111,909 results match your criteria CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets [Journal]


Engineering Controlled Peritumoral Inflammation to Constrain Brain Tumor Growth.

Adv Healthc Mater 2018 Dec 11:e1801076. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University, 101 Science Drive, Durham, NC, 27705, USA.

Brain tumors remain a great clinical challenge, in part due to their capacity to invade into eloquent, inoperable regions of the brain. In contrast, inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) due to injuries activates microglia and astrocytes culminating in an astroglial scar that typically "walls-off" the injury site. Here, the hypothesis is tested that targeting peritumoral cells surrounding tumors to activate them via an inflammatory stimulus that recapitulates the sequelae of a traumatic CNS injury, could generate an environment that would wall-off and contain invasive tumors in the brain. Read More

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December 2018

A single institutional review of pediatric Bacillus spp. bloodstream infections demonstrates increased incidence among children with cancer.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2018 Dec 11:e27568. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Dana-Farber/Boston Children's Cancer and Blood Disorders Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Bacillus species are known to cause severe infection in immunocompromised hosts. The incidence of Bacillus bloodstream infections and characteristics of infection among children with cancer or indication for hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is unknown.

Methods: We performed a retrospective medical record review of all cases of Bacillus bacteremia between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2014, at Boston Children's Hospital. Read More

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December 2018

The Fyn kinase inhibitor, AZD0530, suppresses mouse alcohol self-administration and seeking.

Addict Biol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Fyn is a member of the Src family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that plays an important role not only in normal synaptic functions but also in brain pathologies including alcohol use disorder. We previously reported that repeated cycles of binge drinking and withdrawal activate Fyn in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of rodents, and that Fyn signaling in the DMS contributes to rat alcohol intake and relapse. Here, we used AZD0530, a CNS penetrable inhibitor of Src PTKs developed for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and cancer and tested its efficacy to suppress alcohol-dependent molecular and behavioral effects. Read More

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December 2018

Inflammasomes in CNS Diseases.

Exp Suppl 2018 ;108:41-60

School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). However, chronic inflammasome activation can eventually result in cellular death and tissue damage, leading to the release of DAMPs that can reactivate the inflammasome, thereby propagating a vicious cycle of inflammation. Read More

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January 2018

Penetration of the blood-brain barrier by peripheral neuropeptides: new approaches to enhancing transport and endogenous expression.

Authors:
M R Lee R D Jayant

Cell Tissue Res 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 79106, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a structural and functional barrier between the interstitial fluid of the brain and the blood; the barrier maintains the precisely controlled biochemical environment that is necessary for neural function. This constellation of endothelial cells, macrophages, pericytes, and astrocytes forms the neurovascular unit which is the structural and functional unit of the blood-brain barrier. Peptides enter and exit the CNS by transport systems expressed by the capillary endothelial cells of the neurovascular unit. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive anatomical and functional imaging in patients with type I neurofibromatosis using simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Hoppe-Seyler-Str.3, 72076, Tuebingen, Germany.

Purpose: To demonstrate the clinical use of FDG-PET/MRI for monitoring enlargement and metabolism of plexiform neurofibromas (PNF) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), in whom the development of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is often a life limiting event.

Methods: NF1 patients who underwent a simultaneous FDG-PET/MRI examination in our institution from September 2012 to February 2018 were included. Indication was suspicion of malignant transformation of a PNF to MPNST. Read More

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December 2018

Assessment of Clinically Meaningful Improvements in Self-Reported Walking Ability in Participants with Multiple Sclerosis: Results from the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III ENHANCE Trial of Prolonged-Release Fampridine.

CNS Drugs 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: Walking impairment is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS). It affects > 90% of individuals over time, reducing independence and negatively impacting health-related quality of life, productivity, and daily activities. Walking impairment is consistently reported as one of the most distressing impairments by individuals with MS. Read More

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December 2018

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of CNS penetration of efavirenz and its metabolites.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2018 Dec 10. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: There are limited data on the pharmacogenetics and pharmacokinetics of the CNS penetration of efavirenz.

Objectives: We investigated genetic polymorphisms associated with CSF concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites and explored the relationships with neurocognitive performance.

Methods: We included 47 HIV-infected South African black adults with and without HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder on efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine and collected paired plasma-CSF samples. Read More

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December 2018
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The Role of Standard and Advanced Imaging for the Management of Brain Malignancies From a Radiation Oncology Standpoint.

Neurosurgery 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Radiation therapy (RT) plays a critical role in the overall management of many central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Advances in RT treatment planning, with techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery, now allow the delivery of highly conformal dose with great precision. These techniques rely on high-resolution 3-dimensional anatomical imaging modalities such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to accurately and reliably define CNS targets and normal tissue avoidance structures. Read More

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December 2018

Clinical and genetic diversity of congenital hyperammonemia.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):945-948

Department of Preclinical Disciplines, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Romania;

Congenital hyperammonemia (HA) due to inborn errors of metabolism is a rare condition with a high rate of mortality. The main effects occur at the central nervous system (CNS) level, being neurotoxic by alteration of the neurotransmitter function. HA can be triggered by an inappropriate diet, infection or stress, but can also occur without a precise cause. Read More

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January 2018

Cerebrolysin increases motor recovery and decreases inflammation in a mouse model of autoimmune encephalitis.

Rom J Morphol Embryol 2018 ;59(3):755-762

Department of Research Methodology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Romania;

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) mouse model reproduces the pathological features of the human disease, and is a widely used model used for studying the pathology and different treatment options in the preclinical stage. Read More

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January 2018

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor expression in clinical pain disorder tissues and role in neuronal sensitization.

Pain Rep 2018 Sep-Oct;3(5):e676. Epub 2018 Sep 17.

Peripheral Neuropathy Unit, Centre for Clinical Translation, Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) is highly expressed in peripheral macrophages and microglia, and is involved in arthritis and cancer pain in animal models. However, there is limited information on GM-CSFR expression in human central nervous system (CNS), peripheral nerves, or dorsal root ganglia (DRG), particularly in chronic pain conditions.

Objectives: Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify GM-CSFR expression levels in human tissues, and functional sensory effects of GM-CSF were studied in cultured DRG neurons. Read More

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September 2018

Botulinum Toxin A: A Novel Therapeutic Modality for Upper Extremity Chronic Regional Pain Syndrome.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2018 Oct 16;6(10):e1847. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

Elite Plastic Surgery, Phoenix, Arizona.

Background: Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) is a disease that is poorly understood. It is a chronic pain syndrome characterized by sympathetic disruptions as well as CNS sensitization. Botulinum Toxin-A has been shown to have efficacy in Raynaud's as well as other neuropathic pain disorders. Read More

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October 2018

Leptin Functions in Infectious Diseases.

Front Immunol 2018 26;9:2741. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Division of Emerging and Transfusion Transmitted Diseases, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States.

Leptin, a pleiotropic protein has long been recognized to play an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, metabolism, neuroendocrine function, and other physiological functions through its effects on the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral tissues. Leptin is secreted by adipose tissue and encoded by the obese () gene. Leptin acts as a central mediator which regulates immunity as well as nutrition. Read More

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November 2018

Neuro-Immune Hemostasis: Homeostasis and Diseases in the Central Nervous System.

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 26;12:459. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Laboratory of Morphology of Neuronal Network, Department of Public Medicine, University of Campania-Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Coagulation and the immune system interact in several physiological and pathological conditions, including tissue repair, host defense, and homeostatic maintenance. This network plays a key role in diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) by involving several cells (CNS resident cells, platelets, endothelium, and leukocytes) and molecular pathways (protease activity, complement factors, platelet granule content). Endothelial damage prompts platelet activation and the coagulation cascade as the first physiological step to support the rescue of damaged tissues, a flawed rescuing system ultimately producing neuroinflammation. Read More

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November 2018
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Contribution of Neurons and Glial Cells to Complement-Mediated Synapse Removal during Development, Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease.

Mediators Inflamm 2018 11;2018:2530414. Epub 2018 Nov 11.

Achucarro Basque Center for Neuroscience, CIBERNED and Departamento de Neurociencias de la Universidad del País Vasco UPV/EHU, E-48940 Leioa, Spain.

Synapse loss is an early manifestation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is currently the best correlate to cognitive decline. Microglial cells are involved in synapse pruning during development via the complement pathway. Moreover, recent evidence points towards a key role played by glial cells in synapse loss during AD. Read More

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November 2018

NEAT1 and paraspeckles in neurodegenerative diseases: A missing lnc found?

Noncoding RNA Res 2018 Dec 15;3(4):243-252. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Medicines Discovery Institute, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Park Place, Cardiff, CF10 3AT, United Kingdom.

Neurodegenerative diseases are among the most common causes of disability worldwide. Although neurodegenerative diseases are heterogeneous in both their clinical features and the underlying physiology, they are all characterised by progressive loss of specific neuronal populations. Recent experimental evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the CNS in health and disease. Read More

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December 2018

Gastrodin exerts robust neuroprotection in the postischemic brain via its protective effect against Zn-toxicity and its anti-oxidative effects in astrocytes.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2018 30;22(6):429-437. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Department of Anatomy, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Gastrodin (GAS) is a predominant bioactive constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Tianma ( Blume). Many authors have reported GAS has the beneficial effect on diverse diseases of the CNS, including epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia. Here, we report GAS exhibited a robust neuroprotective effect in an Sprague-Dawley rat model of stroke (transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, tMCAO), and show that the underlying molecular mechanism involves its protective effect against Zn-toxicity and its anti-oxidative effects in astrocytes. Read More

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November 2018

Prevalence of childhood and adolescence epilepsy in Upper Egypt (desert areas).

Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg 2018 9;54(1):34. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

2Department of Neurology, Minia University, Minya, Egypt.

Background: A high prevalence of epilepsy in children is frequently found in developing countries.

Objective: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical pattern of childhood and adolescence epilepsy in Upper Egypt.

Methods: This is a door-to-door study conducted on all inhabitants < 18 years in Al Kharga district and Al Qusier city (36,195 subjects). Read More

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November 2018

Bacteriological survey of bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

Vet World 2018 Nov 26;11(10):1506-1509. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background And Aim: Recently, bacterial surveys for mastitis-causing pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) have been conducted in several countries worldwide. However, no such surveys have been reported from Bolivia. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in BTM from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Read More

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November 2018

GDNF-mediated rescue of the nigrostriatal system depends on the degree of degeneration.

Gene Ther 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

CNS Gene Therapy, Department of Experimental Medical Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Glial cell-line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a promising therapeutic molecule to treat Parkinson's disease. Despite an excellent profile in experimental settings, clinical trials testing GDNF have failed. One of the theories to explain these negative outcomes is that the clinical trials were done in late-stage patients that have advanced nigrostriatal degeneration and may therefore not respond to a neurotrophic factor therapy. Read More

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December 2018

Electrophysiological Recording of The Central Nervous System Activity of Third-Instar Drosophila Melanogaster.

J Vis Exp 2018 Nov 21(141). Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Entomology and Nematology, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida.

The majority of the currently available insecticides target the nervous system and genetic mutations of invertebrate neural proteins oftentimes yield deleterious consequences, yet the current methods for recording nervous system activity of an individual animal is costly and laborious. This suction electrode preparation of the third-instar larval central nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, is a tractable system for testing the physiological effects of neuroactive agents, determining the physiological role of various neural pathways to CNS activity, as well as the influence of genetic mutations to neural function. This ex vivo preparation requires only moderate dissecting skill and electrophysiological expertise to generate reproducible recordings of insect neuronal activity. Read More

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November 2018

Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number obtained from genome-wide genotype data is associated with neurocognitive impairment in persons with chronic HIV infection.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Nov 29. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN.

Background: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number varies by cell type and energy demands. Blood mtDNA copy number has been associated with neurocognitive function in persons without HIV. Low mtDNA copy number may indicate disordered mtDNA replication; high copy number may reflect a response to mitochondrial dysfunction. Read More

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November 2018

Proton beam therapy in pediatric oncology.

Curr Opin Pediatr 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The advent of proton beam therapy (PBT) has initiated a paradigm shift in the field of pediatric radiation oncology, with increasing promise to alleviate both short-term and long-term toxicities. Given the dramatic rise in proton therapy centers in the United States, a discussion of the quality of evidence supporting its use in pediatric cancers is warranted.

Recent Findings: Proton radiotherapy appears to decrease the incidence and severity of late effects with the strongest evidence in pediatric brain tumor cohorts that shows benefits in neurocognitive, hearing, and endocrine outcomes. Read More

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December 2018

[Consideration for future in vitro BBB models - technical development to investigate the drug delivery to the CNS].

Authors:
Kaoru Sato

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2018 ;152(6):287-294

National Institute of Health Sciences.

Blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS) limit the material exchange between blood and parenchyma by blood brain barrier (BBB). At present, no appropriate in vitro BBB models are available for the investigation whether or not the candidate compounds for new drugs could be delivered to the CNS. This causes huge difficulties of the development of CNS drugs and prediction of CNS adverse effects. Read More

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January 2018

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-associated disease: practical considerations.

Pract Neurol 2018 Dec 8. Epub 2018 Dec 8.

Department of Clinical Neurology, John Radcliffe University Hospital, Oxford, UK

The field of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases has recently broadened to include a new condition associated with pathogenic serum antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). This is distinct from multiple sclerosis (MS) and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). MOG antibody-associated disease phenotypes are varied and range from classical neuromyelitis optica to acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis and cortical encephalitis. Read More

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December 2018

Neuronal identity: the neuron types of a simple chordate sibling, the tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 6;56:47-60. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Life Sciences Centre, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2, Canada. Electronic address:

Neurons of the sparsely populated nervous system of the tadpole larva in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, a chordate sibling, are known from sporadic previous studies but especially two recent reports that document the connectome of both the central and peripheral nervous systems at EM level. About 330 CNS cells comprise mostly ciliated ependymal cells, with ∼180 neurons that constitute about 50 morphologically distinguishable types. The neurons reveal various chordate characters amid many features that are idiosyncratic. Read More

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December 2018

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: Pathogenesis, treatment, and experimental models.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;27:412-418. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Neurology, Xichang Road No.295, Kunming 650000, China.

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are inflammatory CNS syndromes mainly involving the optic nerve and/or spinal cord and characterized by the presence of serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). The pathology of NMOSD is complicated, while therapies for NMOSD are limited and only partially effective in most cases. This review article focuses on the main pathology of NMOSD involving AQP4-IgG and lymphocyte function. Read More

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December 2018

Follow-up study on Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated central nervous system demyelination.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2018 Dec 3;28:4-10. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Some studies have reported clinical features of relapsing MOG-IgG-associated CNS demyelination principally in Caucasians children. It is not clear whether Chinese children share the same phenotype.

Objective: To delineate the clinical characteristics in Chinese children with relapsing MOG-IgG-associated demyelination. Read More

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December 2018

Astrocyte identity: evolutionary perspectives on astrocyte functions and heterogeneity.

Curr Opin Neurobiol 2018 Dec 5;56:40-46. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, 136 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States; Sackler School of Biomedical Sciences, Tufts University, 145 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA, 02111, United States. Electronic address:

The development of new animal models, in vivo isolation approaches, and improvements in genome-wide RNA expression methods have greatly propelled molecular profiling of astrocytes and the characterization of astrocyte heterogeneity in the central nervous system (CNS). Several recent reviews have comprehensively discussed the molecular and functional diversity of mammalian astrocytes. In this brief review, we emphasize interspecies comparisons and an evolutionary perspective regarding the astro(glia) of vertebrates and invertebrates which are similar in form and function. Read More

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December 2018

Spiked helmet pattern ST elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Electrocardiol 2018 Nov 28;52:96-98. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Carolinas Medical Center, Charlotte, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is occasionally associated with the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Missing the true clinical diagnosis can result in inappropriate and harmful interventions. We report the case of a 40-year-old female who was found down. Read More

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November 2018

Minocycline Attenuates Ethanol-induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation in the Developing Spinal Cord.

Alcohol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA; Lexington VA Health Care System, Research & Development, 1101 Veterans Drive, Lexington, Kentucky 40502, USA. Electronic address:

Developmental exposure to ethanol may cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), and immature central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to ethanol. In addition to the developing brain, we previously showed that ethanol also caused neuroapoptosis, microglial activation, and neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. Minocycline is an antibiotic that inhibits microglial activation and alleviates neuroinflammation. Read More

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December 2018

Human Tau isoform-specpan-neuronals in a Drosophila Central Nervous System circuit.

Neurobiol Dis 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Division of Neuroscience, Biomedical Sciences Research Centre "Alexander Fleming", 34 Fleming str, Vari 16672, Greece. Electronic address:

Accumulation of normal or mutant human Tau isoforms in Central Nervous System (CNS) neurons of vertebrate and invertebrate models underlies pathologies ranging from behavioral deficits to neurodegeneration that broadly recapitulate human Tauopathies. Although some functional differences have begun to emerge, it is still largely unclear whether normal and mutant Tau isoforms induce differential effects on the synaptic physiology of CNS neurons. We use the oligosynaptic Giant Fiber System in the adult Drosophila CNS to address this question and reveal that 3R and 4R isoforms affect distinct synaptic parameters. Read More

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December 2018

Progression in migraine: role of mast cells and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Eur J Pharmacol 2018 Dec 6. Epub 2018 Dec 6.

UOS Clinica dei Pazienti del Territorio, Policlinico Gemelli, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Migraine is a common painful neurovascular disorder usually associated with several symptoms, such as photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, vomiting and inflammation, and involves immune cells. Mast cells (MCs) are immune cells derived from hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells which migrate and mature close to epithelial, blood vessels, and nerves. In almost all vascularized tissues there are MCs that produce, contain and release biologically active products including cytokines, arachidonic acid compounds, and proteases. Read More

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December 2018

Pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus infection in naturally affected Indian pigs.

Microb Pathog 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Pathology, ICAR- Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly, Izatnagar, 243 122, U.P, India. Electronic address:

The aim of the present study was to pathological and molecular investigation of porcine sapelovirus (PSV) in naturally infected Indian pigs of various age groups. Eight samples (16%) out of 49 necropsied animals were positive for PSV on the basis of pathological and molecular investigation. Major lesions of PSV positive cases were thickening and clouding of meninges, congestion in brain, severe to moderate congestion in lungs along with froathy exudates in trachea, thickening of intestinal mucosa, especially mucosal folds of ileum. Read More

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December 2018

Promising neuroprotective effects of β-caryophyllene against LPS-induced oligodendrocyte toxicity: A mechanistic study.

Biochem Pharmacol 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Student Research Committee, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Pharmacological Research Center of Medicinal Plants, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Myelin loss subsequent to oligodendrocyte death has been reported in a variety of myelin-associated disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to elicit cellular responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and trigger immune infiltrates and glial cells to release a variety of inflammatory cytokines and mediators. LPS-induced oligodendrocytes toxicity may be chosen as an efficient model to evaluate the role of oligodendrocytes in neuroprotective activities of compounds. Read More

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December 2018

Efficacy of Alectinib in Patients with ALK-Positive NSCLC and Symptomatic or Large CNS Metastases.

J Thorac Oncol 2018 Dec 7. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center and Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) metastases represent a significant source of morbidity and mortality for patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Alectinib has demonstrated robust CNS activity in both crizotinib-naïve and crizotinib-resistant settings. However, the CNS efficacy of alectinib has not been established in patients with untreated symptomatic, large CNS metastases. Read More

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December 2018

The effect of Pyrroloquinoline quinone and Resveratrol on the Survival and Regeneration of Cerebellar Granular Neurons.

Neurosci Lett 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Biochemistry, German University in Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

The inability of central nervous system (CNS) to regenerate following traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be attributed to apoptotic cell death, inhibitory extrinsic environment and the limited ability of neurons to regenerate. Thus, fostering the intrinsic regenerative potential and minimizing neuronal cell death could be a promising therapeutic approach. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was previously reported for its neuroprotective and regenerative potential on peripheral nerves. Read More

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December 2018
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Mortality risk factors for listeriosis - a 10 year review of non-pregnancy associated cases in England 2006-2015.

J Infect 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Reference Microbiology Services, National Infection Service, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ. Electronic address:

Listeriosis is a foodborne illness that can result in septicaemia, Central Nervous System (CNS) disease, foetal loss and death in high risk patients.

Objectives: To analyse the demographic trends, clinical features and treatment of non-perinatal listeriosis cases over a ten year period and identify mortality-associated risk factors.

Methods: Reported laboratory-confirmed non-pregnancy associated cases of listeriosis between 2006 and 2015 in England were included and retrospectively analysed. Read More

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December 2018

H4 receptor inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation by interacting with tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6.

Neuroscience 2018 Dec 4. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Pathophysiology, Medical College of Nantong University, 19 Qixiu Street, Nantong 226001, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are activated at the beginning of the inflammatory response and induce detrimental neuroinflammation by producing excessive pro-inflammatory cytokines. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling facilitates the onset of microglia activation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the negative regulation of NF-κB remain to be fully elucidated. Read More

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December 2018

The CNS Immune-Privilege Goes Down the Drain(age).

Trends Pharmacol Sci 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Ongoing research is revealing multiple, previously unappreciated, facets of immunity in the central nervous system, and the recent studies on the meningeal lymphatic system represent an emblematic example. In this context, a paper from Louveau and colleagues (Nat. Neurosci. Read More

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December 2018

Intrathecal Central Nervous System Prophylaxis in Patients With Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma at an Academic Healthcare System.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2018 Nov 17. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine and Winship Cancer Institute, Atlanta, GA.

Introduction: Intrathecal chemoprophylaxis is often administered to patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) to lower the rates of central nervous system (CNS) relapse, although its benefit has not been well-described. Prognostic models, including the CNS-International Prognostic Index (IPI), have been developed to aid in identifying patients at highest risk for CNS relapse.

Patients And Methods: We evaluated 112 patients diagnosed with DLBCL from 2009 to 2016 at Emory Healthcare and classified them as high (n = 44) or low risk (n = 68) for CNS relapse and compared CNS prophylaxis rates and relapse rates between groups. Read More

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November 2018

TRIM8-driven transcriptomic profile of neural stem cells identified glioma-related nodal genes and pathways.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2018 Dec 5. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

Division of Medical Genetics, IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, Viale Padre Pio, 71013, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: We recently reported TRIM8, encoding an E3 ubiquitin ligase, as a gene aberrantly expressed in glioblastoma whose expression suppresses cell growth and induces a significant reduction of clonogenic potential in glioblastoma cell lines.

Methods: we provided novel insights on TRIM8 functions by profiling the transcriptome of TRIM8-expressing primary mouse embryonal neural stem cells by RNA-sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. Functional analysis including luciferase assay, western blot, PCR arrays, Real time quantitative PCR were performed to validate the transcriptomic data. Read More

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December 2018

Comprehensive behavioral and biochemical outcomes of novel murine models of GM1-gangliosidosis and Morquio syndrome type B.

Mol Genet Metab 2018 Nov 22. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Gene Therapy Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States; Molecular, Cellular, Developmental Biology, and Genetics Graduate Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address:

Deficiencies in the lysosomal hydrolase β-galactosidase (β-gal) lead to two distinct diseases: the skeletal disease Morquio syndrome type B, and the neurodegenerative disease GM1-gangliosidosis. Utilizing CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, the mouse β-gal encoding gene, Glb1, was targeted to generate both models of β-gal deficiency in a single experiment. For Morquio syndrome type B, the common human missense mutation W273L (position 274 in mice) was introduced into the Glb1 gene (Glb1), while for GM1-gangliosidosis, a 20 bp mutation was generated to remove the catalytic nucleophile of β-gal (β-gal). Read More

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November 2018

Hydrogen sulfide: Therapeutic or injurious in ischemic stroke?

Pathophysiology 2018 Nov 12. Epub 2018 Nov 12.

Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA, 71130-3932, USA. Electronic address:

Hydrogen sulfide (HS) has been identified as a vasodilatory, neuromodulatory, and anti-inflammatory gasotransmitter with antioxidant properties. Studies focused in cardiac tissue suggest HS functions as a protective agent; however in the central nervous system (CNS) the effects of HS during states of stress or injury, such as stroke, remain controversial. Currently, the application of HS donors and modulators in stroke depends on the type of HS donor and the timing of the therapy. Read More

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November 2018
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Cligosiban, A Novel Brain-Penetrant, Selective Oxytocin Receptor Antagonist, Inhibits Ejaculatory Physiology in Rodents.

J Sex Med 2018 Dec;15(12):1698-1706

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Sexual Health Therapeutic Area, Sandwich, United Kingdom; Ixchelsis Ltd, Sandwich, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Introduction: Few treatments are available for men with premature ejaculation (PE); oxytocin (OT) receptor antagonism in the central nervous system (CNS) is a potential new approach.

Aim: To determine if cligosiban selectively inhibits human OT receptors, penetrates the CNS, shows pharmacology in the CNS, and effects ejaculatory physiology in pre-clinical systems.

Methods: Experiments complied with United Kingdom legislation and were subject to local ethical review. Read More

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December 2018

Convergence of monosynaptic and polysynaptic sensory paths onto common motor outputs in a feeding connectome.

Elife 2018 Dec 11;7. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Molecular Brain Physiology and Behavior, LIMES Institute, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

We reconstructed, from a whole CNS EM volume, the synaptic map of input and output neurons that underlie food intake behavior of larvae. Input neurons originate from enteric, pharyngeal and external sensory organs and converge onto seven distinct sensory synaptic compartments within the CNS. Output neurons consist of feeding motor, serotonergic modulatory and neuroendocrine neurons. Read More

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December 2018

Primary intradiploic epidermoid cyst: A case report with literature review.

Clin Neuropathol 2018 Dec 11. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Primary intradiploic epidermoid cyst of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare disease. More than 200 cases have been reported so far. The lesion can affect every flat bone of the cranium. Read More

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December 2018

Retinal degeneration is associated with brain volume reduction and prognosis in radiologically isolated syndrome.

Mult Scler 2018 Dec 11:1352458518817987. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Neurology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background:: The extent of neurodegeneration in the earliest stages of central nervous system (CNS) demyelination is not known. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful tool to study neurodegeneration in demyelinating disorders.

Objectives:: To study neuroaxonal loss in the retina of individuals with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) and investigate whether OCT measurements are associated with brain volumetrics and clinical conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS). Read More

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December 2018