-40 °C). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114750DOI Listing

Sexual dimorphism in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and human age-specific fertility.

J Hum Evol 2020 May 23;144:102795. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, USA.

Across vertebrates, species with intense male mating competition and high levels of sexual dimorphism in body size generally exhibit dimorphism in age-specific fertility. Compared with females, males show later ages at first reproduction and earlier reproductive senescence because they take longer to attain adult body size and musculature, and maintain peak condition for a limited time. This normally yields a shorter male duration of effective breeding, but this reduction might be attenuated in species that frequently use coalitionary aggression. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102795DOI Listing

Sensitivity of soil freeze/thaw dynamics to environmental conditions at different spatial scales in the central Tibetan Plateau.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 15;734:139261. Epub 2020 May 15.

Regional Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden. Electronic address:

An enhanced understanding of environmental controls on soil freeze/thaw (F/T) dynamics at different spatial scales is critical for projecting permafrost responses to future climate conditions. In this study, a 1-D soil thermal model and multi-scale observation networks were used to investigate the sensitivity of soil F/T dynamics in the central Tibetan Plateau (TP) to environmental conditions at local (~10 km)-, medium- (~30 km), and large (~100 km)- scales. Model simulated soil temperature profile generally agrees well with the observations, with root-mean-square errors (RMSE) lower than 1. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139261DOI Listing

Dysphagia in spinocerebellar ataxias type 1, 2, 3 and 6.

J Neurol Sci 2020 May 4;415:116878. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Neurology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; Initiative for Columbia Ataxia and Tremor, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Dysphagia is a common symptom and may be a cause of death in patients with spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs). However, little is known about at which disease stage dysphagia becomes clinically relevant. Therefore, our study aims to investigate the prevalence of dysphagia in different disease stages of SCA 1, 2, 3 and 6. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116878DOI Listing

Correlation between environmental pollution indicators and COVID-19 pandemic: A brief study in Californian context.

Environ Res 2020 May 13;187:109652. Epub 2020 May 13.

Education Department, Government of The Punjab, Pakistan.

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus COVID-19 outbreak was first detected in Wuhan Hubei province, China. The April 24, 2020, the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) has confirmed more than 39,000 cases, including >1800 deaths. California's Governor Gavin Newsom ordered mandatory stay at home after World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic in early March. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109652DOI Listing

Effect of variations in tissue-level ductility on human vertebral strength.

Bone 2020 May 23:115445. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA; Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Although the ductility of bone tissue is a unique element of bone quality and varies with age and across the population, the extent to which and mechanisms by which typical population-variations in tissue-level ductility can alter whole-bone strength remains unclear. To provide insight, we conducted a finite element analysis parameter study of whole-vertebral (monotonic) compressive strength on six human L1 vertebrae. Each model was generated from micro-CT scans, capturing the trabecular micro-architecture in detail, and included a non-linear constitutive model for the bone tissue that allowed for plastic yielding, different strengths in tension and compression, large deformations, and, uniquely, localized damage once a specified limit in tissue-level ultimate strain was exceeded. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2020.115445DOI Listing

Early Vascular Surgery Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results of a Nationwide Survey.

J Vasc Surg 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic has had major implications for the United States healthcare system. This survey study sought to identify practice changes, understand current personal protection equipment (PPE) use, and determine how caring for patients with COVID-19 differs for vascular surgeons practicing in states with high COVID-19 case numbers versus low case numbers.

Methods: A fourteen-question online survey regarding the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on vascular surgeons' current practice was sent to 365 vascular surgeons across the country via REDCap from 4/14/2020 to 4/21/2020 with responses closed on 4/23/2020. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.05.032DOI Listing

An Arabidopsis DISEASE RELATED NONSPECIFIC LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN 1 is required for resistance against various phytopathogens and tolerance to salt stress.

Gene 2020 May 23:144802. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13210. Electronic address:

Synchronous and timely regulation of multiple genes result in an effective defense response that decide the fate of the host when challenged with pathogens or unexpected changes in environmental conditions. One such gene, which is downregulated in response to multiple bacterial pathogens, is a putative nonspecific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) of unknown function that we have named DISEASE RELATED NONSPECIFIC LIPID TRANSFER PROTEIN 1 (DRN1). We show that upon pathogen challenge, DRN1 is strongly downregulated, while a putative DRN1 targeting novel microRNA (miRNA) named DRN1 Regulating miRNA (DmiR) is reciprocally upregulated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.144802DOI Listing

Polysomes Bypass a 50 Nucleotide Coding Gap less Efficiently than Monosomes Due to Attenuation of a 5' mRNA Stem Loop and Enhanced Drop-off.

J Mol Biol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

School of Biochemistry, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Western Road, Cork, T12 YT57, Ireland; School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Western Gateway Building, Western Road, Cork, T12 YT57, Ireland; Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-5330, USA. Electronic address:

Efficient translational bypassing of a 50 nt non-coding gap in a phage T4 topoisomerase subunit gene (gp60) requires several recoding signals. Here we investigate the function of the mRNA stem loop 5' of the take-off codon, as well as the importance of ribosome loading density on the mRNA for efficient bypassing. We show that polysomes are less efficient at mediating bypassing than monosomes, both in vitro and in vivo, due to their preventing formation of a stem loop 5' of the take-off codon and allowing greater peptidyl-tRNA drop off. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2020.05.010DOI Listing

Genetic variants drive altered epigenetic regulation of endotoxin response in BTBR macrophages.

Brain Behav Immun 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, MIND Institute, Genome Center, University of California, Davis, CA USA 95616, USA.

The BTBR TItpr3/J (BTBR) mouse has been used as a complex genetic model of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). While the specific mechanisms underlying BTBR behavioral phenotypes are poorly understood, prior studies have implicated profound differences in innate immune system control of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Innate immune activation and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines are also detected in blood of children with ASD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.058DOI Listing

A 20/20 view of ANT function in mitochondrial biology and necrotic cell death.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA. Electronic address:

The adenosine nucleotide translocase (ANT) family of proteins are inner mitochondrial membrane proteins involved in energy homeostasis and cell death. The primary function of ANT proteins is to exchange cytosolic ADP with matrix ATP, facilitating the export of newly synthesized ATP to the cell while providing new ADP substrate to the mitochondria. As such, the ANT proteins are central to maintaining energy homeostasis in all eukaryotic cells. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.05.012DOI Listing

Intra-aortic Balloon Pump vs Peripheral Ventricular Assist Device Utilization in the US.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 May 23. Epub 2020 May 23.

Cardiovascular Outcomes Research Laboratories (CORELAB), David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Division of Cardiac Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: The objective of the present study was to characterize practical utilization trends and outcomes for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and percutaneous left ventricular assist device (pVAD) in cardiogenic shock at a national level.

Methods: An analysis of all adult patients admitted non-electively for cardiogenic shock from January 2008 through December 2017 was performed using the National Inpatient Sample (NIS). Trends of inpatient IABP and pVAD use were analyzed using survey weighted estimates and the modified Cochran-Armitage test for significance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.03.129DOI Listing

Universal metabolic constraints shape the evolutionary ecology of diving in animals.

Proc Biol Sci 2020 May 27;287(1927):20200488. Epub 2020 May 27.

Marine Biology and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological and Marine Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, UK.

Diving as a lifestyle has evolved on multiple occasions when air-breathing terrestrial animals invaded the aquatic realm, and diving performance shapes the ecology and behaviour of all air-breathing aquatic taxa, from small insects to great whales. Using the largest dataset yet assembled, we show that maximum dive duration increases predictably with body mass in both ectotherms and endotherms. Compared to endotherms, ectotherms can remain submerged for longer, but the mass scaling relationship for dive duration is much steeper in endotherms than in ectotherms. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2020.0488DOI Listing

Programming and simulating chemical reaction networks on a surface.

J R Soc Interface 2020 May 27;17(166):20190790. Epub 2020 May 27.

Bioengineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA.

Models of well-mixed chemical reaction networks (CRN) have provided a solid foundation for the study of programmable molecular systems, but the importance of spatial organization in such systems has increasingly been recognized. In this paper, we explore an alternative chemical computing model introduced by Qian & Winfree in 2014, the surface CRN, which uses molecules attached to a surface such that each molecule only interacts with its immediate neighbours. Expanding on the constructions in that work, we first demonstrate that surface CRNs can emulate asynchronous and synchronous deterministic cellular automata and implement continuously active Boolean logic circuits. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2019.0790DOI Listing

Exploring New Therapeutic Pathways in Pulmonary Hypertension: Metabolism, Proliferation, and Personalized Medicine.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

UCSF, 8785, Medicine , San Francisco, California, United States.

In this State-of-the-Field article, we explore the main themes from the 62nd Annual Aspen Lung Conference: hypoxia, cellular metabolism, inflammatory pathways, aberrant proliferation, and personalized medicine, and highlight challenges and opportunities in the coming decade of pulmonary vascular disease. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2020-0099TRDOI Listing

Pangenome Graphs.

Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Genomics Institute, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA; email:

Low-cost whole-genome assembly has enabled the collection of haplotype-resolved pangenomes for numerous organisms. In turn, this technological change is encouraging the development of methods that can precisely address the sequence and variation described in large collections of related genomes. These approaches often use graphical models of the pangenome to support algorithms for sequence alignment, visualization, functional genomics, and association studies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-genom-120219-080406DOI Listing

The Pediatric Critical Care Trauma Scientist Development: Building a Community of Scientists for the Fields of Pediatric Critical Care and Trauma Surgery.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 Mar 13. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Objectives: To assess the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Pediatric Critical Care Trauma Scientist Development Program national K12 program.

Design: Mixed-methods study.

Setting: Pediatric Critical Care Trauma Scientist Development Program participants from 2005 to 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002348DOI Listing

Enantioselective Intramolecular Allylic Substitution via Synergistic Palladium/Chiral Phosphoric Acid Catalysis: Insight into Stereoinduction through Statistical Modeling.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

University of Utah, Chemistry, UNITED STATES.

The mode of asymmetric induction in an enantioselective intramolecular allylic substitution reaction catalyzed by a combination of palladium and a chiral phosphoric acid was investigated by a combined experimental and statistical modeling approach. Experiments to probe nonlinear effects, the reactivity of deuterium-labeled substrates, and control experiments revealed that the nucleophilic attack to the π -allylpalladium intermediate is the enantio-determining step, in which the chiral phosphate anion is involved in stereoinduction. Using multivariable linear regression analysis, we identified that the presence of multiple noncovalent interactions with the chiral environment of the phosphate anion are integral to enantiocontrol in the transition state. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202006237DOI Listing

Metabolomics Reveals Altered Hepatic Bile Acids, Gut Microbiome Metabolites, and Cell Membrane Lipids Associated with Marginal Vitamin A Deficiency in a Mongolian Gerbil Model.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 May 26:e1901319. Epub 2020 May 26.

West Coast Metabolomics Center, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Scope: This study was designed to provide a broad evaluation of the impacts of vitamin A (VA) deficiency on hepatic metabolism in a gerbil model.

Methods And Results: After 28d of VA depletion, male Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were randomly assigned to experimental diets for 28 d. Groups were fed a white maize-based diet with ∼50 μL cottonseed oil vehicle either alone (VA-, n = 10) or containing 40 μg retinyl acetate (VA+, n = 10) for 28 d. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201901319DOI Listing

Candidate gene expression and coding sequence variants in Warmblood horses with myofibrillar myopathy.

Equine Vet J 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Michigan State University, Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Background: Myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) of unknown aetiology has recently been identified in Warmblood (WB) horses. In humans, 16 genes have been implicated in various MFM-like disorders.

Objectives: To identify variants in 16 MFM candidate genes and compare allele frequencies of all variants between MFM WB and non-MFM WB and coding variants with moderate or severe predicted effects in MFM WB with publicly available data of other breeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/evj.13286DOI Listing

Development of character strengths across the deployment cycle among U.S. Army soldiers.

J Pers 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

University of Pennsylvania.

Objective: Despite a narrative of post-traumatic growth and resilience, research reliably demonstrating positive character development following adversity has proved elusive. In the current study, we examined changes in character strengths in Army soldiers deploying for the first time.

Method: The sample was comprised of 212,386 Army soldiers (M = 26. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12564DOI Listing

Early Multicenter Experience With the Neuroform Atlas Stent: Feasibility, Safety, and Efficacy.

Neurosurgery 2020 May 26. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: The Neuroform Atlas stent™ (by Stryker, Fremont, California) represents the most recent widely available upgrade to intracranial stenting, providing a laser cut open cell stent with a diameter of 3.0 to 4.5 mm that is delivered through an 0. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa143DOI Listing

Spatial epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis virus and other infections of the central nervous system infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011): A retrospective analysis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 May 26;14(5):e0008333. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, University of California, Irvine, United States of America.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infections are important contributors to morbidity and mortality and the causative agents for ~50% patients are never identified. The causative agents of some CNS infections have distinct spatial and temporal patterns.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here we present the results of a spatial epidemiological and ecological analysis of CNS infections in Lao PDR (2003-2011). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008333DOI Listing

A unifying model for the propagation of prion proteins in yeast brings insight into the [PSI+] prion.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 May 26;16(5):e1007647. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Applied Mathematics, University of California Merced, Merced, California, United States of America.

The use of yeast systems to study the propagation of prions and amyloids has emerged as a crucial aspect of the global endeavor to understand those mechanisms. Yeast prion systems are intrinsically multi-scale: the molecular chemical processes are indeed coupled to the cellular processes of cell growth and division to influence phenotypical traits, observable at the scale of colonies. We introduce a novel modeling framework to tackle this difficulty using impulsive differential equations. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007647DOI Listing

Benchmarking predictions of MHC class I restricted T cell epitopes in a comprehensively studied model system.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 May 26;16(5):e1007757. Epub 2020 May 26.

Division of Vaccine Discovery, La Jolla Institute for Immunology, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

T cell epitope candidates are commonly identified using computational prediction tools in order to enable applications such as vaccine design, cancer neoantigen identification, development of diagnostics and removal of unwanted immune responses against protein therapeutics. Most T cell epitope prediction tools are based on machine learning algorithms trained on MHC binding or naturally processed MHC ligand elution data. The ability of currently available tools to predict T cell epitopes has not been comprehensively evaluated. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007757DOI Listing

Toxoplasma  GRA15 and GRA24 are important activators of the host innate immune response in the absence of TLR11.

PLoS Pathog 2020 May 26;16(5):e1008586. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

The murine innate immune response against Toxoplasma gondii is predominated by the interaction of TLR11/12 with Toxoplasma profilin. However, mice lacking Tlr11 or humans, who do not have functional TLR11 or TLR12, still elicit a strong innate immune response upon Toxoplasma infection. The parasite factors that determine this immune response are largely unknown. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008586DOI Listing
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