111,922 results match your criteria CNS Imaging in Cysticercosis


Orphan Receptor GPR88 as an Emerging Neurotherapeutic Target.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 Dec 12. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

While G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are recognized as pivotal drug targets involved in multiple physiological and pathological processes, the majority of GPCRs including orphan GPCRs (oGPCRs) are unexploited. GPR88, a brain-specific oGPCR with particularly robust expression in the striatum, regulates diverse brain and behavioral functions including cognition, mood, movement control and reward-based learning, and is thus emerging as a novel drug target for CNS disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and addiction. Nevertheless, no effective GPR88 synthetic ligands have yet entered into clinical trials and GPR88 endogenous ligands remain unknown. Read More

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December 2018

A Novel Research Method for Determining Sedative Exposure in Critically Ill Patients.

Nurs Res 2019 Jan/Feb;68(1):73-79

Mary Fran Tracy, PhD, RN, APRN, CNS, FAAN, is Associate Professor, University of Minnesota School of Nursing, and Nurse Scientist, University of Minnesota Medical Center, Minneapolis. Linda Chlan, PhD, RN, ATSF, FAAN, is Associate Dean for Nursing Research and Professor of Nursing, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, Minnesota. Kay Savik, MS, is Senior Statistician, University of Minnesota School of Nursing, Minneapolis. Debra J. Skaar, PharmD, FCCM, is Associate Professor of Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, Minneapolis. Craig Weinert, MD, MPH, is Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine Division, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis.

Background: Although potent sedative and opioid drugs are some of the most commonly used medications to manage pain, anxiety, and discomfort in critically ill patients, conducting clinical trials where sedative and opioid medications are outcome variables within a longitudinal research design can be a methodological challenge.

Objectives: The purpose of this article is to provide in detail a conceptual discussion of the concept and analysis of sedative exposure: A novel research analysis method for aggregating sedative and opioid medication doses from disparate drug classes commonly administered to critically ill patients and used by our team in several clinical research studies.

Methods: Comparing the dose of each sedative and opioid administered to an individual patient (within a defined time interval) to all other patients in a research study receiving the same medications allows for ranking of dosages for each medication by quartiles. Read More

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December 2018

Importance of cerebrospinal fluid investigation during dengue infection in Brazilian Amazonia Region.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2018 Dec 10;114:e180450. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. Read More

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December 2018

Science, Technology and Pharmaceutical Policy on the agenda: contributions from the society to the 16th National Conference on Health.

Cien Saude Colet 2018 Dec;23(12):4259-4268

Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fiocruz. Rio de janeiro RJ Brasil.

The Plenary of the National Health Council (CNS) approved the Resolution 568/2017, convening the 16th National Health Conference to be held in 2019 and decided to promote thematic activities in eight areas, including Pharmaceutical Policy and Science and Technology. CNS partnership with FIOCRUZ and the National School of Pharmacists proposed the 8th National Symposium on Science and Technology and Pharmaceutical Policy, preceded by ten regional preparatory meetings for the symposium throughout the country. The purpose of this article is to present and analyze the results of the first stage of meetings. Read More

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December 2018

Comparison and Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Clinical Severity in Nonhuman Immunodeficiency Virus Patients with Cryptococcal Infection of Central Nervous System.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2018 Dec;131(24):2930-2937

Department of Radiology, Beijing Youan Hospital Affiliated to Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Background: The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis among immunocompetent patients increases, especially in China and imaging plays an important role. The current study was to find the correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestation and clinical severity in nonhuman immunodeficiency virus patients with cryptococcal infection of central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: A total of 65 patients with CNS cryptococcal infection from August 2014 to October 2016 were retrospectively included in this study. Read More

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December 2018

The protective effect of rifampicin on behavioral deficits, biochemical, and neuropathological changes in a cuprizone model of demyelination.

Cytokine 2019 Jan 24;113:417-426. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Virology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration play critical roles in the pathogenesis of the disease. A growing body of evidence indicates that some antibiotics have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. Rifampicin, commonly used for the treatment of mycobacteria, has been shown to exert neuroprotective activities in neurodegenerative diseases. Read More

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January 2019

The Plasminogen Activation System Promotes Neurorepair in the Ischemic Brain.

Authors:
Manuel Yepes

Curr Drug Targets 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Yerkes National Primate Research Center; Atlanta, GA. United States.

The plasminogen activation (PA) system was originally thought to exclusively promote the degradation of fibrin by catalyzing the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin via two serine proteinases: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). However, experimental evidence accumulated over the last 30 years indicates that tPA and uPA are also found in the central nervous system (CNS), where they have a plethora of functions that not always require plasmin generation or fibrin degradation. For example, plasminogen-dependent and -independent effects of tPA and uPA play a central role in the pathophysiological events that underlie one of the leading causes of mortality and disability in the world: cerebral ischemia. Read More

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December 2018
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[The complementarity of clinical and administrative nursing roles in a hospital setting: A case study.]

Rech Soins Infirm 2018 09(134):60-69

Introduction And Background: The roles of head nurse (HN) and charge nurse (CN) in hospital care units are intended to be complementary, but still remain ambiguous. Studying the complementarity of these roles is a unique way of looking at them.

Objective: To explain in which circumstances the complementarity of HNs and CNs occurs in a hospital setting. Read More

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September 2018

IgM Natural Autoantibodies in Physiology and the Treatment of Disease.

Methods Mol Biol 2019 ;1904:53-81

Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.

Antibodies are vital components of the adaptive immune system for the recognition and response to foreign antigens. However, some antibodies recognize self-antigens in healthy individuals. These autoreactive antibodies may modulate innate immune functions. Read More

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January 2019

Emerging Immunotherapies for Parkinson Disease.

Neurol Ther 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Neurologische Klinik der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, St. Josef-Hospital, Bochum, Germany.

Symptomatic treatment options for Parkinson disease have steadily improved, and individualized therapeutic approaches are becoming established for every stage of the disease. However, disease-modifying therapy with a causal approach is still unavailable. The central causative role of alpha-synuclein pathology, including its progressive spread to most areas of the CNS, has been widely recognized, and a strong involvement of immune responses has recently been discovered. Read More

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December 2018

Mitochondrial health and muscle plasticity after spinal cord injury.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Mitochondria are responsible for aerobic respiration and large-scale ATP production in almost all cells of the body. Their function is decreased in many neurodegenerative and cardiovascular disease states, in metabolic disorders such as type II diabetes and obesity, and as a normal component of aging. Disuse of skeletal muscle from immobilization or unloading triggers alterations of mitochondrial density and activity. Read More

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December 2018

Critical Role of Somatosensation in Postural Control Following Spaceflight: Vestibularly Deficient Astronauts Are Not Able to Maintain Upright Stance During Compromised Somatosensation.

Front Physiol 2018 27;9:1680. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Human Research Program, Johnson Space Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, TX, United States.

The free-fall of orbital spaceflight effectively removes the gravitational vector used as a primary spatial orientation reference on Earth. Sustained absence of this reference drives adaptive changes in the internal perception-action models of the central nervous system (CNS), most notably in the processing of the vestibular otolith inputs. Upon landing, the return of the gravitational signal triggers a re-adaptation that restores terrestrial performance; however, during this period, the individual suffers from a functional vestibular deficiency. Read More

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November 2018

Engrafted parenchymal brain macrophages differ from microglia in transcriptome, chromatin landscape and response to challenge.

Nat Commun 2018 12 6;9(1):5206. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.

Microglia are yolk sac-derived macrophages residing in the parenchyma of brain and spinal cord, where they interact with neurons and other glial. After different conditioning paradigms and bone marrow (BM) or hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation, graft-derived cells seed the brain and persistently contribute to the parenchymal brain macrophage compartment. Here we establish that graft-derived macrophages acquire, over time, microglia characteristics, including ramified morphology, longevity, radio-resistance and clonal expansion. Read More

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December 2018

Engineering Controlled Peritumoral Inflammation to Constrain Brain Tumor Growth.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 11:e1801076. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.

Brain tumors remain a great clinical challenge, in part due to their capacity to invade into eloquent, inoperable regions of the brain. In contrast, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to injuries activates microglia and astrocytes culminating in an astroglial scar that typically "walls-off" the injury site. Here, the hypothesis is tested that targeting peritumoral cells surrounding tumors to activate them via an inflammatory stimulus that recapitulates the sequelae of a traumatic CNS injury, could generate an environment that would wall-off and contain invasive tumors in the brain. Read More

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December 2018
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A single institutional review of pediatric Bacillus spp. bloodstream infections demonstrates increased incidence among children with cancer.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 11:e27568. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Bacillus species are known to cause severe infection in immunocompromised hosts. The incidence of Bacillus bloodstream infections and characteristics of infection among children with cancer or indication for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a retrospective medical record review of all cases of Bacillus bacteremia between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, at Boston Children's Hospital. Read More

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December 2018

The Fyn kinase inhibitor, AZD0530, suppresses mouse alcohol self-administration and seeking.

Addict Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Fyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that plays an important role not only in normal synaptic functions but also in brain pathologies including alcohol use disorder. We previously reported that repeated cycles of binge drinking and withdrawal activate Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents, and that Fyn signaling in the DMS contributes to rat alcohol intake and relapse. Here, we used AZD0530, a CNS penetrable inhibitor of Src PTKs developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and cancer and tested its efficacy to suppress alcohol-dependent molecular and behavioral effects. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression.

Authors:
M R Lee R D Jayant

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive anatomical and functional imaging in patients with type I neurofibromatosis using simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical use of FDG-PET/MRI for monitoring enlargement and metabolism of plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), in whom the development of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is often a life limiting event.

Methods: NF1 patients who underwent a simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI examination in our institution from September 2012 to February 2018 were included. Indication was suspicion of malignant transformation of a PNF to MPNST. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of Clinically Meaningful Improvements in Self-Reported Walking Ability in Participants with Multiple Sclerosis: Results from the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III ENHANCE Trial of Prolonged-Release Fampridine.

CNS Drugs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Walking impairment is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). It affects > 90% of individuals over time, reducing independence and negatively impacting health-related quality of life, productivity, and daily activities. Walking impairment is consistently reported as one of the most distressing impairments by individuals with MS. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of CNS penetration of efavirenz and its metabolites.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There are limited data on the pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of the CNS penetration of efavirenz.

Objectives: We investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with CSF concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites and explored the relationships with neurocognitive performance.

Methods: We included 47 HIV-infected South African black adults with and without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine and collected paired plasma-CSF samples. Read More

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December 2018
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The Role of Standard and Advanced Imaging for the Management of Brain Malignancies From a Radiation Oncology Standpoint.

Neurosurgery 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Radiation therapy (RT) plays a critical role in the overall management of many central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Advances in RT treatment planning, with techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery, now allow the delivery of highly conformal dose with great precision. These techniques rely on high-resolution 3-dimensional anatomical imaging modalities such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to accurately and reliably define CNS targets and normal tissue avoidance structures. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and genetic diversity of congenital hyperammonemia.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):945-948

Department of Preclinical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Romania;

Congenital hyperammonemia (HA) due to inborn errors of metabolism is a rare condition with a high rate of mortality. The main effects occur at the central nervous system (CNS) level, being neurotoxic by alteration of the neurotransmitter function. HA can be triggered by an inappropriate diet, infection or stress, but can also occur without a precise cause. Read More

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January 2018

Cerebrolysin increases motor recovery and decreases inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalitis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):755-762

Department of Research Methodology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model reproduces the pathological features of the human disease, and is a widely used model used for studying the pathology and different treatment options in the preclinical stage. Read More

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January 2018

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor expression in clinical pain disorder tissues and role in neuronal sensitization.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e676. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Centre for Clinical Translation, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) is highly expressed in peripheral macrophages and microglia, and is involved in arthritis and cancer pain in animal models. However, there is limited information on GM-CSFR expression in human central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves, or dorsal root ganglia (DRG), particularly in chronic pain conditions.

Objectives: Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify GM-CSFR expression levels in human tissues, and functional sensory effects of GM-CSF were studied in cultured DRG neurons. Read More

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September 2018

Botulinum Toxin A: A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Upper Extremity Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018 Oct 16;6(10):e1847. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Elite Plastic Surgery, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) is a disease that is poorly understood. It is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by sympathetic disruptions as well as CNS sensitization. Botulinum Toxin-A has been shown to have efficacy in Raynaud's as well as other neuropathic pain disorders. Read More

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October 2018

Leptin Functions in Infectious Diseases.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2741. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese () gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Read More

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November 2018

Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 26;12:459. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Morphology of Neuronal Network, Department of Public Medicine, University of Campania-Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Coagulation and the immune system interact in several physiological and pathological conditions, including tissue repair, host defense, and homeostatic maintenance. This network plays a key role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) by involving several cells (CNS resident cells, platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes) and molecular pathways (protease activity, complement factors, platelet granule content). Endothelial damage prompts platelet activation and the coagulation cascade as the first physiological step to support the rescue of damaged tissues, a flawed rescuing system ultimately producing neuroinflammation. Read More

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November 2018
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Contribution of Neurons and Glial Cells to Complement-Mediated Synapse Removal during Development, Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 11;2018:2530414. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, CIBERNED and Departamento de Neurociencias de la Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa, Spain.

Synapse loss is an early manifestation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is currently the best correlate to cognitive decline. Microglial cells are involved in synapse pruning during development via the complement pathway. Moreover, recent evidence points towards a key role played by glial cells in synapse loss during AD. Read More

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November 2018

NEAT1 and paraspeckles in neurodegenerative diseases: A missing lnc found?

Noncoding RNA Res 2018 Dec 15;3(4):243-252. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Medicines Discovery Institute, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom.

Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most common causes of disability worldwide. Although neurodegenerative diseases are heterogeneous in both their clinical features and the underlying physiology, they are all characterised by progressive loss of specific neuronal populations. Recent experimental evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the CNS in health and disease. Read More

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December 2018

Gastrodin exerts robust neuroprotection in the postischemic brain via its protective effect against Zn-toxicity and its anti-oxidative effects in astrocytes.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2018 30;22(6):429-437. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Anatomy, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Gastrodin (GAS) is a predominant bioactive constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Tianma ( Blume). Many authors have reported GAS has the beneficial effect on diverse diseases of the CNS, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia. Here, we report GAS exhibited a robust neuroprotective effect in an Sprague-Dawley rat model of stroke (transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, tMCAO), and show that the underlying molecular mechanism involves its protective effect against Zn-toxicity and its anti-oxidative effects in astrocytes. Read More

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November 2018

Prevalence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy in Upper Egypt (desert areas).

Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg 2018 9;54(1):34. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

2Department of Neurology, Minia University, Minya, Egypt.

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy in children is frequently found in developing countries.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical pattern of childhood and adolescence epilepsy in Upper Egypt.

Methods: This is a door-to-door study conducted on all inhabitants < 18 years in Al Kharga district and Al Qusier city (36,195 subjects). Read More

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November 2018
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Bacteriological survey of bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Vet World 2018 Nov 26;11(10):1506-1509. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background And Aim: Recently, bacterial surveys for mastitis-causing pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) have been conducted in several countries worldwide. However, no such surveys have been reported from Bolivia. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in BTM from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Read More

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November 2018

GDNF-mediated rescue of the nigrostriatal system depends on the degree of degeneration.

Gene Ther 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CNS Gene Therapy, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a promising therapeutic molecule to treat Parkinson's disease. Despite an excellent profile in experimental settings, clinical trials testing GDNF have failed. One of the theories to explain these negative outcomes is that the clinical trials were done in late-stage patients that have advanced nigrostriatal degeneration and may therefore not respond to a neurotrophic factor therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Electrophysiological Recording of The Central Nervous System Activity of Third-Instar Drosophila Melanogaster.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 21(141). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida.

The majority of the currently available insecticides target the nervous system and genetic mutations of invertebrate neural proteins oftentimes yield deleterious consequences, yet the current methods for recording nervous system activity of an individual animal is costly and laborious. This suction electrode preparation of the third-instar larval central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, is a tractable system for testing the physiological effects of neuroactive agents, determining the physiological role of various neural pathways to CNS activity, as well as the influence of genetic mutations to neural function. This ex vivo preparation requires only moderate dissecting skill and electrophysiological expertise to generate reproducible recordings of insect neuronal activity. Read More

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November 2018
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Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number obtained from genome-wide genotype data is associated with neurocognitive impairment in persons with chronic HIV infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number varies by cell type and energy demands. Blood mtDNA copy number has been associated with neurocognitive function in persons without HIV. Low mtDNA copy number may indicate disordered mtDNA replication; high copy number may reflect a response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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November 2018

Proton beam therapy in pediatric oncology.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted.

Recent Findings: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

[Consideration for future in vitro BBB models - technical development to investigate the drug delivery to the CNS].

Authors:
Kaoru Sato

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2018 ;152(6):287-294

National Institute of Health Sciences.

Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) limit the material exchange between blood and parenchyma by blood brain barrier (BBB). At present, no appropriate in vitro BBB models are available for the investigation whether or not the candidate compounds for new drugs could be delivered to the CNS. This causes huge difficulties of the development of CNS drugs and prediction of CNS adverse effects. Read More

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January 2018

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: practical considerations.

Pract Neurol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe University Hospital, Oxford, UK

The field of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases has recently broadened to include a new condition associated with pathogenic serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). This is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). MOG antibody-associated disease phenotypes are varied and range from classical neuromyelitis optica to acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and cortical encephalitis. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal identity: the neuron types of a simple chordate sibling, the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6;56:47-60. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Neurons of the sparsely populated nervous system of the tadpole larva in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, a chordate sibling, are known from sporadic previous studies but especially two recent reports that document the connectome of both the central and peripheral nervous systems at EM level. About 330 CNS cells comprise mostly ciliated ependymal cells, with ∼180 neurons that constitute about 50 morphologically distinguishable types. The neurons reveal various chordate characters amid many features that are idiosyncratic. Read More

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December 2018

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Pathogenesis, treatment, and experimental models.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;27:412-418. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Xichang Road No.295, Kunming 650000, China.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are inflammatory CNS syndromes mainly involving the optic nerve and/or spinal cord and characterized by the presence of serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). The pathology of NMOSD is complicated, while therapies for NMOSD are limited and only partially effective in most cases. This review article focuses on the main pathology of NMOSD involving AQP4-IgG and lymphocyte function. Read More

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December 2018

Follow-up study on Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated central nervous system demyelination.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:4-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype.

Objective: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. Read More

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December 2018

Astrocyte identity: evolutionary perspectives on astrocyte functions and heterogeneity.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 5;56:40-46. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States; Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 145 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States. Electronic address:

The development of new animal models, in vivo isolation approaches, and improvements in genome-wide RNA expression methods have greatly propelled molecular profiling of astrocytes and the characterization of astrocyte heterogeneity in the central nervous system (CNS). Several recent reviews have comprehensively discussed the molecular and functional diversity of mammalian astrocytes. In this brief review, we emphasize interspecies comparisons and an evolutionary perspective regarding the astro(glia) of vertebrates and invertebrates which are similar in form and function. Read More

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December 2018

Spiked helmet pattern ST elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Electrocardiol 2018 Nov 28;52:96-98. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is occasionally associated with the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Missing the true clinical diagnosis can result in inappropriate and harmful interventions. We report the case of a 40-year-old female who was found down. Read More

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November 2018

Minocycline Attenuates Ethanol-induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation in the Developing Spinal Cord.

Alcohol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA; Lexington VA Health Care System, Research & Development, 1101 Veterans Drive, Lexington, Kentucky 40502, USA. Electronic address:

Developmental exposure to ethanol may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and immature central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to ethanol. In addition to the developing brain, we previously showed that ethanol also caused neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. Minocycline is an antibiotic that inhibits microglial activation and alleviates neuroinflammation. Read More

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December 2018

Human Tau isoform-specpan-neuronals in a Drosophila Central Nervous System circuit.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre "Alexander Fleming", 34 Fleming str, Vari 16672, Greece. Electronic address:

Accumulation of normal or mutant human Tau isoforms in Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons of vertebrate and invertebrate models underlies pathologies ranging from behavioral deficits to neurodegeneration that broadly recapitulate human Tauopathies. Although some functional differences have begun to emerge, it is still largely unclear whether normal and mutant Tau isoforms induce differential effects on the synaptic physiology of CNS neurons. We use the oligosynaptic Giant Fiber System in the adult Drosophila CNS to address this question and reveal that 3R and 4R isoforms affect distinct synaptic parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Progression in migraine: role of mast cells and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UOS Clinica dei Pazienti del Territorio, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Migraine is a common painful neurovascular disorder usually associated with several symptoms, such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and inflammation, and involves immune cells. Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells derived from hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells which migrate and mature close to epithelial, blood vessels, and nerves. In almost all vascularized tissues there are MCs that produce, contain and release biologically active products including cytokines, arachidonic acid compounds, and proteases. Read More

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December 2018

Pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus infection in naturally affected Indian pigs.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Pathology, ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Izatnagar, 243 122, U.P, India. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in naturally infected Indian pigs of various age groups. Eight samples (16%) out of 49 necropsied animals were positive for PSV on the basis of pathological and molecular investigation. Major lesions of PSV positive cases were thickening and clouding of meninges, congestion in brain, severe to moderate congestion in lungs along with froathy exudates in trachea, thickening of intestinal mucosa, especially mucosal folds of ileum. Read More

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December 2018

Promising neuroprotective effects of β-caryophyllene against LPS-induced oligodendrocyte toxicity: A mechanistic study.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Student Research Committee, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Myelin loss subsequent to oligodendrocyte death has been reported in a variety of myelin-associated disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to elicit cellular responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger immune infiltrates and glial cells to release a variety of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. LPS-induced oligodendrocytes toxicity may be chosen as an efficient model to evaluate the role of oligodendrocytes in neuroprotective activities of compounds. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Alectinib in Patients with ALK-Positive NSCLC and Symptomatic or Large CNS Metastases.

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Alectinib has demonstrated robust CNS activity in both crizotinib-naïve and crizotinib-resistant settings. However, the CNS efficacy of alectinib has not been established in patients with untreated symptomatic, large CNS metastases. Read More

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December 2018
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