932 results match your criteria Buruli Ulcer
Mamm Genome 2018 Aug 16. Epub 2018 Aug 16.
Program in Infectious Diseases and Immunity in Global Health, Research Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Mycobacterial diseases are caused by members of the genus Mycobacterium, acid-fast bacteria characterized by the presence of mycolic acids within their cell walls. Claiming almost 2 million lives every year, tuberculosis (TB) is the most common mycobacterial disease and is caused by infection with M. tuberculosis and, in rare cases, by M. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Aug 13;12(8):e0006724. Epub 2018 Aug 13.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.
We examined recurrent Buruli ulcer cases following treatment and assumed cure in a large cohort of Australian patients living in an endemic area. We report that while the recurrence rate was low (2.81 cases/year/1000 population), it remained similar to the estimated risk of primary infection within the general population of the endemic area (0. Read More
PeerJ 2018 31;6:e5294. Epub 2018 Jul 31.
Kumasi Centre for Collaborative Research in Tropical Medicine, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.
Background: Buruli ulcer is a disease of the skin and soft tissues caused by infection with a slow growing pathogen, . A vaccine for this disease is not available but possesses a giant plasmid pMUM001 that harbours the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes encoding a multi-enzyme complex needed for the production of its unique lipid toxin called mycolactone, which is central to the pathogenesis of Buruli ulcer. We have studied the immunogenicity of enzymatic domains in humans with disease, their contacts, as well as non-endemic areas controls. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Aug 6;12(8):e0006713. Epub 2018 Aug 6.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a chronic necrotizing infectious skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The treatment with BU-specific antibiotics is initiated after clinical suspicion based on the WHO clinical and epidemiological criteria. This study aimed to estimate the predictive values of these criteria and how they could be improved. Read More
Med J Aust 2018 Aug;209(3):142
University Hospitals Bristol Education and Research Centre, Bristol, UK.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jul 30;12(7):e0006689. Epub 2018 Jul 30.
Department of International Development, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom.
Background: An understudied disease, little research thus far has explored responses to Buruli ulcer and quests for therapy from biosocial perspective, despite reports that people seek biomedical treatment too late.
Methods And Findings: Taking an inductive approach and drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork in 2013-14, this article presents perspectives on this affliction of people living and working along the River Nile in northwest Uganda. Little is known biomedically about its presence, yet 'Buruli', as it is known locally, was and is a significant affliction in this region. Read More
Biol Cell 2018 Jul 28. Epub 2018 Jul 28.
Division of Molecular and Cellular Function, School of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PT, UK.
Infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans results in a necrotising skin disease known as a Buruli ulcer, the pathology of which is directly linked to the bacterial production of the toxin mycolactone. Recent studies have identified the protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as the primary cellular target of mycolactone, and shown that the toxin binds to the core subunit of the Sec61 complex. Mycolactone binding strongly inhibits the capacity of the Sec61 translocon to transport newly synthesised membrane and secretory proteins into and across the ER membrane. Read More
Pan Afr Med J 2018 22;29:166. Epub 2018 Mar 22.
Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria.
Introduction: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a highly ranked neglected tropical disease (NTD) of global health importance with increasing incidence in sub-Saharan Africa yet there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of BU in Nigeria. Incidentally, highly BU endemic Benin Republic shares proximity with Nigeria. This study was carried out to establish presence of BU and ascertain the level of BU perception among rural populace in Ogun State, south-west Nigeria. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 07 2;12(7):e0006572. Epub 2018 Jul 2.
Department of Bacteriology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
Background: The environmental pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) can infect both humans and animals and cause Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. However, its mode(s) of transmission from the colonized environment to human/animal hosts remain unclear. In Australia, MU can infect both wildlife and domestic mammals. Read More
Molecules 2018 Jun 27;23(7). Epub 2018 Jun 27.
Department of Parasitology, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), College of Health Sciences (CHS), University of Ghana, P. O. Box LG 77, Legon, Accra, Ghana.
Buruli ulcer (BU) is caused by and is predominant in both tropical and subtropical regions. The neglected debilitating disease is characterized by chronic necrotizing skin lesions attributed to a mycolactone, which is a macrolide toxin secreted by . The preferred treatment is surgical excision of the lesions followed by a prolonged combination antibiotic therapy using existing drugs such as rifampicin and streptomycin or clarithromycin. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 25;12(6):e0006584. Epub 2018 Jun 25.
Department of Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Background: Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of several communicable diseases prevalent in the tropical and subtropical areas. The co-endemicity of these diseases, the similarity of the clinical signs, and need to maximize limited financial and human resources have necessitated implementation of integrated approach. Our study aims to share the lessons of this integrated approach in the fight against Buruli ulcer (BU), leprosy and yaws in a rural district in Benin. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 06 5;12(6):e0006560. Epub 2018 Jun 5.
National Buruli Ulcer Control Program, Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.
Background: Buruli ulcer (BU), a necrotizing skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans is the third most important mycobacterial disease globally after tuberculosis and leprosy in immune competent individuals. This study reports on the retrospective analyses of microbiologically confirmed Buruli ulcer (BU) cases in seventy-five health facilities in Ghana.
Method/principal Findings: Pathological samples were collected from BU lesions and transported either through courier services or by car directly to the laboratory. Read More
Lancet Planet Health 2017 05 5;1(2):e65-e73. Epub 2017 May 5.
Service de Dermatologie, Cayenne Hospital, Cayenne, French Guiana; Université de Guyane, EA3593 Epidémiologie des Parasitoses Tropicales, Cayenne, French Guiana. Electronic address:
Background: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection is the third most common mycobacterial disease in the world after tuberculosis and leprosy. To date, transmission pathways from its environmental reservoir to humans are still unknown. In South America, French Guiana has the highest reported number of M ulcerans infections across the continent. Read More
Sci Rep 2018 May 29;8(1):8218. Epub 2018 May 29.
Department of Mycobacteriology, Leprosy Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan.
Mycobacterium ulcerans is the causative agent of Buruli ulcer (BU), a WHO-defined neglected tropical disease. All Japanese BU causative isolates have shown distinct differences from the prototype and are categorized as M. ulcerans subspecies shinshuense. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 05 21;12(5):e0006455. Epub 2018 May 21.
Department for infectious diseases and tropical medicine (DITM), Medical center of the University of Munich (LMU), Munich, Germany.
Background: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is a neglected tropical skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Residence near aquatic areas has been identified as an important source of transmission of M. ulcerans with increased risk of contracting Buruli ulcer. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 05 17;12(5):e0006489. Epub 2018 May 17.
Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Background: Early detection of several skin-related neglected tropical diseases (skin NTDs)-including leprosy, Buruli ulcer, yaws, and scabies- may be achieved through school surveys, but such an approach has seldom been tested systematically on a large scale in endemic countries. Additionally, a better understanding of the spectrum of skin diseases and the at-risk populations to be encountered during such surveys is necessary to facilitate the process.
Methods: We performed a school skin survey for selected NTDs and the spectrum of skin diseases, among primary schoolchildren aged 5 to 15 in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Read More
Intern Med J 2018 05;48(5):603-604
School of Clinical Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Sci Rep 2018 Apr 30;8(1):6778. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, 13005, France.
Contaminations and fastidiousness of M. ulcerans may have both hamper isolation of strains from environmental sources. We aimed to optimize decontamination and culture of environmental samples to circumvent both limitations. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 04 30;12(4):e0006429. Epub 2018 Apr 30.
Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Necker Branch, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) UMR-1163, Paris, France.
Buruli ulcer (BU), the third most frequent mycobacteriosis worldwide, is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. We report the clinical description and extensive genetic analysis of a consanguineous family from Benin comprising two cases of unusually severe non-ulcerative BU. The index case was the most severe of over 2,000 BU cases treated at the Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de la Lèpre et de l'Ulcère de Buruli, Pobe, Benin, since its opening in 2003. Read More
Med J Aust 2018 Apr;208(7):290-291
Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC.
Med J Aust 2018 Apr;208(7):287-289
CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD.
J Infect Dis 2018 Jul;218(5):679-687
Department of Paediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia.
Background: The incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections is increasing worldwide, particularly NTM lymphadenitis and skin infections (Buruli ulcer). This review summarizes the evidence for the protective effectiveness of BCG vaccination against NTM disease.
Methods: A systematic search using PRISMA guidelines was done for controlled studies investigating the protective effectiveness of BCG vaccination against NTM disease in immunocompetent individuals. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Jun 5;18(6):650-656. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
University of Groningen, Department of Internal Medicine/Infectious Diseases, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands. Electronic address:
Background: Surgical intervention was once the mainstay of treatment for Buruli ulcer disease, a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. Since the introduction of streptomycin and rifampicin for 8 weeks as standard care, surgery has persisted as an adjunct therapy, but its role is uncertain. We investigated the effect of delaying the decision to operate to 14 weeks on rates of healing without surgery. Read More
Lancet Infect Dis 2018 Jun 5;18(6):588-589. Epub 2018 Apr 5.
Austin Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; WHO Collaborating Centre for Mycobacterium ulcerans, Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory, Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 27;12(3):e0006238. Epub 2018 Mar 27.
School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, United States of America.
Background: In the Cameroon, previous efforts to identify Buruli ulcer (BU) through the mobilization of community health workers (CHWs) yielded poor results. In this paper, we describe the successful creation of a BU community of practice (BUCOP) in Bankim, Cameroon composed of hospital staff, former patients, CHWs, and traditional healers.
Methods And Principle Findings: All seven stages of a well-defined formative research process were conducted during three phases of research carried out by a team of social scientists working closely with Bankim hospital staff. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 19;12(3):e0006357. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia.
Background: Healing times following treatment with antibiotics, and factors that influence healing, have not been reported in Australian patients with Mycobacterium ulcerans.
Methodology/principal Findings: Healing times were determined for all M. ulcerans cases treated by a single physician with antibiotics at Barwon Health, Victoria, from 1/1/13-31/12/16. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 19;12(3):e0006323. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
Department of Infectious Diseases, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia.
Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a geographically-restricted infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans; contact with an endemic region is the primary risk factor for disease acquisition. Globally, efforts to estimate the incubation period of BU are often hindered as most patients reside permanently in endemic areas. However, in the south-eastern Australian state of Victoria, a significant proportion of people who acquire BU are visitors to endemic regions. Read More
Case Rep Pathol 2018 10;2018:1351694. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium.
Background: Basidiobolomycosis is a rare subcutaneous mycosis, which can be mistaken for several other diseases, such as soft tissue tumors, lymphoma, or Buruli ulcer in the preulcerative stage. Microbiological confirmation by PCR for and culture yield the most specific diagnosis, yet they are not widely available in endemic areas and with varying sensitivity. A combination of histopathological findings, namely, granulomatous inflammation with giant cells, septate hyphal fragments, and the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon, can confirm basidiobolomycosis in patients presenting with painless, hard induration of soft tissue. Read More
Cell Death Dis 2018 Mar 14;9(3):397. Epub 2018 Mar 14.
Department of Microbial Sciences, School of Biosciences and Medicine, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, UK.
Mycolactone is the exotoxin virulence factor of Mycobacterium ulcerans that causes the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. We recently showed it to be a broad spectrum inhibitor of Sec61-dependent co-translational translocation of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An outstanding question is the molecular pathway linking this to its known cytotoxicity. Read More
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen Infectious Diseases Division, Internal Medicine; and Pulmonary Diseases & Tuberculosis Groningen, the Netherlands.
Clin Infect Dis 2018 Mar 10. Epub 2018 Mar 10.
Mycobacteriology Unit, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
Background: The diagnosis of the neglected tropical skin and soft tissue disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is made on clinical and epidemiological grounds, after which treatment with BU-specific antibiotics is initiated empirically. Given the current decline in BU incidence, clinical expertise in the recognition of BU is likely to wane and laboratory confirmation of BU becomes increasingly important. We therefore aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of clinical signs and microbiological tests in patients presenting with lesions clinically compatible with BU. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 12;12(3):e0006291. Epub 2018 Mar 12.
School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, United States of America.
Background: Mycobacterium ulcerans infection, commonly known as Buruli ulcer (BU), is a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Its management remains complex and has three main components: antibiotic treatment combining rifampicin and streptomycin for 56 days, wound dressings and skin grafts for large ulcerations, and physical therapy to prevent functional limitations after care. In Benin, BU patient care is being integrated into the government health system. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 03 9;12(3):e0006358. Epub 2018 Mar 9.
Centre de Dépistage et de Traitement de l'Ulcère de Buruli d'Allada, Ministry of Health, Allada, Bénin.
Background: Nigeria is one of the countries endemic for Buruli ulcer (BU) in West Africa but did not have a control programme until recently. As a result, BU patients often access treatment services in neighbouring Benin where dedicated health facilities have been established to provide treatment free of charge for BU patients. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological, clinical, biological and therapeutic characteristics of cases from Nigeria treated in three of the four treatment centers in Benin. Read More
Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2018 Feb 23;93(8):73-96. Epub 2018 Feb 23.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 15;12(2):e0006242. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
Institut for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), CEA, CNRS, Univ. Paris Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Methods: All State TB control programmes in Nigeria were requested to submit 25-50 smear-positive Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stained slides for screening during 2013-2014. DNA was extracted from 929 slides for spoligotyping and drug-resistance analysis using microbead-based flow-cytometry suspension arrays.
Results: Spoligotyping results were obtained for 549 (59. Read More
Appl Environ Microbiol 2018 Apr 2;84(8). Epub 2018 Apr 2.
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Since 2000, cases of the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with , have increased 100-fold around Melbourne (population 4.4 million), the capital of Victoria, in temperate southeastern Australia. The reasons for this increase are unclear. Read More
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 02 12;12(2):e0006233. Epub 2018 Feb 12.
Department of Internal Medicine and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon.
Background: Although leprosy is one of the oldest diseases known to humanity, it remains largely misunderstood. Misconceptions about leprosy lead to stigma towards people with the disease. This study aimed at exploring the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes regarding leprosy in rural Cameroon. Read More
PLoS Comput Biol 2018 02 5;14(2):e1005972. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
Theoretical Biology and Biophysics Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, United States of America.
Mycolactone is the exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans and is the virulence factor behind the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. The toxin has a broad spectrum of biological effects within the host organism, stemming from its interaction with at least two molecular targets and the inhibition of protein uptake into the endoplasmic reticulum. Although it has been shown that the toxin can passively permeate into host cells, it is clearly lipophilic. Read More
Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 Apr 31;31(2). Epub 2018 Jan 31.
Denver Health, Denver, Colorado, USA.
Mycobacteria are the causative organisms for diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, to name the most important ones. In 2015, globally, almost 10 million people developed TB, and almost half a million patients suffered from its multidrug-resistant form. In 2016, a total of 9,287 new TB cases were reported in the United States. Read More
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2018 ;162:D2295
Drs. A. Coenders, arts internationale gezondheidszorg en tropengeneeskunde in opleiding (thans niet verbonden aan een ziekenhuis).
A 25-year-old Papuan presented with three painless foot ulcers with undermined edges, induration and oedema. The appearance was typical for Buruli ulcer, which is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. A smear was positive for acid fast bacilli. Read More
BMC Res Notes 2018 Jan 23;11(1):64. Epub 2018 Jan 23.
Presbyterian Hospital, Agogo, Ashanti, Ghana.
Objective: The incidence of Buruli ulcer has been recorded in about 30 countries globally and Africa seems to be the most affected area. The study sought to determine perceived causes and risk factors of Buruli ulcer among patients who visit the Agogo hospital in Asante-Akim North District in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A descriptive study design was adopted using a simple random sampling technique to select 400 patients attending The Presbyterian Hospital at Agogo. Read More
BMC Infect Dis 2018 01 19;18(1):48. Epub 2018 Jan 19.
Ecole Supérieure des Techniques Biologiques et Alimentaires (ESTBA), Laboratoire des Sciences Biologiques et des Substances Bioactives, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo.
Background: Buruli ulcer (BU) is a neglected mycobacterial skin infection caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This disease mostly affects poor rural populations, especially in areas with low hygiene standards and sanitation coverage. The objective of this study was to identify these risk factors in the districts of Zio and Yoto of the Maritime Region in Togo. Read More
J Clin Microbiol 2018 Apr 26;56(4). Epub 2018 Mar 26.
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Buruli ulcer is caused by This neglected disease occurs in scattered foci around the world, with a higher concentration of cases in West Africa. The mycobacteria produce mycolactones that cause tissue necrosis. The disease presents as a painless skin nodule that ulcerates as necrosis expands. Read More
PLoS Pathog 2018 01 10;14(1):e1006814. Epub 2018 Jan 10.
Univ. Lyon, Université Lyon 1, CNRS, Institut de Chimie et Biochimie Moléculaires et Supramoléculaires, ICBMS-UMR 5246, GEMBAS team, Lyon, France.
Mycolactone is a lipid-like endotoxin synthesized by an environmental human pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer disease. Mycolactone has pleiotropic effects on fundamental cellular processes (cell adhesion, cell death and inflammation). Various cellular targets of mycolactone have been identified and a literature survey revealed that most of these targets are membrane receptors residing in ordered plasma membrane nanodomains, within which their functionalities can be modulated. Read More
Chimia (Aarau) 2017 Dec;71(12):836-840
Université de Strasbourg CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire UMR 7509 67000 Strasbourg, France;, Email:
Buruli ulcer, classified as a neglected tropical disease by the World Health Organization, is caused by a mycobacterium which secretes a macrolidic exotoxin called mycolactone A/B. In this article, several synthetic strategies for the preparation of this toxin are discussed, highlighting the importance of total synthesis for the exploration of biological mechanism underpinning relevant human diseases. Read More
Clin Microbiol Rev 2018 01 13;31(1). Epub 2017 Dec 13.
Aix-Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculté de Médecine, Marseille, France
Buruli ulcer is a noncontagious disabling cutaneous and subcutaneous mycobacteriosis reported by 33 countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania, and South America. The causative agent, , derives from by genomic reduction and acquisition of a plasmid-borne, nonribosomal cytotoxin mycolactone, the major virulence factor. -specific sequences have been readily detected in aquatic environments in food chains involving small mammals. Read More
Case Rep Dermatol Med 2017 17;2017:6905783. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
Service de Dermatologie et IST, CHU Sylvanus Olympio, Université de Lomé, Lomé, Togo.
Background: Basidiobolomycosis is a deep mycosis which preferentially affects rural young people in tropical countries. We report an atypical case, with multiple ulcers, simulating a Buruli ulcer.
Case Report: A 5-year-old boy, living in a rural area, was seen for ulcers on the buttocks and at the back and right flank that had been in progress for 4 months. Read More
Microb Pathog 2018 Jan 20;114:1-7. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
Aix Marseille Université, URMITE, UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, IHU Méditerranée Infection, Marseille 13005, France. Electronic address:
Mycobacterium ulcerans, a decaying Mycobacterium marinum derivative is responsible for Buruli ulcer, a notifiable non-contagious disabling infection highly prevalent in some West African countries. Aquatic environments are suspected to host M. ulcerans, however, the exact reservoirs remain unknown. Read More
Emerg Infect Dis 2017 12;23(12):2042-2045
To identify potential reservoirs/vectors of Mycobacterium ulcerans in northern Queensland, Australia, we analyzed environmental samples collected from the Daintree River catchment area, to which Buruli ulcer is endemic, and adjacent coastal lowlands by species-specific PCR. We detected M. ulcerans DNA in soil, mosquitoes, and excreta of bandicoots, which are small terrestrial marsupials. Read More