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Snakebite Mitigation Project of the Madras Crocodile Bank/Centre for Herpetology, India: background and a brief summary of activities.

Authors:
Romulus Whitaker

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Project Manager (India), Global Snakebite Initiative, East Coast Road, Mamallapuram, Chennai, India.

Snakebite is a serious problem in rural India where several highly venomous species are commonly found in and around agricultural areas where prey such as rodents and amphibians are abundant. Four snake species, referred to as the Big Four, are responsible for the most serious and fatal bites: spectacled cobra (Naja naja), Russell's viper (Daboia russelii), common krait (Bungarus caeruleus) and saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). A polyvalent antivenom is made to treat these bites but public awareness and distribution of this life-saving drug is inadequate. Read More

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December 2018

Associations between cognitive impairment and quality of life in euthymic bipolar patients.

Psychiatry Res 2018 Nov 26;271:510-515. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

During the euthymic state in bipolar disorder, cognitive functions often remain affected. Specifically, subjective and objective cognitive impairment might distinctly affect patients' quality of life (QoL); however, this question had not been examined previously in Japanese patients. Therefore, the current study investigated the associations between cognitive complaints, QoL, and objective cognitive functions. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

User-friendly extraction and multistage tandem mass spectrometry based analysis of lipid-linked oligosaccharides in microalgae.

Plant Methods 2018 5;14:107. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1UNIROUEN, Laboratoire Glyco-MEV EA4358, Normandie Univ, 76000 Rouen, France.

Background: Protein -glycosylation is initiated within the endoplasmic reticulum through the synthesis of a lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO) precursor. This precursor is then transferred on neo-synthesized proteins through the action of the oligosaccharyltransferase giving birth to glycoproteins. The -linked glycans bore by the glycoproteins are then processed into oligomannosides prior to the exit of the glycoproteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and its entrance into the Golgi apparatus. Read More

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December 2018

A DNA barcode-assisted annotated checklist of the spider (Arachnida, Araneae) communities associated to white oak woodlands in Spanish National Parks.

Biodivers Data J 2018 29(6):e29443. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028, Barcelona, Spain Department of Evolutionary Biology, Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio), Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, E-08028 Barcelona Spain.

Background: A large scale semi-quantitative biodiversity assessment was conducted in white oak woodlands in areas included in the Spanish Network of National Parks, as part of a project aimed at revealing biogeographic patterns and identify biodiversity drivers. The semi-quantitative COBRA sampling protocol was conducted in sixteen 1-ha plots across six national parks using a nested design. All adult specimens were identified to species level based on morphology. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Phytotoxicity of wear debris from traditional and innovative brake pads.

Environ Int 2018 Dec 4;123:156-163. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS - Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Traffic-related emissions include gas and particles that can alter air quality and affect human and environmental health. Limited studies have demonstrated that particulate debris thrown off from brakes are toxic to higher plants. The acute phytotoxicity of brake pad wear debris (BPWD) investigated using cress seeds grown in soil contaminated with increasing concentrations of debris. Read More

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December 2018

Tn-Core: a toolbox for integrating Tn-seq gene essentiality data and constraint-based metabolic modelling.

ACS Synth Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

The design of synthetic cells requires a detailed understanding of the relevance of genes and gene networks underlying complex cellular phenotypes. Tn-seq (transposon-sequencing) and constraint-based metabolic modelling can be used to probe the core genetic and metabolic networks underlying a biological process. Integrating these highly complementary experimental and in silico approaches has the potential to yield a highly comprehensive understanding of the core networks of a cell. Read More

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December 2018

Nonwoven flax fibres geotextiles effects on solute heavy metals transport in porous media.

Environ Technol 2018 Dec 6:1-26. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

c Depestele, Teillage Vandecandelaère , 5 rue de l'Eglise, 14540 Bourguebus , France .

Filtration tests were carried out in laboratory columns filled with crushed sand with and without flax geotextiles to study the transfer and retention of soluble heavy metals. Divalent cations of copper, zinc and lead were simultaneously and continuously injected in filtration columns. Results show that, when geotextiles discs are present the retention of metals in sand is favoured and retention profiles are modified. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Ion mobility-mass spectrometry analysis of diarylquinoline diastereomers: Drugs used for tuberculosis treatment.

Eur J Mass Spectrom (Chichester) 2018 Dec 5:1469066718813226. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

1 Normandie Université, COBRA, UMR 6014 et FR 3038; Université de Rouen; INSA de Rouen; CNRS, IRCOF, Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in more than two million deaths per year and is the leading cause of mortality in people infected with HIV. A new structural class of antimycobacterials, the diarylquinolines, has been synthesized and is being highly effective against both M. tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Coagulotoxic Cobras: Clinical Implications of Strong Anticoagulant Actions of African Spitting Naja Venoms That Are Not Neutralised by Antivenom but Are by LY315920 (Varespladib).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 4;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Venom Evolution Lab, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia.

Snakebite is a global tropical disease that has long had huge implications for human health and well-being. Despite its long-standing medical importance, it has been the most neglected of tropical diseases. Reflective of this is that many aspects of the pathology have been underinvestigated. Read More

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December 2018
1 Read

Cost-effective Tapering Algorithm in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: Combination of Multibiomarker Disease Activity Score and Autoantibody Status.

J Rheumatol 2018 Dec 1. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

From the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg (FAU), Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; St. Vincent Hospital, Vinforce Study Group, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Institutio de Rheumatologia, São Paolo, Brazil; University of Würzburg, Internal Medicine 2, Würzburg; University Medical Center Freiburg, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Freiburg; Rheumatology Clinical Practice Erlangen, Erlangen; Rheumatology Practice and Department of Internal Medicine 2, Clinic Burghausen, Burghausen; Asklepios Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology and clinical Immunology, Bad Abbach; Rheumatology Practice Bamberg, Bamberg; Rheumatology Practice Bayreuth, Bayreuth; University of Heidelberg, Medicine 5, Heidelberg; Rheumatology Practice Nuremberg, Nuremberg; Schlosspark Klinik, Internal Medicine/Rheumatology, Berlin; University of Tübingen, Centre for Interdisciplinary Clinical Immunology, Tübingen; Praxiszentrum St. Bonifatius, Munich, Germany. M. Hagen, BSc, CandMed, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; M. Englbrecht, PhD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; J. Haschka, MD, St. Vincent Hospital, Vinforce Study Group, Medical University of Vienna; M. Reiser, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; A. Kleyer, MD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; A. Hueber, MD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; B. Manger, MD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; C. Figueiredo, MD, Institutio de Rheumatologia; J. Fogagnolo Cobra, MD, Institutio de Rheumatologia; H.P. Tony, MD, University of Würzburg, Internal Medicine 2; S. Finzel, MD, University Medical Center Freiburg, Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology; S. Kleinert, MD, Rheumatology Clinical Practice Erlangen; J. Wendler, MD, Rheumatology Clinical Practice Erlangen; F. Schuch, MD, Rheumatology Clinical Practice Erlangen; M. Ronneberger, MD, Rheumatology Clinical Practice Erlangen; M. Feuchtenberger, MD, Rheumatology Practice and Department of Internal Medicine 2, Clinic Burghausen; M. Fleck, MD, Asklepios Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology and clinical Immunology; K. Manger, MD, Rheumatology Practice Bamberg; W. Ochs, MD, Rheumatology Practice Bayreuth; H.M. Lorenz, MD, University of Heidelberg, Medicine 5; H. Nüsslein, MD, Rheumatology Practice Nuremberg; R. Alten, MD, Schlosspark Klinik, Internal Medicine/Rheumatology; J. Henes, MD, University of Tübingen, Centre for Interdisciplinary Clinical Immunology; K. Krüger, MD, Praxiszentrum St. Bonifatius; G. Schett, MD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen; J. Rech, MD, FAU, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen. Address correspondence to Dr. J. Rech, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Internal Medicine 3 - Rheumatology and Immunology, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, 91054 Erlangen, Germany. E-mail: Accepted for publication September 7, 2018.

Objective: To analyze the effect of a risk-stratified disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-tapering algorithm based on multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) on direct treatment costs for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in sustained remission.

Methods: The study was a posthoc retrospective analysis of direct treatment costs for 146 patients with RA in sustained remission tapering and stopping DMARD treatment, in the prospective randomized RETRO study. MBDA scores and ACPA status were determined in baseline samples of patients continuing DMARD (arm 1), tapering their dose by 50% (arm 2), or stopping after tapering (arm 3). Read More

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December 2018
4 Reads

Mud in the blood: Novel potent anticoagulant coagulotoxicity in the venoms of the Australian elapid snake genus Denisonia (mud adders) and relative antivenom efficacy.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Nov 28;302:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

FaunaVet Wildlife Consultancy, Glass House Mountains, QLD, 4518, Australia. Electronic address:

Due to their potent coagulotoxicity, Australian elapid venoms are unique relative to non-Australian members of the Elapidae snake family. The majority of Australian elapids possess potent procoagulant venom, while only a few species have been identified as possessing anticoagulant venoms. The majority of research to-date has concentrated on large species with range distributions overlapping major city centres, such as brown snakes (Pseudonaja spp. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Automated generation of genome-scale metabolic draft reconstructions based on KEGG.

BMC Bioinformatics 2018 Dec 4;19(1):467. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Science, NTNU - Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 1, Trondheim, 7491, Norway.

Background: Constraint-based modeling is a widely used and powerful methodology to assess the metabolic phenotypes and capabilities of an organism. The starting point and cornerstone of all such modeling is a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction. The creation, further development, and application of such networks is a growing field of research thanks to a plethora of readily accessible computational tools. Read More

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December 2018

Human Monoclonal scFvs that Neutralize Fribrinogenolytic Activity of Kaouthiagin, a Zinc-Metalloproteinase in Cobra () Venom.

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Dec 3;10(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Center of Research Excellence on Therapeutic Proteins and Antibody Engineering, Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand.

Snake venom-metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are the primary factors that disturb hemostasis and cause hemorrhage in the venomous snake bitten subjects. Kaouthiagin is a unique SVMP that binds and cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWF) at a specific peptide bond leading to inhibition of platelet aggregation, which enhances the hemorrhage. Kaouthiagin is a low abundant venom component of Thai cobra (); thus, most horse-derived antivenins used for cobra bite treatment do not contain adequate anti-kaouthiagin. Read More

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December 2018

Statistical analysis plan for the control of blood pressure and risk attenuation-rural Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka (COBRA-BPS) trial: a cluster randomized trial for a multicomponent intervention versus usual care in hypertensive patients.

Trials 2018 Nov 29;19(1):658. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Duke Global Health Institute, Duke University, Trent Hall, 310 Trent Drive, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: In rural south Asia, hypertension remains a significant public health issue with sub-optimal blood pressure (BP) control rates. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention (MCI) compared to usual care on lowering BP among adults with hypertension in rural south-Asian communities. This article describes the statistical analysis plan for the primary and secondary objectives related to intervention effectiveness based on clinical and patient-reported endpoints. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Quantitative Characterization of the Hemorrhagic, Necrotic, Coagulation-Altering Properties and Edema-Forming Effects of Zebra Snake () Venom.

J Toxicol 2018 24;2018:6940798. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Wildlife Management and Ecotourism, Katima Mulilo Campus, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Namibia, P. Bag 1096, Ngweze, Katima Mulilo, Namibia.

This study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and haemotoxicity of the Western barred (zebra) spitting cobra () venom to help explain atypical and inconsistent reports on syndromes by Namibian physicians treating victims of human ophidian accidents. Freeze-dried venom milked from adult zebra snakes was dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for use in this study. Haemorrhagic and necrotic activity of venom were studied in New Zealand albino rabbits. Read More

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October 2018
3 Reads

First reported case of thrombocytopenia from a Heterodon nasicus envenomation.

Toxicon 2018 Nov 19;157:12-17. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Rocky Mountain Poison and Drug Center - Denver Health and Hospital Authority, Denver, CO, USA.

Context: The vast majority of the 2.5 million annual worldwide venomous snakebites are attributed to Viperidae or Elapidae envenomations. Of the nearly 2000 Colubridae species described, only a handful are known to cause medically significant envenomations. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Fiberoptic versus Digital: A Comparison of Durability and Cost Effectiveness of the Two Flexible Ureteroscopes.

Urol Int 2018 Nov 21:1-6. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Urology, Bagcilar Training and Research Hospital, Bagcilar/Istanbul, Turkey.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the durability and cost effectiveness of the latest digital flexible ureterescope by comparing it with the conventional fiberoptic one.

Materials And Methods: Data of patients who underwent retrograde intrarenal surgery between January 2013 and December 2014 were collected. Fiberoptic Flex-X2 or digital Cobra vision flexible ureteroscopes were used for the procedures. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

The Microbiome Modeling Toolbox: from microbial interactions to personalized microbial communities.

Bioinformatics 2018 Nov 21. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, Campus Belval, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.

Motivation: The application of constraint-based modeling to functionally analyze metagenomic data has been limited so far, partially due to the absence of suitable toolboxes.

Results: To address this gap, we created a comprehensive toolbox to model i) microbe-microbe and host-microbe metabolic interactions, and ii) microbial communities using microbial genome-scale metabolic reconstructions and metagenomic data. The Microbiome Modeling Toolbox extends the functionality of the COBRA Toolbox. Read More

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November 2018

Lateral Toe Pulp Flap Used in Reconstruction of Distal Dorsal Toe Defect: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Ann Plast Surg 2019 Jan;82(1S Suppl 1):S136-S139

From the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Buddhist Tzu-Chi General Hospital, School of Medicine, Tzu-Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Background: When the distal dorsal part of the great toe is injured, especially with exposure of a tendon, bone, or joint, applying a free or local flap is difficult because of the lack of locally available tissue for reconstruction. Management of the distal dorsal part of a great toe soft tissue defect can be challenging for plastic surgeons.

Patient And Method: An 18-year-old woman presented with an injury to the dorsal aspect of her right great toe caused by a cobra bite. Read More

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January 2019
3 Reads

Incidence of snakebites in 3 different geographic regions in Thua Thien Hue province, central Vietnam: Green pit vipers and cobras cause the majority of bites.

Toxicon 2018 Dec 15;156:61-65. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Institute for Community Health Research, College of Medicine and Pharmacy, Hue University, Hue, Viet Nam.

Background: The annual incidence of snakebites in Vietnam is not known and only few publications about snakebite envenoming and medically relevant snakes can be found in English language literature. The present community-based surveys provide data on incidence of snakebites in three different geographic regions of Thua Thien Hue (TT Hue) province, central Vietnam and snake species responsible for bites in this region.

Methodology/results: The cross-sectional community based surveys were conducted from March to July 2017. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Elicitation of protective antibodies against 20 years of future H3N2 co-ciruculating influenza virus variants in ferrets preimmune to historical H3N2 influenza viruses.

J Virol 2018 Nov 14. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Center for Vaccines and Immunology, Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

The vast majority of people already have pre-existing immune responses to influenza viruses from one or more subtypes. However, almost all preclinical studies evaluate new influenza vaccine candidates in immunologically naïve animals. Recently, our group demonstrated that priming naive ferrets with broadly reactive H1 COBRA HA based vaccines boosted pre-existing antibodies induced by wild-type H1N1 virus infections. Read More

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November 2018
3 Reads

Differentiation of Various Snake Bile Derived from Different Genus by High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

J AOAC Int 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

National Institute for Food and Drug Control, 2 Tiantan Xili, Beijing 100050, China.

Snake bile originates from nearly 20 species from three families (Elapidae, Colubridae, and Viperidae). However, the components of various snake bile were not compared with one another. The aim of the study was to develop a TLC-MS method for differentiation of various snake bile derived from a different genus. Read More

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November 2018

Combined effects of glycosylation precursors and lactate on the glycoprofile of IgG produced by CHO cells.

J Biotechnol 2018 Nov 10;289:71-79. Epub 2018 Nov 10.

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; AdBIOPRO, VINNOVA Competence Centre for Advanced Bioproduction by Continuous Processing, KTH, Sweden. Electronic address:

The glycosylation profile of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a crucial quality parameter for industrial Immunoglobulin G (IgG) production. Several alternative carbon sources, which function as glycosylation precursors, have been reported to impact the glycosylation pattern. Since the cells give priority to glucose uptake, the presence of this substrate can lower the effects of alternative sugars on the glycosylation. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Subjective neurocognition and quality of life in patients with bipolar disorder and siblings.

J Affect Disord 2018 Nov 5;245:283-288. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

Teaching Unit of Psychiatry and Psychological Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Valencia, CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with significant neurocognitive and functional impairment, which may progress across stages. However, the potential progression of subjective cognitive complaints and quality of life (QoL) has not been addressed. Our main objective was to assess subjective cognitive complaints and QoL on euthymic patients with BD and their healthy siblings. Read More

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November 2018
1 Read

Sialic acid is a critical fetal defense against maternal complement attack.

J Clin Invest 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Institut for Clinical Biochemistry and.

The negatively charged sugar sialic acid (Sia) occupies the outermost position in the bulk of cell surface glycans. Lack of sialylated glycans due to genetic ablation of the Sia-activating enzyme CMP-sialic acid synthase (CMAS) resulted in embryonic lethality around day 9.5 post coitum (E9. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Thromboresistance and Functional Healing in the COBRA PzF Stent versus Competitor DES: Implications for Dual Anti-Platelet Therapy.

EuroIntervention 2018 Oct 30. Epub 2018 Oct 30.

CVPath Institute Inc, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.

Aims: To investigate the COBRA-PzF stent (C-PzF) with respect to thrombogenicity and healing versus conventional drug-eluting stents (DES) in dedicated preclinical models to evaluate their suitability for short-term dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT).

Methods And Results: To examine acute thrombogenicity, C-PzF, durable polymer drug-eluting stent (DP-DES), and bioabsorable polymer DES (BP-DES) were compared in a porcine arteriovenous shunt model and in a rabbit model to evaluate endothelial coverage at 14 days. Barrier function at 28 days in the rabbit was assessed in the former stents as well as in polymer free DES (PF-BES). Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

Proteomic Characterization of Two Medically Important Malaysian Snake Venoms, (Malayan Pit Viper) and (King Cobra).

Toxins (Basel) 2018 Oct 26;10(11). Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Monash Venom Group, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3800, Australia.

(CR) and (OH) are two medically important snakes found in Malaysia. While some studies have described the biological properties of these venoms, feeding and environmental conditions also influence the concentration and distribution of snake venom toxins, resulting in variations in venom composition. Therefore, a combined proteomic approach using shotgun and gel filtration chromatography, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, was used to examine the composition of venoms from these Malaysian snakes. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Enantioselective N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction for the Synthesis of Pyrroloquinolines via N-H Functionalization of Indoles.

Org Lett 2018 Nov 29;20(22):6998-7002. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Organic Chemistry , Indian Institute of Science , Bangalore 560012 , India.

Functionalization of the indole N-H bond for enantioselective synthesis of biologically important pyrroloquinoline derivatives has been reported under oxidative N-heterocyclic carbene catalysis conditions. The interception of catalytically generated chiral α,β-unsaturated acylazoliums with the indole derivatives proceeds in an aza-Michael/Michael/lactonization sequence to deliver the pyrroloquinoline derivatives in good yields, diastereoselectivities, and enantioselectivities. The simultaneous enhancement of reactivity and selectivity observed in polar aprotic solvents is noteworthy. Read More

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November 2018
5 Reads

Clinical and economic burden of severe asthma: A French cohort study.

Respir Med 2018 Nov 2;144:42-49. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Bichat Hospital, AP-HP, Inserm U1152 & Paris-Diderot Medical School, 46 Rue Henri Huchard, 75877, Paris, France.

Objective: To describe the clinical and economic burden of severe asthma in France over 12 months.

Methods: Data were retrieved from the observational, prospective "Cohorte Obstruction Bronchique et Asthme" (COBRA) cohort, which has enrolled nearly 1000 asthma patients since 2007 from throughout France. Patients undergoing treatment with GINA step-4 or 5 medications uninterruptedly for 12 months (thus defining "severe asthma") were identified and their clinical data used to describe the clinical burden of asthma (exacerbations, symptoms outside exacerbations, and level of asthma control). Read More

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November 2018
7 Reads

Assessment and Management of Cognitive and Psychosocial Dysfunctions in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: A Clinical Review.

Front Psychiatry 2018 11;9:493. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Neuroscience Section, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Full functional recovery is defined as a state in which patients are again able to enjoy their usual activities, return to work, and take care of themselves, and it should represent the end goal of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with MDD report many unmet needs, including residual cognitive symptoms, lack of improvement in psychosocial functioning and life satisfaction, even during mood symptom remission. In this paper, we aim to: (a) identify the available assessment tools for evaluating cognitive and psychosocial functioning in patients with MDD; (b) provide an overview of therapeutic options that can improve full functional recovery in MDD also by improving cognitive symptoms. Read More

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October 2018
6 Reads

The Venom of Spectacled Cobra (Elapidae: ): Study from Distinct Geographical Origins in Sri Lanka.

J Toxicol 2018 27;2018:7358472. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

Several countries residing envenomation due to had revealed a disparity in the venom composition according to their geographic location and Sri Lankan cobra still lacks the evidence to support this. Therefore, the current study was focused on addressing relationship between the histopathological changes according to geographic variation of Sri Lankan venom. The histopathological changes in vital organs and muscle tissues following intramuscular administration of venom of were studied using BALB/c mice. Read More

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September 2018
3 Reads

Proteomics analysis to compare the venom composition between Naja naja and Naja kaouthia from the same geographical location of eastern India: Correlation with pathophysiology of envenomation and immunological cross-reactivity towards commercial polyantivenom.

Expert Rev Proteomics 2018 Nov 31;15(11):949-961. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

a Microbial Biotechnology and Protein Research Laboratory, Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology , Tezpur University , Tezpur , India.

Background: Cobra bite is frequently reported across the Indian subcontinent and is associated with a high rate of death and morbidity. In eastern India (EI) Naja naja and Naja kaouthia are reported to be the two most abundant species of cobra.

Research Design And Methods: The venom proteome composition of N. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads

RAVEN 2.0: A versatile toolbox for metabolic network reconstruction and a case study on Streptomyces coelicolor.

PLoS Comput Biol 2018 Oct 18;14(10):e1006541. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.

RAVEN is a commonly used MATLAB toolbox for genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) reconstruction, curation and constraint-based modelling and simulation. Here we present RAVEN Toolbox 2.0 with major enhancements, including: (i) de novo reconstruction of GEMs based on the MetaCyc pathway database; (ii) a redesigned KEGG-based reconstruction pipeline; (iii) convergence of reconstructions from various sources; (iv) improved performance, usability, and compatibility with the COBRA Toolbox. Read More

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October 2018
5 Reads

Do people living with HIV experience greater age advancement than their HIV-negative counterparts?

AIDS 2018 Oct 16. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: Despite successful antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, people living with HIV (PLWH) may show signs of premature/accentuated aging. We compared established biomarkers of aging in PLWH, appropriately-chosen HIV-negative individuals, and blood donors, and explored factors associated with biological age advancement.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 134 PLWH on suppressive ARV therapy, 79 lifestyle-comparable HIV-negative controls aged ≥45 years from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort, and 35 age-matched blood donors (BD). Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Snake venoms promote stress-induced senescence in human fibroblasts.

J Cell Physiol 2018 Oct 14. Epub 2018 Oct 14.

Department of Genetics, Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Rzeszow, Rzeszow, Poland.

Snake venoms are widely studied in terms of their systemic toxicity and proteolytic, hemotoxic, neurotoxic, and cytotoxic activities. However, little is known about snake-venom-mediated effects when used at low, noncytotoxic concentrations. In the current study, two human fibroblast cell lines of different origin, namely WI-38 fetal lung fibroblasts and BJ foreskin fibroblasts were used to investigate snake-venom-induced adaptive response at a relatively noncytotoxic concentration (0. Read More

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October 2018
1 Read

Integration of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences and morphology reveals unexpected diversity in the forest cobra (Naja melanoleuca) species complex in Central and West Africa (Serpentes: Elapidae).

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 1;4455(1):68-98. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Molecular Ecology and Fisheries Genetics Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor LL57 2UW, United Kingdom..

Cobras are among the most widely known venomous snakes, and yet their taxonomy remains incompletely understood, particularly in Africa. Here, we use a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences and morphological data to diagnose species limits within the African forest cobra, Naja (Boulengerina) melanoleuca. Mitochondrial DNA sequences reveal deep divergences within this taxon. Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

Clarification of the type series of Amphibolurus barbatus microlepidotus Glauert, 1952 (= Pogona microlepidota) (Reptilia: Squamata: Agamidae).

Authors:
Ryan J Ellis

Zootaxa 2018 Aug 7;4457(1):197-200. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

Department of Terrestrial Zoology, Western Australian Museum, 49 Kew Street, Welshpool, Western Australia 6106, Australia.

Ludwig Glauert (1952, p. 168) established the name Amphibolurus barbatus microlepidotus (= Pogona microlepidota) for a new agamid species (family Agamidae) from the type locality of "Drysdale River Mission, North Kimberley", Western Australia and listed two specimens of the Western Australian Museum (WAM) collected by "Rev. Father [Raymundus] Salinas" in July 1922 as "types". Read More

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August 2018
1 Read

A new species of bandy-bandy (Vermicella: Serpentes: Elapidae) from the Weipa region, Cape York, Australia.

Zootaxa 2018 Jul 16;4446(1):1-12. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Venom Evolution Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld 4067, AUSTRALIA.

Bandy-bandies (genus Vermicella) are small (50-100cm) black and white burrowing elapids with a highly specialised diet of blindsnakes (Typhlopidae). There are currently 5 recognized species in the genus, all located in Australia, with Vermicella annulata the most encountered species with the largest distribution. Morphological and mitochondrial analyses of specimens collected from the Weipa area, Cape York, Queensland reveal the existence of a new species, which we describe as Vermicella parscauda sp. Read More

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Carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles loaded with bioactive peptide OH-CATH30 benefit nonscar wound healing.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 25;13:5771-5786. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Department of Bioengineering, School of Bioscience and Technology, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, Shandong, China,

Background: Nonscar wound healing is a desirable treatment for cutaneous wounds worldwide. Peptide OH-CATH30 (OH30) from king cobra can selectively regulate the innate immunity and create an anti-inflammatory micro-environment which might benefit nonscar wound healing.

Purpose: To overcome the enzymatic digestion and control release of OH30, OH30 encapsulated in carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (CMCS-OH30 NP) were prepared and their effects on wound healing were evaluated. Read More

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November 2018
13 Reads

Cobra head sign: Ureterocele.

J Med Imaging Radiat Oncol 2018 Oct;62 Suppl 1:67

Department of Radiology, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Concord, New South Wales, Australia.

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October 2018
2 Reads

Combination delivery of two oxime-loaded lipid nanoparticles: Time-dependent additive action for prolonged rat brain protection.

J Control Release 2018 Nov 9;290:102-111. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Arbuzov Institute of Organic and Physical Chemistry, FRC Kazan Scientific Center of RAS, Arbuzov St., 8, Kazan 420088, Russia.

A novel approach for brain protection against poisoning by organophosphorus agents is developed based on the combination treatment of dual delivery of two oximes. Pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM) and a novel reactivator, 6-(5-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)pentyl)-3-hydroxy picolinaldehyde oxime (3-HPA), have been loaded in solid-lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) to offer distinct release profile and systemic half-life for both oximes. To increase the therapeutic time window of both oximes, SLNs with two different compartments were designed to load each respective drug. Read More

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November 2018
4 Reads

Methamphetamine (MA) Use Induces Specific Changes in LINE-1 Partial Methylation Patterns, Which Are Associated with MA-Induced Paranoia: a Multivariate and Neuronal Network Study.

Mol Neurobiol 2018 Oct 9. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Center for Excellence in Molecular Genetics of Cancer and Human Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

The use of psychoactive substances, including methamphetamine (MA) may cause changes in DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of MA use on long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) methylation patterns in association with MA-induced paranoia. This study recruited 123 normal controls and 974 MA users, 302 with and 672 without MA-induced paranoia. Read More

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October 2018
7 Reads

Homeless crack cocaine users: Territories and territorialities in the constitution of social support networks for health.

Soc Sci Med 2018 Sep 26. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Laboratory of Professional Education in Health Care, Joaquim Venâncio Politechnic School, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Brazil.

Homeless crack users are an important segment of the population living in extreme vulnerability in Brazil. In 2011, the Consultório na Rua - CnaR (Street Clinic) was created, to improve access to health care for this population. Considering building up social support networks as a strategy to face life's difficulties, this study aims to analyse how crack users, in Rio de Janeiro, relate to territory and build social support networks to deal with their everyday life challenges and health needs. Read More

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September 2018
2 Reads

Defining the pathogenic threat of envenoming by South African shield-nosed and coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps), and revealing the likely efficacy of available antivenom.

J Proteomics 2018 Oct 2. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Alistair Reid Venom Research Unit, Parasitology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA, UK. Electronic address:

While envenoming by the southern African shield-nosed or coral snakes (genus Aspidelaps) has caused fatalities, bites are uncommon. Consequently, this venom is not used in the mixture of snake venoms used to immunise horses for the manufacture of regional SAIMR (South African Institute for Medical Research) polyvalent antivenom. Aspidelaps species are even excluded from the manufacturer's list of venomous snakes that can be treated by this highly effective product. Read More

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October 2018
14 Reads

How Does Oocyte Uptake Occur? A Macroscopic Study of the Ovarian and Oviductal Modifications for Egg Capture in the Coral-Snake Micrurus corallinus.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2018 Nov 5;301(11):1936-1943. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Laboratório de Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil.

The processes of follicular development, ovulation, egg capture, and egg transport vary among vertebrates. Therefore, analysis of the reproductive tract of several lineages is needed for understanding the evolutionary changes of the reproductive system. In turtles, the ovulated eggs are released into the coelomic cavity and taken up by one of the two oviducts, a phenomenon called extrauterine migration of eggs. Read More

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November 2018

Engineered nanoparticles bind elapid snake venom toxins and inhibit venom-induced dermonecrosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Oct 4;12(10):e0006736. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, United States of America.

Envenomings by snakebites constitute a serious and challenging global health issue. The mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenomings is the parenteral administration of animal-derived antivenoms. Significantly, antivenoms are only partially effective in the control of local tissue damage. Read More

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October 2018
9 Reads

Enhanced Pain Sensitivity with Systemic Ultrastructural Changes of the Nervous Systems after Cobra Venom Injection is Reversed by Electroacupuncture Treatment.

Pain Physician 2018 Sep;21(5):E509-E521

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburg, PA.

Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) has been proved to be effective in treating certain neuropathic pain conditions. The mechanisms of pain relief by EA are not fully understood. There have been sporadic reports of damage in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regions of the central nervous system (CNS) at the ultrastructural level following peripheral nerve injury. Read More

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September 2018

Use of an Air-Stable Cu(I)-NHC Catalyst for the Synthesis of Peptidotriazoles.

J Org Chem 2018 Nov 12;83(21):13515-13522. Epub 2018 Oct 12.

Normandie Univ , UNIROUEN, INSA Rouen, CNRS, COBRA (UMR 6014) , 76000 Rouen , France.

We report the use of air-stable Cu(I)-NHC complex 4a as a catalyst for the efficient microwave-assisted synthesis of peptidotriazoles on solid phase. Compared with the usual conditions (CuI or CuSO/NaAsc), catalyst 4a allowed the preparation of a series of peptidomimetic compounds containing a 1,2,3-triazole ring in their backbone without the oxidation of common side-chains. Overall, the peptidotriazoles were obtained in good yields (61-87%), in excellent purity (higher than 94%) and with low copper contamination. Read More

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November 2018
16 Reads