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    761 results match your criteria CBE life sciences education[Journal]

    1 OF 16

    Building Better Bridges into STEM: A Synthesis of 25 Years of Literature on STEM Summer Bridge Programs.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    Biology Education Research Lab, School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281
    Summer bridge programs are designed to help transition students into the college learning environment. Increasingly, bridge programs are being developed in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines because of the rigorous content and lower student persistence in college STEM compared with other disciplines. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive review of STEM summer bridge programs does not exist. Read More

    Students in Fully Online Programs Report More Positive Attitudes toward Science Than Students in Traditional, In-Person Programs.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6004.
    Following the growth of online, higher-education courses, academic institutions are now offering fully online degree programs. Yet it is not clear how students who enroll in fully online degree programs are similar to those students who enroll in in-person ("traditional") degree programs. Because previous work has shown students' attitudes toward science can affect their performance in a course, it is valuable to ask how attitudes toward science differ between these two populations. Read More

    The Relative Effect of Team-Based Learning on Motivation and Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, 5036 Bergen, Norway.
    We investigate the effects of team-based learning (TBL) on motivation and learning in a quasi-experimental study. The study employs a self-determination theory perspective to investigate the motivational effects of implementing TBL in a physiotherapy course in higher education. We adopted a one-group pretest-posttest design. Read More

    The Effects of Practice-Based Training on Graduate Teaching Assistants' Classroom Practices.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    Center for Educational Effectiveness, Department of Undergraduate Education.
    Evidence-based teaching is a highly complex skill, requiring repeated cycles of deliberate practice and feedback to master. Despite existing well-characterized frameworks for practice-based training in K-12 teacher education, the major principles of these frameworks have not yet been transferred to instructor development in higher educational contexts, including training of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). We sought to determine whether a practice-based training program could help GTAs learn and use evidence-based teaching methods in their classrooms. Read More

    A Vision and Change Reform of Introductory Biology Shifts Faculty Perceptions and Use of Active Learning.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
    Increasing faculty use of active-learning (AL) pedagogies in college classrooms is a persistent challenge in biology education. A large research-intensive university implemented changes to its biology majors' two-course introductory sequence as outlined by the Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report. One goal of the curricular reform was to integrate core biological concepts and competencies into the courses using AL pedagogical approaches. Read More

    Enhancing Diversity in Undergraduate Science: Self-Efficacy Drives Performance Gains with Active Learning.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(4)
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
    Efforts to retain underrepresented minority (URM) students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) have shown only limited success in higher education, due in part to a persistent achievement gap between students from historically underrepresented and well-represented backgrounds. To test the hypothesis that active learning disproportionately benefits URM students, we quantified the effects of traditional versus active learning on student academic performance, science self-efficacy, and sense of social belonging in a large (more than 250 students) introductory STEM course. A transition to active learning closed the gap in learning gains between non-URM and URM students and led to an increase in science self-efficacy for all students. Read More

    Investigating Undergraduate Students' Use of Intuitive Reasoning and Evolutionary Knowledge in Explanations of Antibiotic Resistance.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    SEPAL: The Science Education Partnership and Assessment Laboratory, Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132
    Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Read More

    What Motivates Biology Instructors to Engage and Persist in Teaching Professional Development?
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
    We conducted a study of 19 biology instructors participating in small, local groups at six research-intensive universities connected to the Automated Analysis of Constructed Response (AACR) project (www.msu.edu/∼aacr). Read More

    Reflecting on Graphs: Attributes of Graph Choice and Construction Practices in Biology.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907
    Undergraduate biology education reform aims to engage students in scientific practices such as experimental design, experimentation, and data analysis and communication. Graphs are ubiquitous in the biological sciences, and creating effective graphical representations involves quantitative and disciplinary concepts and skills. Past studies document student difficulties with graphing within the contexts of classroom or national assessments without evaluating student reasoning. Read More

    Investigating Novice and Expert Conceptions of Genetically Modified Organisms.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132
    The aspiration of biology education is to give students tools to apply knowledge learned in the classroom to everyday life. Genetic modification is a real-world biological concept that relies on an in-depth understanding of the molecular behavior of DNA and proteins. This study investigated undergraduate biology students' conceptions of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when probed with real-world, molecular and cellular, and essentialist cues, and how those conceptions compared across biology expertise. Read More

    Providing Experiential Business and Management Training for Biomedical Research Trainees.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Office of Biomedical Research Education and Training, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232
    Many biomedical PhD trainees lack exposure to business principles, which limits their competitiveness and effectiveness in academic and industry careers. To fill this training gap, we developed Business and Management Principles for Scientists, a semester-long program that combined didactic exposure to business fundamentals with practical team-based projects aimed at solving real business problems encountered by institutional shared--resource core facilities. The program also included a retreat featuring presentations by and networking with local life science entrepreneurs and final team presentations to expert judges. Read More

    The DNA Triangle and Its Application to Learning Meiosis.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623.
    Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle The DNA triangle integrates three distinct scales at which one can think about DNA: chromosomal, molecular, and informational Through analysis of interview and survey data from biology faculty and students through the lens of the DNA triangle, we illustrate important differences in how novices and experts are able to explain the concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing Similarly, analysis of passages from 16 different biology textbooks shows a large divide between introductory and advanced material, with introductory books omitting explanations of meiosis-linked concepts at the molecular level of DNA. Finally, backed by textbook findings and feedback from biology experts, we show that the DNA triangle can be applied to teaching and learning meiosis. Read More

    Do Biology Students Really Hate Math? Empirical Insights into Undergraduate Life Science Majors' Emotions about Mathematics.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
    Undergraduate life science majors are reputed to have negative emotions toward mathematics, yet little empirical evidence supports this. We sought to compare emotions of majors in the life sciences versus other natural sciences and math. We adapted the Attitudes toward the Subject of Chemistry Inventory to create an Attitudes toward the Subject of Mathematics Inventory (ASMI). Read More

    Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biology Teaching and Learning, College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Read More

    Gender, Math Confidence, and Grit: Relationships with Quantitative Skills and Performance in an Undergraduate Biology Course.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Calgary Board of Education, Calgary, AB T2R 0L4, Canada.
    In a world filled with big data, mathematical models, and statistics, the development of strong quantitative skills is becoming increasingly critical for modern biologists. Teachers in this field must understand how students acquire quantitative skills and explore barriers experienced by students when developing these skills. In this study, we examine the interrelationships among gender, grit, and math confidence for student performance on a pre-post quantitative skills assessment and overall performance in an undergraduate biology course. Read More

    Improving Exam Performance in Introductory Biology through the Use of Preclass Reading Guides.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Developmental and Cell Biology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697
    High-structure courses or flipped courses require students to obtain course content before class so that class time can be used for active-learning exercises. While textbooks are used ubiquitously in college biology courses for content dissemination, studies have shown that students frequently do not read their textbooks. To address this issue, we created preclass reading guides that provided students with a way to actively engage with the required reading for each day of class. Read More

    The Math-Biology Values Instrument: Development of a Tool to Measure Life Science Majors' Task Values of Using Math in the Context of Biology.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824
    In response to calls to improve the quantitative training of undergraduate biology students, there have been increased efforts to better integrate math into biology curricula. One challenge of such efforts is negative student attitudes toward math, which are thought to be particularly prevalent among biology students. According to theory, students' personal values toward using math in a biological context will influence their achievement and behavioral outcomes, but a validated instrument is needed to determine this empirically. Read More

    Mentoring Interventions for Underrepresented Scholars in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences: Effects on Quality of Mentoring Interactions and Discussions.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Clinical and Social Science in Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627.
    Mentors rarely receive education about the unique needs of underrepresented scholars in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. We hypothesized that mentor-training and peer-mentoring interventions for these scholars would enrich the perceived quality and breadth of discussions between mentor-protégé dyads (i.e. Read More

    Effectiveness of a Low-Cost, Graduate Student-Led Intervention on Study Habits and Performance in Introductory Biology.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056.
    Institutions have developed diverse approaches that vary in effectiveness and cost to improve student performance in introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses. We developed a low-cost, graduate student-led, metacognition-based study skills course taught in conjunction with the introductory biology series at Miami University. Our approach aimed to improve performance for underachieving students by combining an existing framework for the process of learning (the study cycle) with concrete tools (outlines and concept maps) that have been shown to encourage deep understanding. Read More

    Increasing Research Productivity in Undergraduate Research Experiences: Exploring Predictors of Collaborative Faculty-Student Publications.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968.
    Little attention has been paid to understanding faculty-student productivity via undergraduate research from the faculty member's perspective. This study examines predictors of faculty-student publications resulting from mentored undergraduate research, including measures of faculty-student collaboration, faculty commitment to undergraduate students, and faculty characteristics. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze data from 468 faculty members across 13 research-intensive institutions, collected by a cross-sectional survey in 2013/2014. Read More

    Values Affirmation Intervention Reduces Achievement Gap between Underrepresented Minority and White Students in Introductory Biology Classes.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195.
    Achievement gaps between underrepresented minority (URM) students and their white peers in college science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms are persistent across many white-majority institutions of higher education. Attempts to reduce this phenomenon of underperformance through increasing classroom structure via active learning have been partially successful. In this study, we address the hypothesis that the achievement gap between white and URM students in an undergraduate biology course has a psychological and emotional component arising from stereotype threat. Read More

    Introductory Biology Students' Use of Enhanced Answer Keys and Reflection Questions to Engage in Metacognition and Enhance Understanding.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(3)
    School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68583.
    Providing feedback to students as they learn to integrate individual concepts into complex systems is an important way to help them to develop robust understanding, but it is challenging in large, undergraduate classes for instructors to provide feedback that is frequent and directed enough to help individual students. Various scaffolds can be used to help students engage in self-regulated learning and generate internal feedback to improve their learning. This study examined the use of enhanced answer keys with added reflection questions and instruction as scaffolds for engaging undergraduate students in self-regulated learning within an introductory biology course. Read More

    Checking Equity: Why Differential Item Functioning Analysis Should Be a Routine Part of Developing Conceptual Assessments.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    School of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, University of Washington, Bothell, Bothell, WA 98011.
    We provide a tutorial on differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, an analytic method useful for identifying potentially biased items in assessments. After explaining a number of methodological approaches, we test for gender bias in two scenarios that demonstrate why DIF analysis is crucial for developing assessments, particularly because simply comparing two groups' total scores can lead to incorrect conclusions about test fairness. First, a significant difference between groups on total scores can exist even when items are not biased, as we illustrate with data collected during the validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory. Read More

    How Do You Like Your Science, Wet or Dry? How Two Lab Experiences Influence Student Understanding of Science Concepts and Perceptions of Authentic Scientific Practice.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Knuth Research, Inc., Spokane, WA 99208.
    This study examines how two kinds of authentic research experiences related to smoking behavior-genotyping human DNA (wet lab) and using a database to test hypotheses about factors that affect smoking behavior (dry lab)-influence students' perceptions and understanding of scientific research and related science concepts. The study used pre and post surveys and a focus group protocol to compare students who conducted the research experiences in one of two sequences: genotyping before database and database before genotyping. Students rated the genotyping experiment to be more like real science than the database experiment, in spite of the fact that they associated more scientific tasks with the database experience than genotyping. Read More

    University Students' Conceptual Knowledge of Randomness and Probability in the Contexts of Evolution and Mathematics.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biology Education, Leibniz Institute for Science and Mathematics Education at Kiel University, 24118 Kiel, Germany.
    Students of all ages face severe conceptual difficulties regarding key aspects of evolution-the central, unifying, and overarching theme in biology. Aspects strongly related to abstract "threshold" concepts like randomness and probability appear to pose particular difficulties. A further problem is the lack of an appropriate instrument for assessing students' conceptual knowledge of randomness and probability in the context of evolution. Read More

    Examining Summer Laboratory Research Apprenticeships for High School Students as a Factor in Entry to MD/PhD Programs at Matriculation.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904.
    Do summer laboratory research apprenticeships during high school have an impact on entry into MD/PhD programs? Apart from the nearly decade-long span of time between high school and matriculation into an MD/PhD program, young people have many life-shaping experiences that presumably impact their education and career trajectories. This quantitative study (n = 236,432) examines the connection between early laboratory research apprenticeship experiences at the high school level and matriculation into one of the more rigorous educational programs for scientific research training. The span of time covered by this analysis reaches across more than a decade, examining the potential importance of research experiences during the precollege years in the educational trajectory of young people. Read More

    Evaluating Psychosocial Mechanisms Underlying STEM Persistence in Undergraduates: Evidence of Impact from a Six-Day Pre-College Engagement STEM Academy Program.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Cell Biology, Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620
    The persistence of undergraduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national issue based on STEM workforce projections. We implemented a weeklong pre-college engagement STEM Academy (SA) program aimed at addressing several areas related to STEM retention. We validated an instrument that was developed based on existing, validated measures and examined several psychosocial constructs related to STEM (science identity, self-efficacy, sense of belonging to the university and to STEM, career expectancies, and intention to leave STEM majors) before and after the program. Read More

    Development and Validation of the Homeostasis Concept Inventory.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biology, Canisius College, Buffalo, NY 14208.
    We present the Homeostasis Concept Inventory (HCI), a 20-item multiple-choice instrument that assesses how well undergraduates understand this critical physiological concept. We used an iterative process to develop a set of questions based on elements in the Homeostasis Concept Framework. This process involved faculty experts and undergraduate students from associate's colleges, primarily undergraduate institutions, regional and research-intensive universities, and professional schools. Read More

    Race and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Research Mentoring Structures and Research Outcomes.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
    Participating in undergraduate research with mentorship from faculty may be particularly important for ensuring the persistence of women and minority students in science. Yet many life science undergraduates at research universities are mentored by graduate or postdoctoral researchers (i.e. Read More

    An Analysis of the Perceptions and Resources of Large University Classes.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
    Large class learning is a reality that is not exclusive to the first-year experience at midsized, comprehensive universities; upper-year courses have similarly high enrollment, with many class sizes greater than 200 students. Research into the efficacy and deficiencies of large undergraduate classes has been ongoing for more than 100 years, with most research associating large classes with weak student engagement, decreased depth of learning, and ineffective interactions. This study used a multidimensional research approach to survey student and instructor perceptions of large biology classes and to characterize the courses offered by a department according to resources and course structure using a categorical principal components analysis. Read More

    ASPECT: A Survey to Assess Student Perspective of Engagement in an Active-Learning Classroom.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1800
    The primary measure used to determine relative effectiveness of in-class activities has been student performance on pre/posttests. However, in today's active-learning classrooms, learning is a social activity, requiring students to interact and learn from their peers. To develop effective active-learning exercises that engage students, it is important to gain a more holistic view of the student experience in an active-learning classroom. Read More

    Metacognition in Upper-Division Biology Students: Awareness Does Not Always Lead to Control.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
    Students with awareness and control of their own thinking can learn more and perform better than students who are not metacognitive. Metacognitive regulation is how you control your thinking in order to learn. It includes the skill of evaluation, which is the ability to appraise your approaches to learning and then modify future plans based on those appraisals. Read More

    How Should I Study for the Exam? Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Achievement in Introductory Biology.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Biology Department, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63103
    In college introductory science courses, students are challenged with mastering large amounts of disciplinary content while developing as autonomous and effective learners. Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the process of setting learning goals, monitoring progress toward them, and applying appropriate study strategies. SRL characterizes successful, "expert" learners, and develops with time and practice. Read More

    Curriculum Alignment with Vision and Change Improves Student Scientific Literacy.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.
    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education final report challenged institutions to reform their biology courses to focus on process skills and student active learning, among other recommendations. A large southeastern university implemented curricular changes to its majors' introductory biology sequence in alignment with these recommendations. Discussion sections focused on developing student process skills were added to both lectures and a lab, and one semester of lab was removed. Read More

    Effectiveness and Adoption of a Drawing-to-Learn Study Tool for Recall and Problem Solving: Minute Sketches with Folded Lists.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187.
    Drawing by learners can be an effective way to develop memory and generate visual models for higher-order skills in biology, but students are often reluctant to adopt drawing as a study method. We designed a nonclassroom intervention that instructed introductory biology college students in a drawing method, minute sketches in folded lists (MSFL), and allowed them to self-assess their recall and problem solving, first in a simple recall task involving non-European alphabets and later using unfamiliar biology content. In two preliminary ex situ experiments, students had greater recall on the simple learning task, non-European alphabets with associated phonetic sounds, using MSFL in comparison with a preferred method, visual review (VR). Read More

    A Call to Develop Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) for Nonmajors Courses.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biology Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455.
    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) for non-science majors (nonmajors) are potentially distinct from CUREs for developing scientists in their goals, learning objectives, and assessment strategies. While national calls to improve science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education have led to an increase in research revealing the positive effects of CUREs for science majors, less work has specifically examined whether nonmajors are impacted in the same way. To address this gap in our understanding, a working group focused on nonmajors CUREs was convened to discuss the following questions: 1) What are our laboratory-learning goals for nonmajors? 2) What are our research priorities to determine best practices for nonmajors CUREs? 3) How can we collaborate to define and disseminate best practices for nonmajors in CUREs? We defined three broad student outcomes of prime importance to the nonmajors CURE: improvement of scientific literacy skills, proscience attitudes, and evidence-based decision making. Read More

    Broadening Participation in Biology Education Research: Engaging Community College Students and Faculty.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309.
    Nearly half of all undergraduates are enrolled at community colleges (CCs), including the majority of U.S. students who represent groups underserved in the sciences. Read More

    Fair Play: A Study of Scientific Workforce Trainers' Experience Playing an Educational Video Game about Racial Bias.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706
    Explicit racial bias has decreased in the United States, but racial stereotypes still exist and conspire in multiple ways to perpetuate the underparticipation of Blacks in science careers. Capitalizing on the potential effectiveness of role-playing video games to promote the type of active learning required to increase awareness of and reduce subtle racial bias, we developed the video game Fair Play, in which players take on the role of Jamal, a Black male graduate student in science, who experiences discrimination in his PhD program. We describe a mixed-methods evaluation of the experience of scientific workforce trainers who played Fair Play at the National Institutes of Health Division of Training Workforce Development and Diversity program directors' meeting in 2013 (n = 47; 76% female, n = 34; 53% nonwhite, n = 26). Read More

    How Question Types Reveal Student Thinking: An Experimental Comparison of Multiple-True-False and Free-Response Formats.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588
    Assessments represent an important component of undergraduate courses because they affect how students interact with course content and gauge student achievement of course objectives. To make decisions on assessment design, instructors must understand the affordances and limitations of available question formats. Here, we use a crossover experimental design to identify differences in how multiple-true-false (MTF) and free-response (FR) exam questions reveal student thinking regarding specific conceptions. Read More

    The Case for Biocalculus: Design, Retention, and Student Performance.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Mathematics, University of Portland, Portland, OR 97203.
    Calculus is one of the primary avenues for initial quantitative training of students in all science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields, but life science students have been found to underperform in the traditional calculus setting. As a result, and because of perceived lack of its contribution to the understanding of biology, calculus is being actively cut from biology program requirements at many institutions. Here, we present an alternative: a model for learning mathematics that sees the partner disciplines as crucial to student success. Read More

    Conceptual Elements: A Detailed Framework to Support and Assess Student Learning of Biology Core Concepts.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Wisconsin Institute for Science Education and Community Engagement, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706
    The Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education: Call to Action report has inspired and supported a nationwide movement to restructure undergraduate biology curricula to address overarching disciplinary concepts and competencies. The report outlines the concepts and competencies generally but does not provide a detailed framework to guide the development of the learning outcomes, instructional materials, and assessment instruments needed to create a reformed biology curriculum. In this essay, we present a detailed Vision and Change core concept framework that articulates key components that transcend subdisciplines and scales for each overarching biological concept, the Conceptual Elements (CE) Framework. Read More

    Broadening Participation in the Sciences within and from Africa: Purpose, Challenges, and Prospects.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Biochemistry, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
    Many of Africa's challenges have scientific solutions, but there are fewer individuals engaged in scientific activity per capita on this continent than on any other. Only a handful of African scientists use their skills to capacity or are leaders in their disciplines. Underrepresentation of Africans in scientific practice, discourse, and decision making reduces the richness of intellectual contributions toward hard problems worldwide. Read More

    Students' Use of Optional Online Reviews and Its Relationship to Summative Assessment Outcomes in Introductory Biology.
    CBE Life Sci Educ 2017 ;16(2)
    Department of Genetics, Development, and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011
    Retrieval practice has been shown to produce significant enhancements in student learning of course information, but the extent to which students make use of retrieval to learn information on their own is unclear. In the current study, students in a large introductory biology course were provided with optional online review questions that could be accessed as Test questions (requiring students to answer the questions before receiving feedback) or as Read questions (providing students with the question and correct answer up-front). Students more often chose to access the questions as Test compared with Read, and students who used the Test questions scored significantly higher on subsequent exams compared with students who used Read questions or did not access the questions at all. Read More

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