111,996 results match your criteria CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics [Journal]


Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers link toxic astrogliosis and microglial activation to multiple sclerosis severity.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 5;28:34-43. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Neuroimmunological Diseases Section (NDS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Building 10, Room 5N248, 10 Center Drive, MSC1444, Bethesda, MD 20892, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Once multiple sclerosis (MS) reaches the progressive stage, immunomodulatory treatments have limited efficacy. This suggests that processes other than activation of innate immunity may at least partially underlie disability progression during late stages of MS. Pathology identified these alternative processes as aberrant activation of astrocytes and microglia, and subsequent degeneration of oligodendrocytes and neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Recommendations for cerebrospinal fluid analysis.

Folia Microbiol (Praha) 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Medical Biophysics and Medical Informatics, 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Ruská 87, 100 00, Prague 10, Czech Republic.

Diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) mean for the human organism a potentially dangerous situation. An investigation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides important information about a character of CNS impairment in the decision-making diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm. The authors present a brief overview of available cerebrospinal fluid assays, shortened indication criteria, a recommended algorithm of CSF assessment in different suspected diseases, and a view of the external quality system. Read More

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December 2018

Therapeutic potentials of the Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and the related mechanisms.

Metab Brain Dis 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Institute of Brain Science, Shanxi Datong University, Datong, China.

Multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases of central nervous system (CNS) disorders are serious human health problems. Rho-kinase (ROCK) is emerging as a potentially important therapeutic target relevant to inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. This is supported by studies showing the beneficial effects of fasudil, a ROCK inhibitor, in inflammatory neurodegeneration diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Role of diffusional kurtosis imaging in grading of brain gliomas: a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Open 2018 Dec 14;8(12):e025123. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery UCL Hospitals NHS Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) gliomas are the most common primary intra-axial brain tumours and pose variable treatment response according to their grade, therefore, precise staging is mandatory. Histopathological analysis of surgical tumour samples is still deemed as the state-of-the-art staging technique for gliomas due to the moderate specificity of the available non-invasive imaging modalities. A recently evolved analysis of the tissue water diffusion properties, known as diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI), is a dimensionless metric, which quantifies water molecules' degree of non-Gaussian diffusion, hence reflects tissue microenvironment's complexity by means of non-invasive diffusion-weighted MRI acquisitions. Read More

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December 2018

Transcriptional profiling of isogenic Friedreich ataxia neurons and effect of an HDAC inhibitor on disease signatures.

J Biol Chem 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

The Scripps Research Institute, United States.

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by transcriptional silencing of the FXN gene, resulting in loss of the essential mitochondrial protein frataxin. Based on the knowledge that a GAA•TTC  repeat expansion in the first intron of FXN induces heterochromatin, we previously showed that 2-aminobenzamide-type histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) increase FXN mRNA levels in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived FRDA neurons and in circulating lymphocytes from patients after HDACi oral administration. How the reduced expression of frataxin leads to neurological and other systemic symptoms in FRDA patients remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

Axoglial Adhesion by Cadm4 Regulates CNS Myelination.

Neuron 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Electronic address:

The initiation of axoglial contact is considered a prerequisite for myelination, yet the role cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play in mediating such interactions remains unclear. To examine the function of axoglial CAMs, we tested whether enhanced CAM-mediated adhesion between OLs and neurons could affect myelination. Here we show that increased expression of a membrane-bound extracellular domain of Cadm4 (Cadm4dCT) in cultured oligodendrocytes results in the production of numerous axoglial contact sites that fail to elongate and generate mature myelin. Read More

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December 2018

[Which photon energy for intensity-modulated radiotherapy and volumetric-modulated arctherapy in 2019?]

Cancer Radiother 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Campus Sciences, centre de recherche en automatique de Nancy (Cran), BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France; Campus Sciences, université de Lorraine, UMR 7039, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France; CNRS, UMR7039, Campus Sciences, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy cedex, France.

For more than a decade, the majority of radiation oncology centres have been delivering intensity-modulated radiotherapy (then volumetric-modulated arctherapy) with 6 MV photons as their standard of care. This « dogma » had been supported by the usual absence of dosimetric advantages with high-energy photons (15 to 18 MV or more), at least for the planning target volume and the dose received by the adjacent organs at risk, and by the neutron component as soon as the photon energy exceeds 10 MV. Recent data could question such a dogma. Read More

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December 2018

Beneficial effects of Thymus vulgaris extract in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: Clinical, histological and cytokine alterations.

Biomed Pharmacother 2019 Jan 26;109:2100-2108. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Immunology Research Center, Medical School, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

The imbalance between pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Thymus vulgaris (thyme) as a traditional medicinal plant has been reported to exert antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study evaluated the modulatory effects of Thymus vulgaris on the clinical symptoms, histopathological scores, and the production of some anti-inflammatory (TGF-β, IL-4, and IL-10) and pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17) cytokines in EAE model. Read More

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January 2019

Lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 2 activation contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury in mice.

Brain Behav Immun 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Departament de Biologia Cel·lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Institut de Neurociències, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Catalonia, 08193, Spain. Electronic address:

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions by signaling through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA-LPA). In the central nervous system (CNS), LPA mediates a wide range of effects, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and contributions to pain, schizophrenia and hydrocephalus. We recently reported that LPA-LPA signaling mediates functional deficits and myelin loss after spinal cord injury (SCI). Read More

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December 2018

Tracing lake mixing and oxygenation regime using the Fe/Mn ratio in varved sediments: 2000 year-long record of human-induced changes from Lake Żabińskie (NE Poland).

Sci Total Environ 2018 Dec 6;657:585-596. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Faculty of Oceanography and Geography, University of Gdansk, Poland.

This study explores the long-term drivers of changes in lake mixing regime and the causes of lacustrine anoxia in the 2000 year-long, varved sediment record from Lake Żabińskie in northeastern Poland. Annually resolved geochemical data (μXRF and CNS) and pollen data were used to find links between changes in catchment land use and lake mixing regime. Furthermore, we tested the applicability of the Fe/Mn ratio for the reconstruction of past water ventilation. Read More

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December 2018

The Shocking Time It Takes to Initiate ECT: A Clinically and Legally Complicated Case of Catatonia.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Dec 13;20(6). Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Psychiatry, Henry Ford Behavioral Health Services, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

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December 2018

EGFR-Mutant Adenocarcinomas That Transform to Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Other Neuroendocrine Carcinomas: Clinical Outcomes.

J Clin Oncol 2018 Dec 14:JCO1801585. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

1 Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Approximately 3% to 10% of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) -mutant non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) undergo transformation to small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but their clinical course is poorly characterized.

Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with EGFR-mutant SCLC and other high-grade neuroendocrine carcinomas seen at our eight institutions. Demographics, disease features, and outcomes were analyzed. Read More

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December 2018

Hypercalcemia and Psychosis: Case Report, Review of the Literature, and Management Considerations.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Nov 29;20(6). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

VA Boston Healthcare System, Brockton, Massachusetts, USA.

The objective of this article is to help clinicians make an accurate diagnosis by considering hypercalcemia as a potential cause of psychosis. A patient case is presented, along with a review of the literature dissecting the association between calcium and psychiatric symptoms. Clinical implications and suggestions for management of hypercalcemia and psychosis in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism are provided. Read More

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November 2018

A Case of Decreased Milk Production Associated With Aripiprazole.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Nov 29;20(6). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

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November 2018

Risperidone-Induced Tardive Dyskinesia in an Autistic Child.

Authors:
Vasco Kidd

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Dec 6;20(6). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

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December 2018

Mask Off? Lithium Augmentation for Clozapine Rechallenge After Neutropenia or Agranulocytosis: Discontinuation Might Be Risky.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Nov 29;20(6). Epub 2018 Nov 29.

PSTAR Clinic, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

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November 2018

Metabolic Syndrome in Dutch Patients With Bipolar Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2018 Dec 6;20(6). Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Objective: To characterize the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Dutch patients with bipolar disorder (BD), identify factors associated with MetS, and estimate the rate of pharmacologic treatment of MetS in this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of medical records of adult patients (≥ 18 years) with BD receiving psychotropic drug treatment was performed in a Dutch psychiatric outpatient setting. MetS was determined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III-Adapted (NCEP ATP III-A) criteria. Read More

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December 2018
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30 Years After: CNS Actions of Prolactin: Source, Mechanism and Physiological Significance.

J Neuroendocrinol 2018 Dec 14:e12669. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Centre for Neuroendocrinology and Department of Anatomy, University, Of Otago Medical School,, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Our understanding of the neural actions of prolactin (PRL) and its biochemical basis has expanded greatly over the past three decades. During this time, major progress has been made that includes the elucidation of how PRL accesses the brain, identification of the PRL receptor and the sites where it is expressed within the brain, determination of the neurochemical mechanism of action of PRL and its effect on genomic expression in neurons, identification of the neural sites where PRL acts to stimulate maternal behavior and related affective states, and exploration of how life experiences impact neural PRL receptor activity and actions. The next 30 years promise to reveal a myriad of basic and clinical findings regarding new roles for PRL and a greater in depth understanding of how and where PRL affects physiological and behavioral processes. Read More

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December 2018

Systematic review and meta-analysis on the role of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging in the era of fetal neurosonography: mild and moderate ventriculomegaly.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2018 Dec 14. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Women´s Health and Perinatology Research Group, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT-The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Objectives: To report the rate of additional anomalies detected exclusively on prenatal MRI in fetuses affected by isolated mild or moderate ventriculomegaly (VM) according to the type of ultrasound protocol adopted (dedicated neurosonography vs standard assessment of fetal brain) and to explore whether the diagnostic performance of fetal MRI in detecting such anomalies is affected by gestational age at scan and laterality of ventricular dilatation.

Methods: The primary aim was to report the rate of additional anomalies detected exclusively on prenatal MRI in fetuses affected by isolated mild and moderate VM (ventricular dilatation between 10-15 mm) undergoing compared to those not undergoing dedicated neurosonography, defined as a detail assessment of fetal brain according to the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology guidelines. Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Clinicaltrials. Read More

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December 2018

Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system: Symphony of glial cells.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Neuroinflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) is an important subject of neuroimmunological research. Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is a key player in various neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and CNS injury. Neuroinflammation is a complex and well-orchestrated process by various groups of glial cells in CNS and peripheral immune cells. Read More

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December 2018

Astrocyte-targeted IL-10 production decreases proliferation and induces a downregulation of activated microglia/macrophages after PPT.

Glia 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, Institute of Neuroscience, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

When central nervous system (CNS) homeostasis is altered, microglial cells become rapidly activated, proliferate and release a broad range of molecules. Among the plethora of molecules involved in the regulation of microglial activation, cytokines are considered crucial. Although production of interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been demonstrated after different types of CNS injuries and associated with protective functions, the specific role played by IL-10 modulating microglial cells remains unclear. Read More

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December 2018

An early feasibility study of the Nativis Voyager device in patients with recurrent glioblastoma: first cohort in US.

CNS Oncol 2018 Dec 14:CNS. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Translational Neuro-Oncology and Neurotherapeutics, John Wayne Cancer Institute & Pacific Neuroscience Institute, Santa Monica, CA 90404, USA.

Aim: Evaluation of the Nativis Voyager device in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM).

Materials & Methods: Voyager is a noninvasive, nonthermal, nonionizing and portable investigational device which delivers ultra-low radio frequency energy (ulRFE) that uses a magnetic field to penetrate tissues to alter specific biologic functions within cells. Patients with rGBM were treated with Voyager alone (V) or Voyager in combination with standard of care (V + SoC). Read More

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December 2018

Novel tau fragments in cerebrospinal fluid: relation to tangle pathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 Dec 13. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Göteborgsvägen 31, House V3/SU, 43180, Mölndal, Sweden.

Tau is an axonal microtubule-binding protein. Tau pathology in brain and increased tau concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most of tau in CSF is present as fragments. Read More

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December 2018
2 Reads

Risk Factors for Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Children With STEC-HUS/D HUS: A Single-Center Experience.

Glob Pediatr Health 2018 4;5:2333794X18816920. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

The Children's Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USA.

. Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the common causes for acute kidney injury in childhood. . Read More

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December 2018

A Systematic Review of Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in Adults.

Front Oncol 2018 28;8:567. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Division of Neuropathology, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor in adults is a relatively rare malignant neoplasm. It is characterized by the presence of rhabdoid cells in combination with loss of either the INI1 or BRG1protein from the tumor cells. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE using the terms "atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor" AND "adult. Read More

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November 2018
2 Reads

Efficacy of arginine depletion by ADI-PEG20 in an intracranial model of GBM.

Cell Death Dis 2018 Dec 13;9(12):1192. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

John Fulcher Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Division of Brain Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a cancer with a poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. Successful medical management of GBM is limited by the restricted access of drugs to the central nervous system (CNS) caused by the blood brain barrier (BBB). We previously showed that a subset of GBM are arginine auxotrophic because of transcriptional silencing of ASS1 and/or ASL and are sensitive to pegylated arginine deiminase (ADI-PEG20). Read More

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December 2018
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Transcriptome-wide isoform-level dysregulation in ASD, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

Science 2018 Dec;362(6420)

Department of Psychiatry, Semel Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 695 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Most genetic risk for psychiatric disease lies in regulatory regions, implicating pathogenic dysregulation of gene expression and splicing. However, comprehensive assessments of transcriptomic organization in diseased brains are limited. In this work, we integrated genotypes and RNA sequencing in brain samples from 1695 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder, as well as controls. Read More

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December 2018
3 Reads

Introduction to the Special Issue on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology.

Bioengineering (Basel) 2018 Dec 11;5(4). Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatrics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Pediatric Neuro-Oncology is a highly specialized field encompassing molecular biology, clinical acumen, evidence based medicine, cancer genetics and neuropsychological care for the diagnosis and treatment of children with central nervous system (CNS) tumors. [.. Read More

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December 2018

Neurological and Inflammatory Manifestations in Sjögren's Syndrome: The Role of the Kynurenine Metabolic Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 8;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Ribeirao Preto Medical School, Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14049-900 Brazil.

For decades, neurological, psychological, and cognitive alterations, as well as other glandular manifestations (EGM), have been described and are being considered to be part of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Dry eye and dry mouth are major findings in SS. The lacrimal glands (LG), ocular surface (OS), and salivary glands (SG) are linked to the central nervous system (CNS) at the brainstem and hippocampus. Read More

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December 2018

as a Model to Study Brain Innate Immunity in Health and Disease.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 7;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, 300 Hackberry lane, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487, USA.

Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens and plays an essential role in defending the brain against infection, injury, and disease. It is currently well recognized that central nervous system (CNS) infections can result in long-lasting neurological sequelae and that innate immune and inflammatory reactions are highly implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Due to the conservation of the mechanisms that govern neural development and innate immune activation from flies to mammals, the lack of a classical adaptive immune system and the availability of numerous genetic and genomic tools, the fruit fly presents opportunities to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with immune function in brain tissue and how they relate to infection, injury and neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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December 2018

Microbiome-The Missing Link in the Gut-Brain Axis: Focus on Its Role in Gastrointestinal and Mental Health.

J Clin Med 2018 Dec 7;7(12). Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland.

The central nervous system (CNS) and the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract communicate through the gut-brain axis (GBA). Such communication is bi-directional and involves neuronal, endocrine, and immunological mechanisms. There is mounting data that gut microbiota is the source of a number of neuroactive and immunocompetent substances, which shape the structure and function of brain regions involved in the control of emotions, cognition, and physical activity. Read More

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December 2018

UGT1A1 genotypes and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia phenotypes in post-neonatal Chinese children: A retrospective analysis and quantitative correlation.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Dec;97(49):e13576

Department of Pediatrics, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To retrospectively analyze and quantitatively correlate UGT1A1 (bilirubin UDP- glucuronosyltransferase gene) genotypes and unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (UCH) phenotypes among Chinese children.We retrospectively reviewed UCH patients, quantitatively analyzed genotype-phenotype correlation by comparing with healthy controls. Pfam database, SWISS-model, and Pymol were used for UGT1A1 protein domain analysis and protein modeling for assessing the effect of novel missense variants on protein structure. Read More

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December 2018

Surgical management and prognostic factors for primary intracranial myxoma: a single-institute experience with a systematic review.

Authors:

J Neurosurg 2018 Nov 1:1-11. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

OBJECTIVEPrimary intracranial myxomas (PICMs) are extremely rare neoplasms, and their management and prognostic factors remain ambiguous. The authors aimed to elaborate the radiological features, evaluate the risk factors for progression-free survival (PFS), and propose a treatment protocol based on pooled data from cases treated at their institute and those found in the literature.METHODSClinical data from all cases of PICMs treated at the authors' institute and those cases reported in the English-language literature between 1987 and December 2017 were reviewed. Read More

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November 2018

The impact of the reserve military neurosurgeon: practice, community, and service.

Authors:

Neurosurg Focus 2018 Dec;45(6):E14

OBJECTIVEPapers from 2002 to 2017 have highlighted consistent unique socioeconomic challenges and opportunities facing military neurosurgeons. Here, the authors focus on the reserve military neurosurgeon who carries the dual mission of both civilian and military responsibilities.METHODSSurvey solicitation of current active duty and reserve military neurosurgeons was performed in conjunction with the AANS/CNS Joint Committee of Military Neurosurgeons and the Council of State Neurosurgical Societies. Read More

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December 2018

High prevalence of KRAS/BRAF somatic mutations in brain and spinal cord arteriovenous malformations.

Brain 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Brain and spinal arteriovenous malformations are congenital lesions causing intracranial haemorrhage or permanent disability especially in young people. We investigated whether the vast majority or all brain and spinal arteriovenous malformations are associated with detectable tumour-related somatic mutations. In a cohort of 31 patients (21 with brain and 10 with spinal arteriovenous malformations), tissue and paired blood samples were analysed with ultradeep next generation sequencing of a panel of 422 common tumour genes to identify the somatic mutations. Read More

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December 2018

Antidepressant potential of Uncaria rhynchophylla and its active flavanol, catechin, targeting melatonin receptors.

J Ethnopharmacol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, PR China; Yunnan Key Laboratory of Natural Medicinal Chemistry, Kunming 650201, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are fascinating sources for natural drug candidates. Uncaria rhynchophylla (Gouteng) is a famous TCM used for alleviating central nervous system (CNS) disorders, while its antidepressant constituents are still disputed.

Aim Of The Study: The present study was designed to assess the antidepressant property of U. Read More

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December 2018

A mechanistic investigation on methotrexate-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel nanoparticles intended for CNS drug delivery: Trojan horse effect or not?

Int J Biol Macromol 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Chitosan-based hydrogel nanoparticles provide a higher brain concentration of methotrexate (MTX) following IV administration in comparison with the drug's simple solution. The present study investigates the mechanism of this phenomenon, focusing on the possible role of P-gp. A previously developed MTX containing chitosan nanogel was fabricated and characterised. Read More

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December 2018

Successful Treatment of Relapsed Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Central Nervous System Myeloid Sarcoma: A Single-Institution Case Series.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia presenting as an isolated central nervous system myeloid sarcoma (CNS MS) is very rare and generally entails poor outcomes. CNS MS treatment is not well defined and can include systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Thiotepa, vinorelbine, topotecan, and clofarabine (TVTC) has been successful for reinduction therapy in relapsed/refractory leukemia to induce remission before hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Read More

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December 2018
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Glioblastoma formation in a recurrent intracranial epidermoid cyst: a case report.

CNS Oncol 2018 Dec 13:CNS25. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL, 61605, USA.

Background: Transformation to glioblastoma following recurrent epidermoid cyst resection has not been reported. Chronic inflammation can underlie malignant transformation of epidermoid cysts. Astrogliosis following repeated resections may have induced the rare transformation to glioblastoma. Read More

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December 2018

Primary brain and other central nervous system tumors in Appalachia: regional differences in incidence, mortality, and survival.

J Neurooncol 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States, Hinsdale, IL, USA.

Background: The Appalachian region is a large geographic and economic area, representing 7.69% of the United States (US). This region is more rural, whiter, older, and has a higher level of poverty as compared to the rest of the US. Read More

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December 2018

Brief report on similar mutational changes in neurofibromatosis type 2 gene in minute pulmonary meningothelial-like nodule and meningioma of the central nervous system.

Oncotarget 2018 Nov 13;9(89):36012-36016. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Chest Surgery, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan.

Introduction: Minute Pulmonary Meningothelial-like Nodules (MPMNs) are usually detected incidentally adjacent to lung cancer tissue. The pathogenesis is unknown. MPMNs reportedly share the status of neurofibromatosis (NF)-2 gene with meningiomas of the central nervous system. Read More

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November 2018

CB2R induces a protective response for epileptic seizure via the PI3K 110α-AKT signaling pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2018 Dec 24;16(6):4784-4790. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110004, P.R. China.

Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease caused by abnormal discharging in the brain, which induces momentary brain dysfunction. Cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) is expressed in central nervous system (CNS) and serves an important role in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of CB2R activation on phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) 110α-protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in an astrocyte model of epilepsy. Read More

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December 2018

Phase Ib/II single-arm trial evaluating the combination of everolimus, lapatinib and capecitabine for the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer with brain metastases (TRIO-US B-09).

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2018 9;10:1758835918807339. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Improving outcomes for patients with human epidermal growth factor 2-positive (HER2+) central nervous system (CNS) metastases remains an unmet clinical need. This trial evaluated a novel combination of everolimus, lapatinib and capecitabine for this disease.

Methods: Patients with trastuzumab-pretreated, HER2+ breast cancer brain metastasis without prior therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor were eligible. Read More

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November 2018

Silent Free Fall at Disease Onset: A Perspective on Therapeutics for Progressive Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Neurol 2018 27;9:973. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Central nervous system (CNS) degeneration occurs during multiple sclerosis (MS) following several years of reversible autoimmune demyelination. Progressive CNS degeneration appears later during the course of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), although it starts insidiously at disease onset. We propose that there is an early subclinical phase also for primary-progressive (PP) MS. Read More

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November 2018

Study of the Tissue Distribution of TLQP-21 in Mice Using [F]JMV5763, a Radiolabeled Analog Prepared via [F]Aluminum Fluoride Chelation Chemistry.

Front Pharmacol 2018 13;9:1274. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

TLQP-21 is a neuropeptide that is involved in the control of several physiological functions, including energy homeostasis. Since TLQP-21 could oppose the early phase of diet-induced obesity, it has raised a huge interest, but very little is known about its mechanisms of action on peripheral tissues. Our aim was to investigate TLQP-21 distribution in brain and peripheral tissues after systemic administration using positron emission tomography. Read More

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November 2018

The Interleukin-10 Family of Cytokines and Their Role in the CNS.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 27;12:458. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, United States.

Resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS) play an important role in detecting insults and initiating protective or sometimes detrimental host immunity. At peripheral sites, immune responses follow a biphasic course with the rapid, but transient, production of inflammatory mediators giving way to the delayed release of factors that promote resolution and repair. Within the CNS, it is well known that glial cells contribute to the onset and progression of neuroinflammation, but it is only now becoming apparent that microglia and astrocytes also play an important role in producing and responding to immunosuppressive factors that serve to limit the detrimental effects of such responses. Read More

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November 2018

Broad and Region-Specific Impacts of the Synthetic Cannabinoid CP 55,940 in Adolescent and Adult Female Mouse Brains.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 27;11:436. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Program in Neuroscience, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Relative to Δ-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the synthetic cannabinoid CP 55,940 (CP) is significantly more potent and efficacious at cannabinoid receptors, the primary targets for endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs). eCBs belong to a large, interconnected lipidome of bioactive signaling molecules with a myriad of effects in optimal and pathological function. Recreational use of highly potent and efficacious synthetic cannabinoids is common amongst adolescents, potentially impacting brain development. Read More

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November 2018

Connexin 43/47 channels are important for astrocyte/ oligodendrocyte cross-talk in myelination and demyelination.

J Biosci 2018 Dec;43(5):1055-1068

Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, India.

The gap junctions (GJs), which form intercellular communicating channels between two apposing cells or form hemichannel with extracellular environment, perform crucial functions to maintain small molecule homeostasis. The central nervous system (CNS) GJs are important for maintenance of myelin sheath and neuronal activity. Connexin (Cx) proteins are building blocks of GJs. Read More

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December 2018

Activation of 5-HT1A receptors promotes retinal ganglion cell function by inhibiting the cAMP-PKA pathway to modulate presynaptic GABA release in chronic glaucoma.

J Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Eye Institute, Eye & ENT Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science and Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China.

Serotonin receptor agonists are neuroprotective in central nervous system (CNS) injury models. However, the neuroprotective functional implications and synaptic mechanism of 8-OH-DPAT, a serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) agonist, in an adult male Wistar rat model of chronic glaucoma model remain unknown. We found that ocular hypertension decreased 5-HT1A receptor expression in rat retinas, as the number of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) was significantly reduced in rats with induced ocular hypertension relative to that in control retinas, and 8-OH-DPAT enhanced the RGC viability. Read More

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December 2018