11,929 results match your criteria CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics [Journal]


Parallel visual circuitry in a basal chordate.

Elife 2019 Apr 18;8. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Neuroscience Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, United States.

A common CNS architecture is observed in all chordates, from vertebrates to basal chordates like the ascidian . stands apart among chordates in having a complete larval connectome. Starting with visuomotor circuits predicted by the connectome, we used expression maps of neurotransmitter use with behavioral assays to identify two parallel visuomotor circuits that are responsive to different components of visual stimuli. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.44753DOI Listing

Myelin repair stimulated by CNS-selective thyroid hormone action.

JCI Insight 2019 Apr 18;4(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Program in Chemical Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.

Oligodendrocyte processes wrap axons to form neuroprotective myelin sheaths, and damage to myelin in disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), leads to neurodegeneration and disability. There are currently no approved treatments for MS that stimulate myelin repair. During development, thyroid hormone (TH) promotes myelination through enhancing oligodendrocyte differentiation; however, TH itself is unsuitable as a remyelination therapy due to adverse systemic effects. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126329DOI Listing

Protease-independent action of tissue plasminogen activator in brain plasticity and neurological recovery after ischemic stroke.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 17. Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Pittsburgh Institute of Brain Disorders and Recovery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213;

Emerging evidence suggests that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), currently the only FDA-approved medication for ischemic stroke, exerts important biological actions on the CNS besides its well-known thrombolytic effect. In this study, we investigated the role of tPA on primary neurons in culture and on brain recovery and plasticity after ischemic stroke in mice. Treatment with recombinant tPA stimulated axonal growth in culture, an effect independent of its protease activity and achieved through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821979116DOI Listing

Expression of OX40 Gene and its Serum Levels in Neuromyelitis Optica Patients.

Biomol Concepts 2019 Apr 11;10(1):62-67. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Isfahan Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Neurology, Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), also known as Devic's disease, is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which immune system cells and antibodies primarily attack the optic nerves and the spinal cord. OX40 (CD134) is a tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor family member expressed primarily on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. In an autoimmune disease, OX40 is typically up-regulated at sites of inflammation, and increases in the number of peripheral CD4+ T-cells expressing OX40. Read More

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http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bmc.2019.10.issue-1/bmc-2019
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2019-0007DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Vimentin is required for normal accumulation of body fat.

Biol Chem 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Laboratory of Astrocyte Biology and CNS Regeneration, Center for Brain Repair, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Box 440, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.

Intermediate filaments (nanofilaments) have many functions, especially in response to cellular stress. Mice lacking vimentin (Vim-/-) display phenotypes reflecting reduced levels of cell activation and ability to counteract stress, e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2019-0170DOI Listing

Glutamate receptor plasticity in brainstem respiratory nuclei following chronic hypercapnia in goats.

Physiol Rep 2019 Apr;7(8):e14035

Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Patients that retain CO in respiratory diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have worse prognoses and higher mortality rates than those with equal impairment of lung function without hypercapnia. We recently characterized the time-dependent physiologic effects of chronic hypercapnia in goats, which suggested potential neuroplastic shifts in ventilatory control mechanisms. However, little is known about how chronic hypercapnia affects brainstem respiratory nuclei (BRN) that control multiple physiologic functions including breathing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.14035DOI Listing

Studies on long term behavioural changes in group-housed rat models of brain and spinal cord injury using an automated home cage recording system.

J Neurosci Methods 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Centre for Neuroscience, Surgery and Trauma, Centre for Trauma Sciences, Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom; Biological Services, Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background: Neurotrauma patients face major neurological sequelae. The failure in the preclinical-to-clinical translation of candidate therapies could be due to poor evaluation of rodent behaviours after neurotrauma.

New Method: A home cage automated system was used to study the long term behaviour of individual rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI) and non-CNS injured controls, whilst group-housed in their home cages. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2019.04.005DOI Listing

X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Presenting as Adult-Onset Multi-Infarct Dementia.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2019 May;78(5):460-466

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida.

Pathogenic hemizygous variants in the SH2D1A gene cause X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) syndrome, a rare primary immunodeficiency usually associated with fatal Epstein-Barr virus infection. Disease onset is typically in early childhood, and the average life expectancy of affected males is ∼11 years. We describe clinical, radiographic, neuropathologic, and genetic features of a 49-year-old man presenting with central nervous system vasculitis that was reminiscent of adult primary angiitis but which was unresponsive to treatment. Read More

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https://academic.oup.com/jnen/article/78/5/460/5445919
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnen/nlz018DOI Listing
May 2019
1 Read

Hypoxia tolerance in the Norrin-deficient retina and the chronically hypoxic brain studied at single-cell resolution.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Apr 15. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205;

The mammalian CNS is capable of tolerating chronic hypoxia, but cell type-specific responses to this stress have not been systematically characterized. In the Norrin KO ( ) mouse, a model of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR), developmental hypovascularization of the retina produces chronic hypoxia of inner nuclear-layer (INL) neurons and Muller glia. We used single-cell RNA sequencing, untargeted metabolomics, and metabolite labeling from C-glucose to compare WT and retinas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821122116DOI Listing

Understanding the axonal response to injury by in vivo imaging in the mouse spinal cord: A tale of two branches.

Exp Neurol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Neuroscience, Jefferson Synaptic Biology Center, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience, Sydney Kimmel Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Understanding the basic properties of how axons respond to injury in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is of fundamental value for developing strategies to promote neural repair. Axons possess complex morphologies with stereotypical branching patterns. However, current knowledge of the axonal response to injury gives little consideration to axonal branches, nor do strategies to promote axon regeneration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.04.008DOI Listing

ATP6AP2 variant impairs CNS development and neuronal survival to cause fulminant neurodegeneration.

J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 15;130. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

INSERM, UMR-S 1270, Paris, France.

Vacuolar H+-ATPase-dependent (V-ATPase-dependent) functions are critical for neural proteostasis and are involved in neurodegeneration and brain tumorigenesis. We identified a patient with fulminant neurodegeneration of the developing brain carrying a de novo splice site variant in ATP6AP2 encoding an accessory protein of the V-ATPase. Functional studies of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) neurons from this patient revealed reduced spontaneous activity and severe deficiency in lysosomal acidification and protein degradation leading to neuronal cell death. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI79990DOI Listing
April 2019
13.215 Impact Factor

Nox2-dependent Neuroinflammation in An EAE Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Transl Neurosci 2019 26;10:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the CNS, characterized by demyelination, focal inflammatory infiltrates and axonal damage. Oxidative stress has been linked to MS pathology. Previous studies have suggested the involvement of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2), an enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to produce reactive oxygen species, in the MS pathogenesis. Read More

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http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/tnsci.2019.10.issue-1/tnsci-
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/tnsci-2019-0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6455010PMC
March 2019
1 Read

The Vessels Shaping Mental Health or Illness.

Open Neurol J 2019 15;13:1-9. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA-02215, USA.

The mammalian brain receives the lion's share of the body's blood supply and is a highly vascularized organ. The vascular and nervous systems arise at two distinct time points of embryogenesis; however, their functions tend to overlap or complement each other in the growth promoting milieu of the embryonic Central Nervous System (CNS). The pre-existing idea that mental disorders are a direct result from defects solely in neuronal populations and networks is gradually changing. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874205X01913010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6460472PMC
February 2019

Links between sexuality, impulsivity, compulsivity, and addiction in a large sample of university students.

CNS Spectr 2019 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience,University of Chicago,Chicago, Illinois,USA.

Objective: Non-heterosexual populations experience poorer mental health outcomes than their heterosexual counterparts. Few studies, however, have examined how mental health varies across the continuum of sexual orientation. Nor has any study examined possible links between sexual orientation and traits of impulsivity and compulsivity, which contribute to functional impairment across a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852918001591DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

A potential role for the gut microbiome in substance use disorders.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2019 Apr 14. Epub 2019 Apr 14.

Nash Family Department of Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Pathological substance use disorders represent a major public health crisis with limited effective treatment options. While much work has been done to understand the neuronal signaling networks and intracellular signaling cascades associated with prolonged drug use, these studies have yielded few successful treatment options for substance use disorders. In recent years, there has been a growing interest to explore interactions between the peripheral immune system, the gut microbiome, and the CNS. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00213-019-05232-0
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-019-05232-0DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Interleukin-18-Deficient Mice Develop Hippocampal Abnormalities Related to Possible Depressive-like Behaviors.

Neuroscience 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1, Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 6638501. Electronic address:

Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an inflammatory cytokine linked to major depressive disorder (MDD). MDD is closely related to metabolic disorders, such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. Moreover, DM is associated with cognitive impairment and promotes apoptosis of hippocampal cells by activating pro-apoptotic and inhibiting anti-apoptotic factors. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.04.003DOI Listing

A photoswitchable GABA receptor channel blocker.

Br J Pharmacol 2019 Apr 13. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Aix-Marseille University, INSERM, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, 13005, Marseille, France.

Background And Purpose: Anion-selective Cys-loop receptors (GABARs and GlyRs) provide main inhibitory drive in CNS. Both types of receptors are operating via chloride-selective ion channels, however with different kinetics, pharmacological profiles and localization. Disequilibrium in their function leads to a variety of disorders, which are often treated with allosteric modulators. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.14689DOI Listing

Exercise as a potential modulator of inflammation in patients with Alzheimer's disease measured in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

Exp Gerontol 2019 Apr 10. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Danish Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurology, Rigshospitalet University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Neuroinflammation is recognized as part of the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Systemically, physical exercise has shown to have a positive modulating effect on markers of inflammation. It is not known if this general effect also takes place in the central nervous system in AD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2019.04.003DOI Listing

Altered steady state and activity-dependent de novo protein expression in fragile X syndrome.

Nat Commun 2019 Apr 12;10(1):1710. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Center for Neural Science, New York University, New York, NY, 10003, USA.

Whether fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) target mRNAs and neuronal activity contributing to elevated basal neuronal protein synthesis in fragile X syndrome (FXS) is unclear. Our proteomic experiments reveal that the de novo translational profile in FXS model mice is altered at steady state and in response to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) stimulation, but the proteins expressed differ under these conditions. Several altered proteins, including Hexokinase 1 and Ras, also are expressed in the blood of FXS model mice and pharmacological treatments previously reported to ameliorate phenotypes modify their abundance in blood. Read More

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http://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09553-8
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09553-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461708PMC
April 2019
5 Reads

The association between dietary sugar intake and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2019 Apr 4;31:112-117. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon autoimmune disease of the central nerves system (CNS) by inflammatory nature. The effects of high dietary sugar intake on inflammation and dysbiosis have been received more attention in recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between various types of dietary sugar intake and NMOSD odds and clinical features. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S22110348193015
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.03.028DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Beyond bulk: a review of single cell transcriptomics methodologies and applications.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2019 Apr 9;58:129-136. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is a promising approach to study the transcriptomes of individual cells in the brain and the central nervous system (CNS). This technology acts as a bridge between neuroscience, computational biology, and systems biology, enabling an unbiased and novel understanding of the cellular composition of the brain and CNS. Gene expression at the single cell resolution is often noisy, sparse, and high-dimensional, creating challenges for computational analysis of such data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2019.03.001DOI Listing

Peering through a keyhole: Liquid biopsy in primary and metastatic central nervous system tumours.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2019 Apr 12. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Pathology Unit, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Torino, Italy.

Tumour molecular profiling by liquid biopsy is being investigated for a wide range of research and clinical purposes. The possibility of repeatedly interrogating the tumour profile using minimally invasive procedures is helping to understand spatial and temporal tumour heterogeneity, and to shed a light on mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapies. Moreover, this approach has been already implemented in clinical practice to address specific decisions regarding patients' follow up and therapeutic management. Read More

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https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nan.12553
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12553DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Referent control of anticipatory grip force during reaching in stroke: an experimental and modeling study.

Exp Brain Res 2019 Apr 11. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation (CRIR), Montreal, QC, Canada.

To evaluate normal and impaired control of anticipatory grip force (GF) modulation, we compared GF production during horizontal arm movements in healthy and post-stroke subjects, and, based on a physiologically feasible dynamic model, determined referent control variables underlying the GF-arm motion coordination in each group. 63% of 13 healthy and 48% of 13 stroke subjects produced low sustained initial force (< 10 N) and increased GF prior to arm movement. Movement-related GF increases were higher during fast compared to self-paced arm extension movements only in the healthy group. Read More

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http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00221-019-05498-y
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00221-019-05498-yDOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Excess glutamate secreted from astrocytes drives upregulation of P-glycoprotein in endothelial cells in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Exp Neurol 2019 Apr 9. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Jefferson Weinberg ALS Center, Vickie and Jack Farber Institute for Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University, 900 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. Electronic address:

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), upregulation in expression and activity of the ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) driven by disease advancement progressively reduces CNS penetration and efficacy of the ALS drug, riluzole. Post-mortem spinal cord tissues from ALS patients revealed elevated P-gp expression levels in endothelial cells of the blood-spinal cord barrier compared to levels measured in control, non-diseased individuals. We recently found that astrocytes expressing familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutations regulate expression levels of P-gp in endothelial cells, which also exhibit a concomitant, significant increase in reactive oxygen species production and NFκB nuclear translocation when exposed to mutant SOD1 astrocyte conditioned media. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read
4.696 Impact Factor

Editorial: Neuronal Co-transmission.

Front Neural Circuits 2019 26;13:19. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Neuroscience, Functional Pharmacology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncir.2019.00019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444159PMC

Pericytes Favor Oligodendrocyte Fate Choice in Adult Neural Stem Cells.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 27;13:85. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratory of Stem Cells and Neuroregeneration, Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Upon demyelination, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are activated and they proliferate, migrate and differentiate into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Besides OPCs, neural stem cells (NSCs) may respond to demyelination and generate oligodendrocytes. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2019.00085
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446960PMC
March 2019
2 Reads

The effect of caloric restriction on working memory in healthy non-obese adults.

CNS Spectr 2019 Apr 10:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

Mood Disorders Psychopharmacology Unit (MDPU),University Health Network, University of Toronto,Toronto, Ontario,Canada.

Objective: We aim to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR) in cognition by comparing performance in neuropsychological tests for working memory between a group of non-obese healthy subjects doing CR for 2 years with another consuming ad libitum diet (AL).

Methods: This study was part of a larger multicenter trial called CALERIE that consisted of a randomized clinical trial with parallel-group comparing 2 years of 25% CR and AL in 220 volunteers with a BMI between 22 and 28 kg/m2, across 3 sites. The cognitive tests used were the Cambridge Neuropsychological Tests Automated Battery (CANTAB) for Spatial Working Memory (SWM) including the total number of errors (SWMTE) and strategy (SWMS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852918001566DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Fibroadhesive scarring of grafted collagen scaffolds interferes with implant-host neural tissue integration and bridging in experimental spinal cord injury.

Regen Biomater 2019 Mar 4;6(2):75-87. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Institute of Neuropathology, RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Aachen, Germany.

Severe traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in a devastating and permanent loss of function, and is currently an incurable condition. It is generally accepted that future intervention strategies will require combinational approaches, including bioengineered scaffolds, to support axon growth across tissue scarring and cystic cavitation. Previously, we demonstrated that implantation of a microporous type-I collagen scaffold into an experimental model of SCI was capable of supporting functional recovery in the absence of extensive implant-host neural tissue integration. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rb/rbz006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6447003PMC
March 2019
1 Read

Nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin with neprilysin and p-Tau antibodies induces superior neuroprotection in Alzheimer's disease.

Prog Brain Res 2019 2;245:145-200. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

International Experimental Central Nervous System Injury & Repair (IECNSIR), Department of Surgical Sciences, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is estimated to be afflicting over 55 millions of individual worldwide in 2018-19 for which no suitable clinical therapeutic measures have been developed so far. Thus, there is an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic strategies using nanodelivery of drugs and agents either alone or in combination for superior neuroprotection in AD and enhanced quality of life of the affected individuals. There are reports that AD is often associated with diminished neurotrophic factors and neprilysin together with enhancement of phosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) within the brain and in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/bs.pbr.2019.03.009DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Delayed Astrogliosis Associated with Reduced M1 Microglia Activation in Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 Knockout Mice during Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Apr 5;20(7). Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover; Center for Systems Neuroscience 30559 Hannover, Germany.

Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) represents a versatile animal model for studying the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Hallmarks of TME are demyelination, astrogliosis, as well as inflammation. Previous studies showed that matrix metalloproteinase 12 knockout () mice display an ameliorated clinical course associated with reduced demyelination. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071702DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads

Conditional ablation of reactive astrocytes to dissect their roles in spinal cord injury and repair.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 5. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Institute of Neuroscience, Key Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology of Ministry of Education and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Astrocytes become reactive in response to spinal cord injury (SCI) and ultimately form a histologically apparent glial scar at the lesion site. It is controversial whether astrocytic scar is detrimental or beneficial to the axonal regeneration and SCI repair. Therefore, much effort has focused on understanding the functions of reactive astrocytes. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.016DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Membrane assembly of aquaporin-4 autoantibodies regulates classical complement activation in neuromyelitis optica.

J Clin Invest 2019 Apr 8;130. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Neuroscience and Medical Scientist Training Programs.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune CNS disorder mediated by pathogenic aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel autoantibodies (AQP4-IgG). Although AQP4-IgG-driven complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is critical for the formation of NMO lesions, the molecular mechanisms governing optimal classical pathway activation are unknown. We investigated the molecular determinants driving CDC in NMO using recombinant AQP4-specific autoantibodies (AQP4 rAbs) derived from affected patients. Read More

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https://www.jci.org/articles/view/122942
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122942DOI Listing
April 2019
2 Reads

Glutamate versus GABA in neuron-oligodendroglia communication.

Glia 2019 Apr 7. Epub 2019 Apr 7.

Institute of Psychiatry and Neuroscience of Paris (IPNP), INSERM U1266, Paris, France.

In the central nervous system (CNS), myelin sheaths around axons are formed by glial cells named oligodendrocytes (OLs). In turn, OLs are generated by oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) during postnatal development and in adults, according to a process that depends on the proliferation and differentiation of these progenitors. The maturation of OL lineage cells as well as myelination by OLs are complex and highly regulated processes in the CNS. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23618DOI Listing

Microglia: brain cells on the move.

Prog Neurobiol 2019 Apr 4. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

UHasselt, BIOMED, Diepenbeek, Belgium. Electronic address:

In the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the biology of microglia - i.e. The fascinating immigrated resident immune cell population of the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2019.04.001DOI Listing
April 2019
1 Read

Toll-like receptor 9 antagonism modulates astrocyte function and preserves proximal axons following spinal cord injury.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

School of Graduate Studies, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, United States; Reynolds Family Spine Laboratory, Department of Neurological Surgery, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, United States. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence indicates that innate immune receptors play important, yet controversial, roles in traumatic central nervous system (CNS) injury. Despite many advances, the contributions of toll-like receptors (TLRs) to spinal cord injury (SCI) remain inadequately defined. We previously reported that a toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) antagonist, oligodeoxynucleotide 2088 (ODN 2088), administered intrathecally, improves the functional and histopathological outcomes of SCI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.010DOI Listing

Exploiting microglial and peripheral immune cell crosstalk to treat Alzheimer's disease.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Apr 5;16(1):74. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Del Monte Institute for Neuroscience, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, 601 Elmwood Avenue, Box 603, Rochester, NY, 14642, USA.

Neuroinflammation is considered one of the cardinal features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neuritic plaques composed of amyloid β and neurofibrillary tangle-laden neurons are surrounded by reactive astrocytes and microglia. Exposure of microglia, the resident myeloid cell of the CNS, to amyloid β causes these cells to acquire an inflammatory phenotype. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1453-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6449993PMC
April 2019
1 Read

The astrocyte biochemistry.

Semin Cell Dev Biol 2019 Apr 2. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Graduate Program in Biological Sciences: Biochemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil; Department of Pharmacology, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Graduate Program in Biological Sciences: Pharmacology and Therapeutics, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil; Brain Institute of Rio Grande do Sul (BraIns), Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Electronic address:

Astrocytes are a unique and dynamic subtype of glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Understanding their biochemical reactions and their influence in the surrounding cells is extremely important in the neuroscience field. They exert important influence in the neurotransmission, ionic homeostasis and also release neuroactive molecules termed gliotransmitters. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2019.04.002DOI Listing
April 2019
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Dietary Carotenoids Lutein and Zeaxanthin Change Brain Activation in Older Adult Participants: A Randomized, Double-Masked, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 Apr 5:e1801051. Epub 2019 Apr 5.

S. A. Ceravolo, B. R. Hammond, L. M. Renzi-Hammond, Vision Sciences Laboratory, Behavioral and Brain Sciences Program, Department of Psychology, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Scope: Steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) can be used to test the topological response of cortical neurons. Studies have shown that a lutein (L), preferentially accumulates within cortical tissue. L, zeaxanthin (Z) and their isomers can be measured directly in retina (macular pigment optical density, MPOD), and retinal L+Z correlate highly with L+Z levels in cortical visual processing areas. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201801051DOI Listing

Chalcone derivatives: synthesis, and evaluation of their anti-anxiety, anti-depression and analgesic effects.

Heliyon 2019 Mar 19;5(3):e01376. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Junín 956 (C1113AAD), Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Anxiety disorders, depression and pain are highly prevalent pathologies. Their pharmacotherapy is associated with unwanted side effects; hence there is a clinical need to develop more effective drugs with fewer adverse reactions. Chalcones are one of the major classes of naturally occurring compounds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430037PMC

Hapln2 in Neurological Diseases and Its Potential as Therapeutic Target.

Front Aging Neurosci 2019 21;11:60. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Neurobiology Key Laboratory, Jining Medical University, Jining, China.

Hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 2 (Hapln2) is important for the binding of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to hyaluronan. Hapln2 deficiency leads to the abnormal expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and dysfunctional neuronal conductivity, demonstrating the vital role of Hapln2 in these processes. Studies have revealed that Hapln2 promotes the aggregation of α-synuclein, thereby contributing to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD), and it was recently suggested to be in intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fnagi.2019.00060
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2019.00060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6437066PMC
March 2019
4 Reads

Serum and CSF neurofilament light chain levels in antibody-mediated encephalitis.

J Neurol 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Neurology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Policlinico GB Rossi, P.le LA Scuro 10, 37135, Verona, Italy.

Circulating and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels represent a reliable indicator of disease activity and axonal damage in different neuroinflammatory conditions. Recently, high CSF NfL levels have been detected in active autoimmune encephalitis, as opposed to significant lower levels after clinical improvement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum and CSF NfL concentration in patients with autoimmune encephalitis and to analyse the association between NfL levels and clinical, MRI, and CSF data. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09306-zDOI Listing
April 2019
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Treatment of rituximab-associated chronic CNS enterovirus using IVIg and fluoxetine.

Neurology 2019 Apr 3. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

From the Departments of Pediatrics (L.S., A.B., S.D.D., R.S.M.Y., E.A.Y.), Medical Imaging (H.B.), Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (L.-N.H.), Immunology (R.S.M.Y.), and Medical Science (R.S.M.Y.), and Lawrence Bloomberg School of Nursing (J.J.), University of Toronto; the Divisions of Neurology (L.S., J.J., E.A.Y.), Infectious Diseases (A.B.), Diagnostic Imaging (H.B.), Pathology (L.-N.H.), Respirology (S.D.D.), and Rheumatology (R.S.M.Y.), and the Division of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Research Institute (E.A.Y.), The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000007468DOI Listing
April 2019
5 Reads

Intracisternal delivery of PEG-coated gold nanoparticles results in high brain penetrance and long-lasting stability.

J Nanobiotechnology 2019 Apr 3;17(1):49. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Experimental Imaging Centre, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 20132, Milan, Italy.

Background: The increasing use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the field of neuroscience instilled hope for their rapid translation to the clinical practice. AuNPs can be engineered to carry therapeutics or diagnostics in the diseased brain, possibly providing greater cell specificity and low toxicity. Although there is a general enthusiasm for these tools, we are in early stages of their development. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-019-0481-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448280PMC
April 2019
1 Read

The Application of Omics Technologies to Study Axon Regeneration and CNS Repair.

F1000Res 2019 20;8. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Center for Brain and Spinal Cord Repair, Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 43210, USA.

Traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries cause permanent disability. Although progress has been made in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiological changes that affect both structure and function after injury to the brain or spinal cord, there are currently no cures for either condition. This may change with the development and application of multi-layer omics, new sophisticated bioinformatics tools, and cutting-edge imaging techniques. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.17084.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6429978PMC

NF-κB/mTOR/MYC Axis Drives PRMT5 Protein Induction After T Cell Activation via Transcriptional and Non-transcriptional Mechanisms.

Front Immunol 2019 19;10:524. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Division of Medical Laboratory Science, Wexner Medical Center, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated by CD4 T cells and modeled via experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Inhibition of PRMT5, the major Type II arginine methyltransferase, suppresses pathogenic T cell responses and EAE. PRMT5 is transiently induced in proliferating memory inflammatory Th1 cells and during EAE. Read More

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https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00524
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433977PMC
March 2019
5 Reads

Wheel Running Improves Motor Function and Spinal Cord Plasticity in Mice With Genetic Absence of the Corticospinal Tract.

Front Cell Neurosci 2019 19;13:106. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Guangdong-Hongkong-Macau Institute of CNS Regeneration, Ministry of Education CNS Regeneration Collaborative Joint Laboratory, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Our previous studies showed that mutant mice with congenital absence of the corticospinal tract (CST) undergo spontaneous remodeling of motor networks to partially compensate for absent CST function. Here, we asked whether voluntary wheel running could further improve locomotor plasticity in CST-deficient mice. Adult mutant mice were randomly allocated to a "runners" group with free access to a wheel, or a "non-runners" group with no access to a wheel. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2019.00106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6433830PMC
March 2019
1 Read
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Pathological changes in mice with long term cuprizone administration.

Neurochem Int 2019 Jun 30;126:229-238. Epub 2019 Mar 30.

Department of Functional Anatomy and Neuroscience, Asahikawa Medical University, Midorigaoka-higashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, 078-8510, Japan.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In MS, a long disease duration is known to be a strong risk factor for converting the clinical course of the disease from relapse remitting MS to secondary progressing MS. There is a hypothesis that long sustained demyelination may exhaust neurons, however, pathological changes induced in neurons following demyelination remain unknown. Read More

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https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S01970186193005
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2019.03.018DOI Listing
June 2019
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MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors are expressed in nonoverlapping neuronal populations.

J Pineal Res 2019 Apr 2:e12575. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Institute for Cellular and Integrative Neurosciences (UPR 3212), CNRS and University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Melatonin (MLT) exerts its physiological effects principally through two high-affinity membrane receptors MT1 and MT2. Understanding the exact mechanism of MLT action necessitates the use of highly selective agonists/antagonists to stimulate/inhibit a given MLT receptor. The respective distribution of MT1 and MT2 within the CNS and elsewhere is controversial, and here we used a "knock-in" strategy replacing MT1 or MT2 coding sequences with a LacZ reporter. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12575DOI Listing

Synthesis, H-labelling and in vitro evaluation of a substituted dipiperidine alcohol as a potential ligand for chemokine receptor 2.

J Labelled Comp Radiopharm 2019 Apr 1. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Early Chemical Development, Pharmaceutical Science, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The immune system is implicated in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders. The chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is one of the key targets involved in the activation of the immune system. A suitable ligand for CCR2 could be a useful tool to study immune activation in central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jlcr.3731DOI Listing
April 2019
3 Reads