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    Advances in Probiotic Regulation of Bone and Mineral Metabolism.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 16. Epub 2018 Feb 16.
    Department of Physiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
    Probiotics have been consumed by humans for thousands of years because they are beneficial for long-term storage of foods and promote the health of their host. Ingested probiotics reside in the gastrointestinal tract where they have many effects including modifying the microbiota composition, intestinal barrier function, and the immune system which result in systemic benefits to the host, including bone health. Probiotics benefit bone growth, density, and structure under conditions of dysbiosis, intestinal permeability, and inflammation (recognized mediators of bone loss and osteoporosis). Read More

    Alkaline Phosphatases in the Complex Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorders.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Laboratory of Experimental Nephrology, Renal Division,San Paolo Hospital, DiSS University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Alkaline phosphatases (APs) remove the phosphate (dephosphorylation) needed in multiple metabolic processes (from many molecules such as proteins, nucleotides, or pyrophosphate). Therefore, APs are important for bone mineralization but paradoxically they can also be deleterious for other processes, such as vascular calcification and the increasingly known cross-talk between bone and vessels. A proper balance between beneficial and harmful activities is further complicated in the context of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Read More

    Bone Loss After Romosozumab/Denosumab: Effects of Bisphosphonates.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 14. Epub 2018 Feb 14.
    Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Romosozumab and denosumab are monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of osteoporosis. Both have a rapid offset of effect resulting in loss of bone density (BMD) gained on-treatment and, in some cases, multiple vertebral fractures following treatment cessation. We recently reported disappointing results from transitioning patients from denosumab to intravenous zoledronate at the time the next denosumab injection is due. Read More

    Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) and Markers of Bone Turnover in Men.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to have a clinically significant impact on bone metabolism. To explore this further, we aimed to determine whether these agents are associated with serum markers of bone turnover utilising a population-based sample of men (n = 1138; 20-96 year) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Blood samples were obtained and the bone resorption marker, C-telopeptide (CTx) and formation marker, type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide (PINP) were measured. Read More

    How Do MRI-Detected Subchondral Bone Marrow Lesions (BMLs) on Two Different MRI Sequences Correlate with Clinically Important Outcomes?
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 13. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
    Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 23, Hobart, TAS, 7001, Australia.
    The aim of this study is to describe the association of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) present on two different MRI sequences with clinical outcomes, cartilage defect progression, cartilage volume loss over 2.7 years, and total knee replacement (TKR) over 13.3 years. Read More

    Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin Enhances Glucose Uptake Ex Vivo in Insulin-Stimulated Mouse Oxidative But Not Glycolytic Muscle.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 9. Epub 2018 Feb 9.
    Institute of Health and Sport (IHES), Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.
    Uncarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) stimulates muscle glucose uptake in mice EDL and soleus muscles. However, whether ucOC also exerts a similar effect in insulin-stimulated muscles in a muscle type-specific manner is currently unclear. We aimed to test the hypothesis that, with insulin stimulation, ucOC per se has a greater effect on oxidative muscle compared with glycolytic muscle, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Read More

    Vertebral Fractures Following Denosumab Discontinuation in Patients with Prolonged Exposure to Bisphosphonates.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 2. Epub 2018 Feb 2.
    Endocrine Institute, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Denosumab (DMAB) efficacy for treatment of osteoporosis was demonstrated in a pivotal trial with a reduction in vertebral and hip fractures during 3 years, and fracture risk reduction was sustained up to 10 years in an extension study. DMAB causes potent yet reversible inhibition of bone resorption. Bone density declines rapidly upon discontinuation and bone turnover markers increase above baseline in a rebound fashion. Read More

    Correction to: Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 31. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
    Panorama Orthopedics and Spine Center, Golden, CO, USA.
    The article Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide, written by Michael R. McClung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Read More

    Three-Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Nasal Calcitonin in Adults with X-linked Hypophosphatemia.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Department of Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.
    Previous work has demonstrated that a single subcutaneous dose of salmon calcitonin leads to a transient decline in circulating levels of FGF23 in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Since the calcitonin receptor is expressed on osteocytes, this raises the possibility that interdicting signals through that receptor could modulate circulating levels of FGF23 in XLH. In the present study, 21 subjects with XLH were randomly assigned to receive either placebo nasal spray or 400 IU of nasal salmon calcitonin daily for three months. Read More

    A Novel microCT Method for Bone and Marrow Adipose Tissue Alignment Identifies Key Differences Between Mandible and Tibia in Rats.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 30. Epub 2018 Jan 30.
    Univ.Lille, Univ. Littoral Côte d'Opale, EA 4490 - PMOI - Physiopathologie des Maladies Osseuses Inflammatoires, 59000, Lille, France.
    Bone homeostasis is influenced by the bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT). BMAT distribution varies from one anatomical location in the skeleton to another. We developed an advanced microfocus computed tomography imaging and analysis protocol that allows accurate alignment of both the BMAT distribution and bone micro-architecture as well as calculation of the distance of the BMAT adipocytes from the bone surface. Read More

    Bone Mineral Density Changes After 1 Year of Denosumab Discontinuation in Postmenopausal Women with Long-Term Denosumab Treatment for Osteoporosis.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 29. Epub 2018 Jan 29.
    Department of Osteoporosis, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, 3010, Bern, Switzerland.
    The aim of the present study was to document the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) 1 year after denosumab loss-of-effect following long-term treatment with subcutaneous denosumab 60 mg Q6M during 7 or 10 years and in the absence of any treatment with a bone active substance. All postmenopausal women with osteoporosis who participated to the randomized placebo-controlled FREEDOM core trial and its open-label extension at the University Hospital of Bern, Switzerland, and who accepted to undergo off-treatment follow-up during 1 year after discontinuation, were included (N = 12). After 10 years of denosumab, mean lumbar spine (LS) BMD had increased by 21. Read More

    Muscle Mass, Muscle Morphology and Bone Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Men: Findings from the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS).
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 25. Epub 2018 Jan 25.
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University Hospital Southampton, University of Southampton, Tremona Road, Mail point 95, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
    Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are associated with poor health outcomes in older people. Relationships between muscle and bone have typically been reported at a functional or macroscopic level. The aims of this study were to describe the relationships between muscle morphology and bone health among participants of the Hertfordshire Sarcopenia Study (HSS). Read More

    Exposure Duration Is a Determinant of the Effect of Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields on Peak Bone Mass of Young Rats.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Institute of Orthopaedics, Lanzhou General Hospital of CPLA, Lanzhou, 730050, People's Republic of China.
    We proposed a three-step strategy to obtain the optimal therapeutic parameters, which is composed of large-scale screening at cellular level, verification in animal experiments, and confirmation by a clinical trial. The objective of the current study was to test the feasibility of our strategy. Newborn rat calvarial osteoblasts were treated by 50 Hz 1. Read More

    Gut Microbiota and IGF-1.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 23. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
    Division of Rheumatology, Immunology and Allergy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 60 Fenwood Road, BTM 6022, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.
    Microbiota and their hosts have coevolved for millions of years. Microbiota are not only critical for optimal development of the host under normal physiological growth, but also important to ensure proper host development during nutrient scarcity or disease conditions. A large body of research has begun to detail the mechanism(s) of how microbiota cooperate with the host to maintain optimal health status. Read More

    Risk of Subsequent Fragility Fractures Observed After Low-Trauma Ankle Fractures.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 22. Epub 2018 Jan 22.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.
    While fragility fractures (FFs) are one of the strongest predictors of subsequent osteoporotic fractures, it remains unclear whether low-trauma ankle fractures have this ability. The aim of the study was to identify the characteristics of patients with low-trauma ankle FFs who develop subsequent FFs. The OPTIMUS initiative is a strategy to improve osteoporosis treatment post-FF in orthopedic clinics. Read More

    Analysis of Circulating Mediators of Bone Remodeling in Prader-Willi Syndrome.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 20. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Section of Pediatrics, University of Bari 'A. Moro', Piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124, Bari, Italy.
    We tested the hypothesis that the levels of bone remodeling mediators may be altered in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We assessed RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK-1 serum levels, and bone metabolism markers in 12 PWS children (7.8 ± 4. Read More

    Cancer Treatment and Bone Health.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 20;102(2):251-264. Epub 2018 Jan 20.
    Department of Oncology and Metabolism, Academic Unit of Clinical Oncology, Weston Park Hospital, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Considerable advances in oncology over recent decades have led to improved survival, while raising concerns about long-term consequences of anticancer treatments. In patients with breast or prostate malignancies, bone health is a major issue due to the high risk of bone metastases and the frequent prolonged use of hormone therapies that alter physiological bone turnover, leading to increased fracture risk. Thus, the onset of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) should be considered by clinicians and recent guidelines should be routinely applied to these patients. Read More

    The Advantages of Bilateral Osteotomy Over Unilateral Osteotomy for Osteoporotic Bone Healing.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 19. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
    Department of Trauma Surgery, Orthopaedics and Plastic Surgery, University Medical Center, Robert-Koch 40, 37075, Goettingen, Germany.
    Most models of osteoporotic bone fractures are performed unilaterally (UL). We investigated healing of tibia osteotomy performed either UL or bilaterally (BL) in ovariectomized rats. Behavior of animals and muscle structure were assessed. Read More

    Roles of Irisin in the Linkage from Muscle to Bone During Mechanical Unloading in Mice.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 13. Epub 2018 Jan 13.
    Department of Physiology and Regenerative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Osakasayama, Japan.
    Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). Read More

    Altered Bone Remodeling in Psoriatic Disease: New Insights and Future Directions.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 12. Epub 2018 Jan 12.
    Allergy, Immunology & Rheumatology Division, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, 14623, USA.
    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that occurs in patients with psoriasis and predominantly affects musculoskeletal structures, skin, and nails. The etiology of PsA is not well understood but evidence supports an interplay of genetic, immunologic, and environmental factors which promote pathological bone remodeling and joint damage in PsA. Localized and systemic bone loss due to increased activity of osteoclasts is well established in PsA based on animal models and translational studies. Read More

    Loading of the Condylar Cartilage Can Rescue the Effects of Botox on TMJ.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 11. Epub 2018 Jan 11.
    Department of Orthodontics, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, MC1725, Farmington, CT, 06030, USA.
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the effects of botulinum neurotoxin (botox) injection into the masseter in the mandibular condylar cartilage (MCC) and subchondral bone could be rescued by compressive loading of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Twenty-four 6-week-old female mice (C57BL/6J) were used. Mice were divided in three groups: (1) Botox (n = 8); (2) Botox plus loading (n = 8); (3) Pure control (n = 8). Read More

    Glucocorticoids, Inflammation and Bone.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 8. Epub 2018 Jan 8.
    Department of Rheumatology, Amsterdam Rheumatology and immunology Center, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    The current review on glucocorticoids (GCs), inflammation and bone is focused on three aspects: (1) the mutual effects between GCs, inflammation and bone in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, (2) current views on fracture risk assessment in patients using GCs and (3) non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment to prevent fractures in GC-using patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. The use of GCs results in increased risk for fractures due to both direct and indirect negative effects of GCs on bone mass, and on bone and muscle strength. However, also the underlying inflammatory rheumatic disease is associated with the increased bone loss and fracture risk due to the chronic inflammation itself, and due to disability/immobility caused by active disease or joint destruction. Read More

    Lower Lean Mass Measured by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Hip Fracture in Women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 5. Epub 2018 Jan 5.
    Institute for Aging Research, Hebrew SeniorLife, 1200 Centre Street, Boston, MA, 02131, USA.
    Although muscle mass influences strength in older adults, it is unclear whether low lean mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an independent risk factor for hip fracture. Our objective was to determine the association between DXA lean mass and incident hip fracture risk among 1978 women aged 50 years and older participating in the Framingham Study Original and Offspring cohorts. Leg and total body lean mass (kg) were assessed from whole-body DXA scans collected in 1992-2001. Read More

    Sports Participation in High School and College Leads to High Bone Density and Greater Rates of Bone Loss in Young Men: Results from a Population-Based Study.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 4. Epub 2018 Jan 4.
    EA Martin Program, South Dakota State University, Box 506, Wecota Hall, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA.
    Estimated lifetime risk of an osteoporotic fracture in men over the age of 50 years is substantial and lifestyle factors such as physical activity may explain variation in bone mass and bone loss associated with aging. Men (n = 253) aged 20-66 years were followed for 7.5 years and factors that influence changes in means and rates of change in bone mass, density, and size using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) were investigated; in particular, seasons of sports participation during high school and college. Read More

    High Serum Retinol as a Relevant Contributor to Low Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 2. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    IMIBIC (Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba)/Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía/ Universidad de Córdoba & RETICEF, CIBERFES (ISCIII), Córdoba, Spain.
    There is controversial information about the impact of vitamin A on bone. Some epidemiological studies show that excessive intake of vitamin A, or an excess of serum vitamin A, has related with adverse impact on bone mass; however, other studies did not find these links, and some authors have proposed that this vitamin might promote a better bone health. The present work aims to contribute to clarify the real role of vitamin A in bone tissue. Read More

    Bone Geometry, Quality, and Bone Markers in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 30. Epub 2017 Dec 30.
    Department of Pediatrics, General Hospital Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy.
    Adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus show a high risk of bone fracture, probably as a consequence of a decreased bone mass and microarchitectural bone alterations. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential negative effects of type 1 diabetes on bone geometry, quality, and bone markers in a group of children and adolescents. 96 children, mean age 10. Read More

    Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 28. Epub 2017 Dec 28.
    Panorama Orthopedics and Spine Center, Golden, CO, USA.
    Geographic heterogeneity has been observed in fracture risk and efficacy of therapeutic intervention in postmenopausal osteoporosis. The objectives of these analyses were to assess across geographic and ethnic subgroups the heterogeneity of fracture incidence and baseline risk, and consistency of effect of abaloparatide-SC vs placebo on fracture risk reduction in the 18-month, phase 3, multinational, ACTIVE randomized controlled trial. Prespecified exploratory analyses of geographic subgroups (North America, South America, Europe, Asia) and post hoc analyses of ethnic subgroups (Hispanic or Latino, other) of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis enrolled in the abaloparatide-SC and placebo cohorts (n = 1645) were performed. Read More

    Cortical Fractal Analysis and Collagen Crosslinks Content in Femoral Neck After Osteoporotic Fracture in Postmenopausal Women: Comparison with Osteoarthritis.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 16. Epub 2017 Dec 16.
    INSERM UMR 1033, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.
    The femoral neck (FN) has been previously characterized by thinner cortices in osteoporotic fracture (HF) when compared to hip osteoarthritis (HOA). The purposes of this study were to complete the previous investigations on FNs from HF and HOA by analyzing the complexity of the cortical structure and to approach the intrinsic properties of cortical bone by assessing the collagen crosslink contents. FN samples were obtained during arthroplasty in 35 postmenopausal women (HF; n = 17; mean age 79 ± 2 years; HOA; n = 18; mean age 66 ± 2 years). Read More

    Effect of Strontium Ranelate on the Muscle and Vertebrae of Ovariectomized Rats.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 14. Epub 2017 Dec 14.
    Department of Trauma Surgery, Orthopaedics and Plastic Surgery, University Medical Center Goettingen, Robert-Koch Str. 40, 37075, Göettingen, Germany.
    Osteoporosis is often accompanied by sarcopenia. The effect of strontium ranelate (SR) on muscle tissue has not been investigated sufficiently. In this study, the effect of different SR treatments on muscle was studied. Read More

    Biology of Bone Sarcomas and New Therapeutic Developments.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 13;102(2):174-195. Epub 2017 Dec 13.
    Department of Oncology and Metabolism, Medical School, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, UK.
    Bone sarcomas are tumours belonging to the family of mesenchymal tumours and constitute a highly heterogeneous tumour group. The three main bone sarcomas are osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma each subdivided in diverse histological entities. They are clinically characterised by a relatively high morbidity and mortality, especially in children and adolescents. Read More

    Long-Term Quantitative Evaluation of Muscle and Bone Wasting Induced by Botulinum Toxin in Mice Using Microcomputed Tomography.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 8. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
    GEROM Groupe Etudes Remodelage Osseux et bioMatériaux - LHEA, IRIS-IBS Institut de Biologie en Santé, CHU d'Angers, Université d'Angers, 49933, Angers Cedex, France.
    Muscle and bone masses are highly correlated and muscles impose large loads on bone. Muscle wasting that accompanies bone loss has been poorly investigated. 21 female mice were spread into seven groups. Read More

    Gut Microbiota and Host Juvenile Growth.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 6. Epub 2017 Dec 6.
    Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon (IGFL), Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5242, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 69364, Lyon Cedex 07, France.
    Good genes, good food, good friends. That is what parents hope will sustain and nurture the harmonious growth of their children. The impact of the genetic background and nutrition on postnatal growth has been in the spot light for long, but the good friends have come to the scene only recently. Read More

    The Role of Autoantibodies in Bone Metabolism and Bone Loss.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, 91054, Erlangen, Germany.
    Many autoimmune diseases are associated with deranged bone metabolism. The resulting localized or systemic bone loss can compromise the quality of life of patients by causing local bone deformities or fragility fractures. There is emerging evidence that antibodies have a direct impact on key players of bone homeostasis, in particular osteoclasts. Read More

    Bone Loss in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Implications.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 4. Epub 2017 Dec 4.
    Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA, 01605, USA.
    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have historically developed progressive damage of articular bone and cartilage, which correlates with disability over time. In addition, these patients are prone to periarticular and systemic bone loss, carrying additional morbidity. In contrast to what is seen in many other rheumatic diseases, the impact of inflammation on bone in RA is uniquely destructive. Read More

    Metabolic Syndrome and Bone: Pharmacologically Induced Diabetes has Deleterious Effect on Bone in Growing Obese Rats.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Dec 1. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
    Pfizer WRD, Comparative Medicine, Global Science and Technology, 100 Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT, 06340, USA.
    Metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis share similar risk factors. Also, patients with diabetes have a higher risk of osteoporosis and fracture. Liver manifestations, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), of metabolic syndrome are further aggravated in diabetics and often lead to liver failure. Read More

    Novel Mutations in PLOD2 Cause Rare Bruck Syndrome.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 24. Epub 2017 Nov 24.
    Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology of Ministry of Health, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Shuaifuyuan No.1, Dongcheng District, Beijing, 100730, China.
    Bruck syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), which is mainly characterized by joint contractures and recurrent fragility fractures. Mutations in FKBP10 and PLOD2 were identified as the underlying genetic defects of Bruck syndrome. Here we investigated the phenotypes and the pathogenic mutations of three unrelated Chinese patients with Bruck syndrome. Read More

    Second Hip Fracture: Incidence, Trends, and Predictors.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 20. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
    Instituto de Salud Musculoesquelética, Madrid, Spain.
    Older persons who have suffered a hip fracture (HFx) are at increased risk of subsequent hip fractures. The cumulative incidence of a second hip fracture (SHFx) has been estimated in 8.4%; however, no studies have been carried out in our country, and the information on risk markers of SHFx is limited. Read More

    Nutritional Programming of Bone Structure in Male Offspring by Maternal Consumption of Citrus Flavanones.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 18. Epub 2017 Nov 18.
    Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1, Canada.
    Maternal exposure to hesperidin (HSP) and naringin (NAR) during pregnancy and lactation transiently compromised bone mineral density (BMD) and bone structure at the proximal tibia in female CD-1 offspring. We examined whether maternal consumption of HSP + NAR during pregnancy and lactation compromises BMD, bone structure, and bone strength in male CD-1 offspring. Male CD-1 offspring, from mothers fed a control diet (CON, n = 10) or a 0. Read More

    Osteomimicry: How the Seed Grows in the Soil.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 16;102(2):131-140. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio - Coppito 2, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Metastasis is defined as a very inefficient process, since less than 0.01% of cancer cells injected into the circulation will engraft in a distant organ, where they must acquire the ability to survive and proliferate inside a "foreign" environment. In bone metastases, the interaction with the host organ is much more favoured if tumour cells gain "osteomimicry", that is the ability to resemble a resident bone cell (i. Read More

    Impact of Conventional Medical Therapy on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Turnover in Adult Patients with X-Linked Hypophosphatemia: A 6-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 15. Epub 2017 Nov 15.
    Department of Pediatrics, Kolding Hospital at Lillebaelt Hospital, Sygehusvej 24, DK-6000, Kolding, Denmark.
    X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a rare, inheritable disorder manifesting as rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. While conventional medical treatment with oral phosphate and alfacalcidol is recommended in childhood, it is undecided whether adults should continue therapy. The aim of this 6-year prospective study was to determine the impact of conventional medical treatment on areal bone mineral density (aBMD), bone turnover markers (BTMs) and measures of calcium homeostasis in 27 adult patients with XLH, 11 of whom received medical treatment. Read More

    Hallmarks of Bone Metastasis.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Feb 14;102(2):141-151. Epub 2017 Nov 14.
    Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 77843, USA.
    Breast cancer bone metastasis develops as the result of a series of complex interactions between tumor cells, bone marrow cells, and resident bone cells. The net effect of these interactions are the disruption of normal bone homeostasis, often with significantly increased osteoclast and osteoblast activity, which has provided a rational target for controlling tumor progression, with little or no emphasis on tumor eradication. Indeed, the clinical course of metastatic breast cancer is relatively long, with patients likely to experience sequential skeletal-related events (SREs), often over lengthy periods of time, even up to decades. Read More

    Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 Regulates Leptin Sensitivity and Bone Mass.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 13. Epub 2017 Nov 13.
    Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert Rössle Strasse 10, 13125, Berlin, Germany.
    The central nervous system is widely known to exert control over our systemic physiology via several mechanisms including the regulation of skeletal metabolism. Neuronal circuits within the hypothalamus have been shown to impact bone mass via leptin-dependent and independent mechanisms; however, the full extent to which the brain controls bone homeostasis is not known. We previously identified cell adhesion molecule1 (Cadm1) as a regulator of body weight and energy homeostasis via its expression in multiple regions of the brain. Read More

    Homozygous Dkk1 Knockout Mice Exhibit High Bone Mass Phenotype Due to Increased Bone Formation.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2018 Jan 6;102(1):105-116. Epub 2017 Nov 6.
    Orthopaedic Research & Biotechnology Unit, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, Research Building, Locked Bag 4001, Westmead, NSW, 2145, Australia.
    Wnt antagonist Dkk1 is a negative regulator of bone formation and Dkk1heterozygous mice display a high bone mass phenotype. Complete loss of Dkk1 function disrupts embryonic head development. Homozygous Dkk1mice that were heterozygous for Wnt3 loss of function mutation (termed Dkk1 KO) are viable and allowed studying the effects of homozygous inactivation of Dkk1 on bone formation. Read More

    Multiple Vertebral Osteonecroses (Kümmell's Disease) After 10 Years on Denosumab: Is Osteocyte Apoptosis to Blame?
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Rheumatology Department, Nantes University Hospital, 1 Place Alexis Ricordeau, 44093, Nantes Cedex, France.
    We report here a case of multiple vertebral osteonecroses with intrasomatic gaseous dissection (Kümmell's disease) occurring 1 year after the end of a 10-year course of denosumab treatment for osteoporosis without fractures. Histomorphometry and bone remodeling markers revealed major bone resorption and the persistence of an inhibition of bone formation. The presence of multiple empty lacunae in the bone provided evidence for high levels of osteocyte apoptosis. Read More

    Long-Term Intake of Green Tea Extract Causes Mal-Conformation of Trabecular Bone Microarchitecture in Growing Rats.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 4. Epub 2017 Nov 4.
    Department of Physiology, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijou-cho, Kashihara, Nara, 634-8521, Japan.
    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of green tea extract (GTE) intake on bone structural and physiological properties, such as bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, cortical bone geometry, and bone mechanical strength, in growing rats. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups: standard diet feeding for 85 days (S-CON) or 170 days (L-CON), and GTE diet feeding for 85 days (S-GTE) or 170 days (L-GTE). At the end of the experiment, in addition to measurement of circulating bone formation/resorption markers, bone mass, trabecular bone microarchitecture, and cortical bone geometry were analyzed in the left femur, and bone mechanical strength of the right femur was measured. Read More

    Relationships Between Markers of Inflammation and Muscle Mass, Strength and Function: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, Southampton General Hospital, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK.
    We investigated the longitudinal relationships between inflammation markers and the following outcomes in a UK cohort study: appendicular lean mass (ALM); walking speed; level and change in grip strength; and sarcopenia defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were based on 336 community-dwelling older men and women (aged 59-70 years) who participated in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS). Inflammation markers were ascertained at baseline using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques and Bio-Plex Pro Assays. Read More

    Insight into the Pathology of a COL1A1 Signal Peptide Heterozygous Mutation Leading to Severe Osteogenesis Imperfecta.
    Calcif Tissue Int 2017 Nov 3. Epub 2017 Nov 3.
    Connective Tissue Unit, Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital, Steinwiesstrasse 75, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Osteogenesis imperfecta or "brittle bone disease" is a congenital disorder of connective tissue causing the bone to break easily. Around 85-90% of cases are due to autosomal dominant mutations in the genes encoding type I collagen, the major organic component of bone. Genotype-phenotype correlations have shown that quantitative defects of collagen type I lead to mild OI, whereas structural defects show a wide clinical range from mild to perinatal lethal. Read More

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