11,764 results match your criteria CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics [Journal]


Brain alterations in children/adolescents with ADHD revisited: a neuroimaging meta-analysis of 96 structural and functional studies.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, INM-7), Research Center Jülich, Jülich, Germany; Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.

The findings of neuroimaging studies in children/adolescents with ADHD, and even those of previous meta-analyses, are divergent. Here, Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis, following the current best-practice guidelines, was conducted. We searched multiple databases and traced the references up to June 2018. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.02.011DOI Listing
February 2019

Genetic Manipulation and Selection of Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Delivery of Therapeutic Factors In Vivo.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1940:143-155

Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA.

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great potential as an ex vivo cellular system for delivery of therapeutic proteins to the diseased or damaged central nervous system (CNS). This adult stem cell population has considerable translational potential for autologous transplantation due to lack of ethical concerns, accessibility, multipotent nature, and plasticity. Here we describe a methodology and outline a strategy using lentiviral vectors for producing lines of MSCs hypersecreting neurotrophic growth factors (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-9086-3_10DOI Listing
January 2019

Rapid depletion of ESCRT protein Vps4 underlies injury-induced autophagic impediment and Wallerian degeneration.

Sci Adv 2019 Feb 13;5(2):eaav4971. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Interdisciplinary Research Center on Biology and Chemistry, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201210, China.

Injured axons undergo a controlled, self-destruction process, known as Wallerian degeneration. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Using the wing nerve as a model, we identify the ESCRT component as a previously unidentified essential gene for axonal integrity. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav4971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6374107PMC
February 2019

NKG2D and Its Ligand MULT1 Contribute to Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

Front Immunol 2019 6;10:154. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurosciences Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

NKG2D is an activating receptor expressed on the surface of immune cells including subsets of T lymphocytes. NKG2D binds multiple ligands (NKG2DL) whose expression are differentially triggered in a cell type and stress specific manner. The NKG2D-NKG2DL interaction has been involved in autoimmune disorders but its role in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS) remains incompletely resolved. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6372829PMC
February 2019

Podocalyxin is required for maintaining blood-brain barrier function during acute inflammation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 20. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z3;

Podocalyxin (Podxl) is broadly expressed on the luminal face of most blood vessels in adult vertebrates, yet its function on these cells is poorly defined. In the present study, we identified specific functions for Podxl in maintaining endothelial barrier function. Using electrical cell substrate impedance sensing and live imaging, we found that, in the absence of Podxl, human umbilical vein endothelial cells fail to form an efficient barrier when plated on several extracellular matrix substrates. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1814766116DOI Listing
February 2019

High levels of serum soluble TWEAK are associated with neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis.

J Transl Med 2019 Feb 20;17(1):51. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, Faculté de Médecine, Institut de NeuroPhysiopathologie (INP), Inst Neurophysiopathol, 51 Bd P. Drammard, 13015, Marseille, France.

Background: Inflammation and demyelination are the main processes in multiple sclerosis. Nevertheless, to date, blood biomarkers of inflammation are lacking. TWEAK, a transmembrane protein that belongs to the TNF ligand family, has been previously identified as a potential candidate. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-019-1789-3DOI Listing
February 2019

Serotonin induces or inhibits neuritic regeneration of leech CNS neurons depending on neuronal identity.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2019 Feb 14;52(2):e7988. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Neuroscience Division, National Rehabilitation Institute "Luis Guillermo Ibarra Ibarra", Col. Arenal de Guadalupe, Delegacion Tlalpan, Mexico City, Mexico.

Recovery of motor function after central nervous system (CNS) injury is dependent on the regeneration capacity of the nervous system, which is a multifactorial process influenced, among other things, by the role of neuromodulators such as serotonin. The neurotransmitter serotonin can promote neuronal regeneration but there are also reports of it causing restriction, so it is important to clarify these divergent findings in order to understand the direct scope and side effects of potential pharmacological treatments. We evaluated the effect of serotonin on the extent of neuritic outgrowth and morphology of three different neuronal types in the leech Haementeria officinalis during their regeneration in vitro: Retzius interneurons (Rz), annulus erector (AE) motoneurons, and anterolateral number 1 (AL1) CNS neurons. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431X20187988DOI Listing
February 2019

Dl-3-N-butylphthalide promotes angiogenesis and upregulates sonic hedgehog expression after cerebral ischemia in rats.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Shanghai Jiao Tong Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Neuroscience and Neuroengineering Research Center, Med-X Research Institute and School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Dl-3-N-butylphthalide (NBP), a small molecule drug used clinically in the acute phase of ischemic stroke, has been shown to improve functional recovery and promote angiogenesis and collateral vessel circulation after experimental cerebral ischemia. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown.

Aims: To explore the potential molecular mechanism of angiogenesis induced by NBP after cerebral ischemia. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cns.13104
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13104DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

A Preliminary Study Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Bumetanide, an NKCC1 Inhibitor, in Patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy.

CNS Drugs 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Neuroscience and Addiction Study, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Dysregulation of cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2 expression was shown to be related to drug-resistant epilepsy. Previous studies suggested that bumetanide, an inhibitor of NKCC1, might have antiepileptic effects.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of bumetanide add-on therapy in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy and its relation to cation-chloride cotransporters NKCC1 and KCC2. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40263-019-00607-5
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40263-019-00607-5DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Priming of microglia with IFN-γ slows neuronal gamma oscillations in situ.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany;

Type II IFN (IFN-γ) is a proinflammatory T lymphocyte cytokine that serves in priming of microglia-resident CNS macrophages-during the complex microglial activation process under pathological conditions. Priming generally permits an exaggerated microglial response to a secondary inflammatory stimulus. The impact of primed microglia on physiological neuronal function in intact cortical tissue (in situ) is widely unknown, however. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1813562116DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Clinical or neuroimaging profiles in the assessment of genetic variants associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, Institute of Neurosciences, IdISSC, Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.13112DOI Listing
February 2019

Modeling the Function of TATA Box Binding Protein in Transcriptional Changes Induced by HIV-1 Tat in Innate Immune Cells and the Effect of Methamphetamine Exposure.

Front Immunol 2018 4;9:3110. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Neurosciences, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, United States.

Innate immune cells are targets of HIV-1 infection in the Central Nervous System (CNS), generating neurological deficits. Infected individuals with substance use disorders as co-morbidities, are more likely to have aggravated neurological disorders, higher CNS viral load and inflammation. Methamphetamine (Meth) is an addictive stimulant drug, commonly among HIV+ individuals. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2018.03110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369711PMC
February 2019

CD200-CD200R1 inhibitory signaling prevents spontaneous bacterial infection and promotes resolution of neuroinflammation and recovery after stroke.

J Neuroinflammation 2019 Feb 18;16(1):40. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Department of Neurology, McGovern Medical School, University of Texas Health Science Center, 6431 Fannin Street, Houston, TX, 77370, USA.

Background: Ischemic stroke results in a robust inflammatory response within the central nervous system. As the immune-inhibitory CD200-CD200 receptor 1 (CD200R1) signaling axis is a known regulator of immune homeostasis, we hypothesized that it may play a role in post-stroke immune suppression after stroke.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the role of CD200R1-mediated signaling in stroke using CD200 receptor 1-deficient mice. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-019-1426-3DOI Listing
February 2019
5.408 Impact Factor

Remote assessment of disease and relapse in major depressive disorder (RADAR-MDD): a multi-centre prospective cohort study protocol.

BMC Psychiatry 2019 Feb 18;19(1):72. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, London, UK.

Background: There is a growing body of literature highlighting the role that wearable and mobile remote measurement technology (RMT) can play in measuring symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). Outcomes assessment typically relies on self-report, which can be biased by dysfunctional perceptions and current symptom severity. Predictors of depressive relapse include disrupted sleep, reduced sociability, physical activity, changes in mood, prosody and cognitive function, which are all amenable to measurement via RMT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12888-019-2049-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Production, Purification, and Quality Control for Adeno-associated Virus-based Vectors.

J Vis Exp 2019 Jan 29(143). Epub 2019 Jan 29.

VIB-KU Leuven Center for Brain and Disease Research; Department of Neuroscience, KU Leuven; Leuven Brain Institute;

Gene delivery tools based on adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are a popular choice for the delivery of transgenes to the central nervous system (CNS), including gene therapy applications. AAV vectors are non-replicating, able to infect both dividing and non-dividing cells and provide long-term transgene expression. Importantly, some serotypes, such as the newly described PHP. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/58960DOI Listing
January 2019

A standard operating procedure for King's ALS clinical staging.

Amyotroph Lateral Scler Frontotemporal Degener 2019 Feb 18:1-6. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

c Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience , Maurice Wohl Clinical Neuroscience Institute, King's College London , London , UK.

Objective: Clinical stages in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) can be measured using a simple system based on the number of CNS regions involved and requirement for gastrostomy or noninvasive ventilation (NIV). We aimed to design a standard operating procedure (SOP) to define the standardized use and application of the King's staging system.

Methods: We designed a SOP for the King's staging system. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2018.1556696DOI Listing
February 2019

Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use and the darknet: A cryptomarket analysis.

Int J Drug Policy 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, United Kingdom.

Background: Nonmedical prescription psychiatric drug use (NMPDU) is an increasing global health problem, with recent concern focusing on darknet cryptomarkets as sources of procurement. There is a shortage of evidence regarding comparative worldwide NMPDU trends, due in part to data collection difficulties. This problem is particularly marked for non-opioid drugs, particularly those psychiatric drugs which act on the central nervous system (CNS) and have high misuse potential and are associated with high levels of dependency and fatal overdose. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Cumulative multiple early life hits- a potent threat leading to neurological disorders.

Brain Res Bull 2019 Feb 13;147:58-68. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

School of Studies in Neuroscience, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India; School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India. Electronic address:

Early life Stress is a worldwide concern linked with development of later life neurological disorders. Early developmental age is sensitive to many prominent environmental insults like malnourishment, immune inflammation, abuse, maternal separation, alcohol and drugs. Hence, an individual during an early age encounters more than one simultaneous stressor that leads to impairment of cognitive and behavioral abilities, a symptom common to most of the neurological disorders. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Mass spectrometry-based analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from arthritis patients-immune-related candidate proteins affected by TNF blocking treatment.

Arthritis Res Ther 2019 Feb 15;21(1):60. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Rheumatology Unit, Department of Medicine, Solna, Center of Molecular Medicine (CMM), Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Signs of inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rheumatoid arthritis patients correlate positively with fatigue, a central nervous system (CNS)-related symptom that can be partially suppressed by TNF blockade. This suggests a possible role for CNS inflammation in arthritis that may be affected by TNF blockade. We therefore investigated the effects of TNF blockade on the arthritis CSF proteome and how candidate proteins related to clinical measures of disease activity and inflammation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-019-1846-6DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Gut microbiota-dependent CCR9+CD4+ T cells are altered in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2019 Feb 15. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, 4-1-1 Ogawahigashi, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.

The mechanism underlying the progression of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), characterized by accumulating fixed disability, is yet to be fully understood. Although alterations in the gut microbiota have recently been highlighted in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, the mechanism linking the altered gut environment with the remote CNS pathology remains unclear. Here, we analyse human CD4+ memory T cells expressing the gut-homing chemokine receptor CCR9 and found a reduced frequency of CCR9+ memory T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with SPMS relative to healthy controls. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz012DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

How far will the Voyager take us?

Authors:
Victor A Levin

CNS Oncol 2019 Feb 15:CNS26. Epub 2019 Feb 15.

Department of Neuro-Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77005, USA.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/cns-2018-0019DOI Listing
February 2019

Progressive brain atrophy in chronically infected and treated HIV+ individuals.

J Neurovirol 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Public Health, Infection Unit, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Growing evidence points to persistent neurological injury in chronic HIV infection. It remains unclear whether chronically HIV-infected individuals on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) develop progressive brain injury and impaired neurocognitive function despite successful viral suppression and immunological restoration. In a longitudinal neuroimaging study for the HIV Neuroimaging Consortium (HIVNC), we used tensor-based morphometry to map the annual rate of change of regional brain volumes (mean time interval 1. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-019-00723-4DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Atypical anaplastic astrocytoma with unique molecular features and diffuse leptomeningeal spread in a child with long-term survival.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Feb 13;12(2). Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Neurosciences and Pediatrics, University of California San Diego, San Diego, California, USA.

Paediatric high-grade gliomas, including glioblastoma and anaplastic astrocytoma, make up 8%-12% of paediatric central nervous system tumours and have poor prognosis, with 2-year survival less than 30% and overall survival less than 10%. The only known prognostic factors in this population include extent of resection and tumour histological grade. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with disseminated anaplastic astrocytoma treated with subtotal resection, craniospinal radiation and temozolomide, with 8-year survival despite metastatic disease at presentation and subtotal resection. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228153DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Kinetic and system bias as drivers of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 allosteric modulator pharmacology.

Neuropharmacology 2019 Feb 11;149:83-96. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Drug Discovery Biology, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacology, Monash University, Parkville, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu) have been proposed as potential therapies for various CNS disorders. These ligands bind to sites distinct from the orthosteric (or endogenous) ligand, often with improved subtype selectivity and spatio-temporal control over receptor responses. We recently revealed that mGlu allosteric agonists and positive allosteric modulators exhibit biased agonism and/or modulation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.005DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Adjunctive simvastatin for treatment-resistant depression: study protocol of a 12-week randomised controlled trial.

BJPsych Open 2019 Jan;5(1):e13

Chair of Mood Disorders,Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience,King's College London,UK.

Background: A third of patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) experience treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Relatively few pharmacological agents have established efficacy for TRD. Therefore, the evaluation of novel treatments for TRD is a pressing priority. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2018.84DOI Listing
January 2019
1 Read

Cognitive outcomes of childhood primary CNS vasculitis.

Neuropsychology 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary.

Objective: To characterize the clinical cognitive phenotypes and severity of cognitive burden according to disease subtype in children with primary central nervous system vasculitis (cPACNS).

Method: This retrospective multicenter inflammatory brain disease database study examined the neuropsychological outcomes of 80 children (44 male; mean age = 7.89 years, SD = 4. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.apa.org/getdoi.cfm?doi=10.1037/neu0000513
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/neu0000513DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Brain and Spinal Cord Lesions in Leprosy: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Study.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

Neurotropism and infiltration by of peripheral nerves causing neuropathy are well established, but reports of central nervous system (CNS) damage are exceptional. We report CNS magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities of the brain and spinal cord as well as lesions in nerve roots and plexus in leprosy patients. Eight patients aged between 17 and 41 years underwent detailed clinical, histopathological, and MRI evaluation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.17-0945DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads
2.699 Impact Factor

Peripheral Inflammation Regulates CNS Immune Surveillance Through the Recruitment of Inflammatory Monocytes Upon Systemic α-Synuclein Administration.

Front Immunol 2019 29;10:80. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Laboratory for Neurobiology and Gene Therapy, Department of Neurosciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Innate immune activation and chronic neuroinflammation are characteristic features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. The discovery of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSYN) protein aggregates, which amplify in a "prion-like" fashion, has led us to consider that pathogenic αSYN might be hijacking the activation and mobilization mechanism of the peripheral immune system to reach and disseminate within the CNS. Furthermore, our lab and other groups have recently shown that αSYN can adopt distinct fibril conformations or "strains" with varying levels of pathogenic impact. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361759PMC
January 2019
1 Read

The Tenets of Teneurin: Conserved Mechanisms Regulate Diverse Developmental Processes in the Nervous System.

Front Neurosci 2019 30;13:27. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

To successfully integrate a neuron into a circuit, a myriad of developmental events must occur correctly and in the correct order. Neurons must be born and grow out toward a destination, responding to guidance cues to direct their path. Once arrived, each neuron must segregate to the correct sub-region before sorting through a milieu of incorrect partners to identify the correct partner with which they can connect. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2019.00027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6363694PMC
January 2019
1 Read

National Institutes of Health initiatives for advancing scientific developments in clinical neuropsychology.

Clin Neuropsychol 2019 Feb 14:1-25. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

d Department of Family/Sports Medicine , Oregon Health and Science University , Portland , Oregon , USA.

Objective: The current review briefly addresses the history of neuropsychology as a context for discussion of developmental milestones that have advanced the profession, as well as areas where the progression has lagged. More recently in the digital/information age, utilization and incorporation of emerging technologies has been minimal, which has stagnated ongoing evolution of the practice of neuropsychology despite technology changing many aspects of daily living. These authors advocate for embracing National Institutes of Health (NIH) initiatives, or interchangeably referred to as transformative opportunities, for the behavioral and social sciences. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13854046.2018.1523465DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Abnormal effector and regulatory T cell subsets in paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Suite # 111, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Elucidation of distinct T-cell subsets involved in multiple sclerosis immune-pathophysiology continues to be of considerable interest since an ultimate goal is to more selectively target the aberrant immune response operating in individual patients. While abnormalities of both effector (Teff) and regulatory (Treg) T cells have been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis, prior studies have mostly assessed average abnormalities in either limb of the immune response, rather than both at the same time, which limits the ability to evaluate the balance between effectors and regulators operating in the same patient. Assessing both phenotypic and functional responses of Teffs and Tregs has also proven important. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awz017DOI Listing
February 2019

Dopamine in psychiatry: a historical perspective.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2019 Feb 13. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Medical Journal of Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dopamine is the principal transmitter of several central nervous system pathways originating in the midbrain and critically involved in motor activity, learning and motivation, disruptions of which have been implicated in a number of disorders, including Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. Dopamine played a particularly significant role in the history of neurochemistry. Following a series of investigations between 1957 and 1965, commencing in the laboratory and completed in the clinic, the significance of chemical neurotransmission for normal CNS function was first demonstrated in the case of dopamine. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-019-01987-0DOI Listing
February 2019

Frequent central nervous system, pachymeningeal and plexus MRI changes in POEMS syndrome.

J Neurol 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

MRC Centre for Neuromuscular Diseases, National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London, UK.

Objective: Polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, skin changes (POEMS) syndrome is a rare multisystem disease associated with a plasma-cell dyscrasia. Although pachymeningeal involvement has occasionally been described, MRI of the central nervous system (CNS) has not yet been extensively investigated.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated CNS MRI in Europe's largest single-center cohort of POEMS syndrome. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00415-019-09233-z
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09233-zDOI Listing
February 2019
5 Reads

Longitudinally persistent cerebrospinal fluid B-cells can resist treatment in multiple sclerosis.

JCI Insight 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

B-cells are key contributors to chronic autoimmune pathology in multiple sclerosis (MS). Clonally related B-cells exist in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), meninges, and central nervous system (CNS) parenchyma of MS patients. We sought to investigate the presence of clonally related B-cells over time by performing immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region repertoire sequencing on B-cells from longitudinally collected blood and CSF samples of MS patients (n=10). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.126599DOI Listing
February 2019

Repositioning Flubendazole for Spinal Cord Injury.

J Neurotrauma 2019 Feb 12. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

University of Kentucky, Department of Neuroscience Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Center, Lexington, Kentucky, United States ;

We previously reported the serendipitous observation that Fenbendazole, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, improved functional and pathological outcomes following thoracic spinal cord contusion injury in mice when administered pre-injury. Fenbendazole is widely used in veterinary medicine. However, it is not approved for human use and it was uncertain if only post-injury administration would offer similar benefits. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6160DOI Listing
February 2019

Neural Substrates of Drosophila Larval Anemotaxis.

Curr Biol 2019 Feb 7;29(4):554-566.e4. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 19700 Helix Drive, Ashburn, VA 20147, USA; Department of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK. Electronic address:

Animals use sensory information to move toward more favorable conditions. Drosophila larvae can move up or down gradients of odors (chemotax), light (phototax), and temperature (thermotax) by modulating the probability, direction, and size of turns based on sensory input. Whether larvae can anemotax in gradients of mechanosensory cues is unknown. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.01.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380933PMC
February 2019

Cytokine Profiles in Autoantibody Defined Subgroups of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

J Proteome Res 2019 Feb 18. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Computational Life Science Cluster (CLiC), Department of Chemistry , Umeå University , 901 87 Umeå , Sweden.

The aim of this study was to evaluate how the cytokine profiles differed between autoantibody based subgroups of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by periods of flares (active disease) and remission (inactive disease). The disease can affect many organ systems, e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.8b00811DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Tonic Seizure as a Different Seizure Type Presented in Autoimmune Epilepsy Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

J Nerv Ment Dis 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of JiLin University, Changchun, People's Republic of China.

The diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy is often challenging, and may be misdiagnosed as epileptic disorders or viral encephalitis. Autoimmune epilepsy has a strong association with other autoimmune diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In addition, autoimmune epilepsy was reported to present with complex partial seizure (CPS), simple partial seizure (SPS), and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure (sGTCS). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000946DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Dissociable Contributions of Precuneus and Cerebellum to Subjective and Objective Neuropathy in HIV.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, 401 Quarry Rd., Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Neuropathy, typically diagnosed by the presence of either symptoms or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction, remains a frequently reported complication in the antiretroviral (ART)-treated HIV population. This study was conducted in 109 healthy controls and 57 HIV-infected individuals to investigate CNS regions associated with neuropathy. An index of objective neuropathy was computed based on 4 measures: deep tendon ankle reflex, vibration sense (great toes), position sense (great toes), and 2-point discrimination (feet). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11481-019-09837-2DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

Cerebral hypomyelination associated with biallelic variants of FIG4.

Hum Mutat 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Department of Human Genetics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor MI, USA.

The lipid phosphatase gene FIG4 is responsible for Yunis-Varón Syndrome and Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 4J, a peripheral neuropathy. We now describe four families with FIG4 variants and prominent abnormalities of CNS white matter (leukoencephalopathy), with onset in early childhood, ranging from severe hypomyelination to mild undermyelination, in addition to peripheral neuropathy. Affected individuals inherited biallelic FIG4 variants from heterozygous parents. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/humu.23720
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23720DOI Listing
February 2019
2 Reads

A mouse model of seizures in anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

Epilepsia 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Objective: Seizures develop in 80% of patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, and these represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Anti-NMDAR antibodies have been linked to memory loss in encephalitis; however, their role in seizures has not been established. We determined whether anti-NMDAR antibodies from autoimmune encephalitis patients are pathogenic for seizures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14662DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Basic Concept of Microglia Biology and Neuroinflammation in Relation to Psychiatry.

Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2019 Feb 10. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Research Institute, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, UK.

The hypothesis that the neuroimmune system plays a role in the pathogenesis of different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disease, has attained increasing interest over the past years. Previously thought to have the sole purpose of protecting the central nervous system (CNS) from harmful stimuli, it is now known that the central immune system is critically involved in regulating physiological processes including neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, and circuit maintenance. Hence, alterations in microglia - the main immune cell of the CNS - and/or inflammatory factors do not unequivocally connote ongoing neuroinflammation or neuroinflammatory processes per se but rather might signify changes in brain homoeostasis. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/7854_2018_83
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/7854_2018_83DOI Listing
February 2019
6 Reads

The effects of clioquinol on P-glycoprotein expression and biometal distribution in the mouse brain microvasculature.

J Pharm Sci 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Parkville, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address:

Previous studies have demonstrated that the ionophore clioquinol (CQ), in conjunction with the biometals copper and zinc, increases the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in human cerebral microvascular endothelial (hCMEC/D3) cells. As P-gp expression and function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is of great interest regarding CNS drug access and endogenous toxin trafficking (e.g. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2019.01.030DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Functionalized Phenylbenzamides Inhibit Aquaporin-4 Reducing Cerebral Edema and Improving Outcome in Two Models of CNS Injury.

Neuroscience 2019 Feb 6. Epub 2019 Feb 6.

Aeromics, Inc., Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.

Cerebral edema in ischemic stroke can lead to increased intracranial pressure, reduced cerebral blood flow and neuronal death. Unfortunately, current therapies for cerebral edema are either ineffective or highly invasive. During the development of cytotoxic and subsequent ionic cerebral edema water enters the brain by moving across an intact blood brain barrier and through aquaporin-4 (AQP4) at astrocyte endfeet. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.01.034DOI Listing
February 2019
1 Read

Proximal recolonization by self-renewing microglia re-establishes microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse brain.

PLoS Biol 2019 Feb 8;17(2):e3000134. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Gladstone Institutes of Neurological Disease, San Francisco, California, United States of America.

Microglia are resident immune cells that play critical roles in maintaining the normal physiology of the central nervous system (CNS). Remarkably, microglia have an intrinsic capacity to repopulate themselves after acute ablation. However, the underlying mechanisms that drive such restoration remain elusive. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000134
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000134DOI Listing
February 2019
3 Reads

Machine learning identifies "rsfMRI epilepsy networks" in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Eur Radiol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, (IIT-D), New Delhi, Delhi, 110016, India.

Objectives: Experimental models have provided compelling evidence for the existence of neural networks in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). To identify and validate the possible existence of resting-state "epilepsy networks," we used machine learning methods on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data from 42 individuals with TLE.

Methods: Probabilistic independent component analysis (PICA) was applied to rsfMRI data from 132 subjects (42 TLE patients + 90 healthy controls) and 88 independent components (ICs) were obtained following standard procedures. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s00330-019-5997-2
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-019-5997-2DOI Listing
February 2019
10 Reads

Expanding the central nervous system disease spectrum associated with FLNC mutation.

Muscle Nerve 2019 Feb 7. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mus.26443DOI Listing
February 2019

Specific Expression of a New Bruton Tyrosine Kinase Isoform (p65BTK) in the Glioblastoma Gemistocytic Histotype.

Front Mol Neurosci 2019 24;12. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Bruton's tyrosine-kinase (BTK) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase recently associated with glioma tumorigenesis and a novel prognostic marker for poor survival in patients with glioma. The p65BTK is a novel BTK isoform involved in different pathways of drug resistance of solid tumors, thus we aimed to investigate the expression and the putative role of p65BTK in tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). We selected a large cohort of patients with glial tumors ( = 71) and analyzed the expression of p65BTK in different histotypes and correlation with clinical parameters. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2019.00002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353843PMC
January 2019