West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
Objective: To systcmatically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in treating adults with severe burn. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched using key words " burns, thermal, human growth hormone, growth hormone, hGH, and somatropin (human)" , and China Biology Medicine disc, Chinese Journals Full-text Database, VIP Database, and Wanfang Database were searched using key words in Chinese version "," to obtain the randomized controlled trials about rhGH in the treatment of adults with severe burn from the establishment of each database to December 2016. The measurement indexes included hemoglobin (Hb) and plasma total protein, inflammatory factors [including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)], incidence rate of sepsis, incidence rate of hyperglycemia, wound healing time, length of stay, and mortality rate. Read More
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large family of chaperones that are involved in protein folding and maturation of a variety of "client" proteins protecting them from degradation, oxidative stress, hypoxia, and thermal stress. Hence, they are significant regulators of cellular proliferation, differentiation and strongly implicated in the molecular orchestration of cancer development and progression as many of their clients are well established oncoproteins in multiple tumor types. Interestingly, tumor cells are more HSP chaperonage-dependent than normal cells for proliferation and survival because the oncoproteins in cancer cells are often misfolded and require augmented chaperonage activity for correction. Read More
Modern burn care has led to unprecedented survival rates in burn patients whose injuries were fatal a few decades ago. Along with improved survival, new challenges have emerged in the management of burn patients. Infections top the list of the most common complication after burns, and sepsis is the leading cause of death in both adult and pediatric burn patients. Read More
Frequently burns of the hand occur as part of a major thermal injury, but appropriate treatment of the hands has high priority, because even small burns of the hand may result in severely limited function and compromised aesthetic appearance. The functional importance of the hand cannot be overemphasized, because the patient's ability to perform useful work after recovery or the ability to care for themselves is to a great degree determined by residual hand function. This article describes the management of burn injuries involving the hand, stressing the importance of appropriate initial treatment. Read More
Centre for Children's Burns and Trauma Research, QUT, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation at the Centre for Children's Health Research, South Brisbane, Australia.
First aid treatment of burns reduces scarring and improves healing. We quantify the efficacy of first aid treatments using a mathematical model to describe data from a series of in vivo porcine experiments. We study burn injuries that are subject to various first aid treatments. Read More
On a television show, a pre-cooled bare-skinned person (TV host) passed through engulfing kerosene flames. The assumption was that a water film should protect him during 0.74 s flame exposure in an environment of 86 kW/m² heat flux. Read More
Background: Each year 30,000 children suffer from burn injuries in Germany and 2000 of these children must be treated in special pediatric burn centers. Approximately two thirds of these children are less than 4 years old, 70% of thermal injuries are due to scalding with hot liquids.
Objectives: The aim of this article is to give an overview of the characteristics of pediatric burn trauma with recommendations for initial treatment, surgical therapy as well as follow-up treatment. Read More
Goal: Determination of basic epidemiological parameters of burn patients with micromycetes infection. Identification of the most important micromycetes in burn patients.
Material And Methods: Monocentre retrospective study enrolling all adult burn patients who were hospitalized between 2007 and 2015 and in whom micromycetes were isolated during hospitalization. Read More
Background: Early necrectomy and skin autotransplantation are prerequisites for successful treatment of extensive burns. Insufficient autograft donor site availability is a limiting factor. The Meek micrografting technique, published by C. Read More
Pediatric Burns Center, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Switzerland; Division of General and Thoracic Surgery, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:
Background: Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare, but potentially life-threatening complication of thermal injuries in children. The study objective was to systematically review the literature on paediatric TSS after burns or scalds, and describe our experience with this condition in Switzerland.
Methods: All tertiary paediatric healthcare centres managing burns and scalds in Switzerland were inquired. Read More
Pneumatic tourniquets are commonly used in surgeries involving the limbs to achieve a nearly bloodless surgery and an optimal operating field or when administering regional anesthesia during surgery on a limb. Complications can arise from the use of tourniquets, including nerve injuries, pain, compartment syndrome, pressure injuries, chemical burns, and tissue necrosis. More serious injuries-including deep vein thrombosis, thermal damage to tissues, severe ischemic injuries, and rhabdomyolysis-also can occur. Read More
Variation in the structure of ground fuels, i.e. the moss and litter (M/L) layer, may be an important control on fire severity in heather moorlands and thus influence vegetation regeneration and soil carbon dynamics. Read More
Background/aims: Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor antagonists have been evaluated in clinical studies for their analgesic effects. Mavatrep, a potent, selective, competitive TRPV1 receptor antagonist has demonstrated pharmacodynamic effects consistent with target engagement at the TRPV1 receptor in a previous single-dose clinical study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic effects of a single dose of mavatrep. Read More
Traditionally, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis has used a targeted approach called selected ion monitoring (SIM) to quantify specific compounds that may have adverse health effects. Due to method limitations and the constraints of preparing duplicate samples, the information that could be obtained from separately collecting the full scan chromatogram of the sample has often been sacrificed. However, the hybrid technique called synchronous SIM/scan mode alternates between the two acquisition modes, maintaining the accuracy and sensitivity of SIM for targeted analysis while also providing the full scan chromatogram for discovery of non-target compounds. Read More
A half-space electromagnetic model of human skin over the band 30-300 GHz was constructed and used to model radiometric emissivity. The model showed that the radiometric emissivity rose from 0.4 to 0. Read More
Cysteine protease (papain) is a plant derived enzyme and due to its collagenolytic activity has potential in fibrosis reduction. However, a major hurdle in its use as fibrosis reducing agent is to overcome stratum corneum skin barrier via topical application, owing to its hydrophilic and high molecular weight and protein nature which is prone to degradation. The aim of the present study was to develop a penetration enhancer incorporated drug delivery system, i. Read More
Purpose: The clinical course after major burns is characterized by microcirculatory changes and consecutive capillary leakage. However, current clinical monitoring does not properly assess microcirculation, whereas macrohemodynamic changes are continuously evaluated. Here, we assess if macrohemodynamic and microhemodynamic parameters after burn trauma are correlated in a rat model. Read More
Treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) usually requires surgical replacement of the infected joint and weeks of antibiotic therapy, due to the formation of biofilm. We introduce a non-invasive method for thermal destruction of biofilm on metallic implants using high-frequency (>100 kHz) alternating magnetic fields (AMF). In vitro investigations demonstrate a >5-log reduction in bacterial counts after 5 minutes of AMF exposure. Read More
The first aids to burned patients are fundamental for the evolution of the disease and the success of the next medical care in a Burns Center. In our 30-years experience, we can reassume that they must be provided to limit the cause of thermal damage, to evaluate and correct eventual respiratory or cardiovascular disorders, to find out the possible damage to different organs and the primary care on cutaneous lesions. Read More
Major challenges and crises in global health will not be solved by health alone; requiring rather a multidisciplinary, evidence-based analytical approach to prevention, preparedness and response. One such potential crisis is the continued spread of nuclear weapons to more nations concurrent with the increased volatility of international relations that has significantly escalated the risk of a major nuclear weapon exchange. This study argues for the development of a multidisciplinary global health response agenda based on the reality of the current political analysis of nuclear risk, research evidence suggesting higher-than-expected survivability risk, and the potential for improved health outcomes based on medical advances. Read More
Opioids are extensively used as analgesics to control burn pain. However, systemic administration of opioids induces multiple adverse effects that are primarily CNS mediated. Alternately, topical application of low dose of opioids directly at the site of injury could attenuate pain while avoiding CNS-mediated side effects. Read More
Department of Burns, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022, PR China. Electronic address:
Background: An overabundant discharge of inflammatory mediators plays a significant role in intestinal injury throughout the early stages of critical burns. The present study aims to explore the outcome of 200mM hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation on the intestinal injury of critically burned rats.
Materials And Methods: Fifty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: sham group (group A), burn plus lactated Ringer's group (group B), and burn plus 200mM HS group (group C). Read More
Denatured dermis is a part of the dermis in deep burn wound and has the ability to restore normal morphology and function. In our previous study, we revealed that miR-29a downregulation in denatured dermis may help burn wound healing in the later phase, and further enhance type I collagen synthesis. LIN28A, a highly-conserved RNA binding protein expressed during embryogenesis, plays roles in development, pluripotency, metabolism, as well as tissue repair in adults. Read More
We report the combined antibacterial/tissue regeneration responses to thermal burns promoted by functional chitosan/silver nanocomposites (CS/nAg) with ultralow silver content (0.018wt.%, 7-30nm). Read More
Centre for Children's Burns and Trauma Research, Queensland University of Technology, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation and Centre for Children's Health Research, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
There are many porcine burn models that create burns using different materials (e.g. metal, water) and different burn conditions (e. Read More
Scar research is challenging because rodents do not naturally form excessive scars, and burn depth, size, and location cannot be controlled in human longitudinal studies. The female, red Duroc pig model has been shown to form robust scars with biological and anatomical similarities to human hypertrophic scars. To more closely mimic the mode of injury, recreate the complex chemical milieu of the burn wound environment and enhance scar development, an animal model of excessive burn-induced scarring was developed and compared with the more commonly used model, which involves excisional wounds created via dermatome. Read More
Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2017 Jul 18. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
From the *Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Forensic Medicine and Pharmacology, Vilnius University, Vilnius; †State Forensic Medicine Service; and ‡Faculty of Fundamental Sciences, Department of Physics, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Vilnius, Lithuania.
The article presents 3 forensic medicine cases in the field of electric injury. In addition to traditional findings in electric injury (electric mark and histological findings), the forensic medicine experts in Lithuania also perform an atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. This method confirms the effects of electric current to the body through the electric conductor. Read More
The coal fires, a global catastrophe for hundreds of years, have been proved extremely difficult to control, and hit almost every coal-bearing area globally. Meanwhile, underground coal fires contain tremendous reservoir of geothermal energy. Approximately one billion tons of coal burns underground annually in the world, which could generate ~1000 GW per annum. Read More
Prolonged hospitalization and antibiotic therapy are risk factors for the development of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in thermal burn patients. We used a rat model to study the in vivo efficacy of daptomycin in the treatment of burn wound infections by S. aureus, and we evaluated the wound healing process through morphological and immunohistochemical analysis. Read More
Precancerous cervical lesions precede the development of invasive cervical cancer by 10-20 years, making cervical cancer preventable if these lesions are detected and effectively treated. Treatment has evolved in the last few decades and now includes ablative options that can be performed in lower-resource settings where surgical excision is not feasible or routinely available. Gas-based cryotherapy, which freezes cervical tissue to induce localized necrosis, is the most commonly used ablative treatment. Read More
National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, 87-West Canal Bank Road, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan; Allama Iqbal Medical College, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University (SZABMU), Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:
Aims: Oxidative microenvironment of burnt skin restricts the outcome of cell based therapies of thermal skin injuries. The aim of this study was to precondition human dermal fibroblasts with an antioxidant such as vitamin E to improve their survival and therapeutic abilities in heat induced oxidative in vitro environment.
Main Methods: Fibroblasts were treated with 100μM vitamin E for 24h at 37°C followed by heat shock for 10min at 51°C in fresh serum free medium. Read More
BMC Res Notes 2017 Jul 6;10(1):258. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
Plastics and Burns Unit, Department of Surgery, Mulago National Referral Hospital, P.O.BOX 7051, Kampala, Uganda.
Background: Blood transfusion, a practice under re-evaluation in general, remains common among thermal burn patients due to the hematological alterations associated with burns that manifest as anemia. Today advocacy is for restrictive blood transfusion taking into account individual patient characteristics. We went out to identify the parameters that may determine transfusion requirement and the time to blood transfusion for thermal burn patients in Mulago Hospital in order to build statistics and a basis to standardize future practice and Hospital protocol. Read More
Introduction: In 2004, nearly 11 million severely burn-injured patients required medical care worldwide. Burns cause prolonged hospitalisation and long-term disability. Although mortality has been reduced, morbidity remains significant. Read More
Background: Scar massage is used in burn units globally to improve functional and cosmetic outcomes of hypertrophic scarring following a burn, however, the evidence to support this therapy is unknown.
Objective: To review the literature and assess the efficacy of scar massage in hypertrophic burn scars.
Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched using the key words "burn", "burn injury", "thermal injury" and "scar", "hypertrophic scar" and "massage", "manipulation", "soft tissue mobilisation", "soft tissue manipulation". Read More
Department of Pediatric Surgery, Burn Unit, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Altonaer Children's Hospital, Bleickenallee 38, 22763 Hamburg, Germany; Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Medical Center Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany; German Society for Burn Treatment (DGV), German Burn Registry, Luisenstrasse 58-59, 10117 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:
Objective: The purpose of this observational, multi-center study was to reveal epidemiologic, etiological and clinical aspects of hospitalized children with thermal injuries in Germany and Austria and the workup of a renewed web-based pediatric burn registry.
Methods: From 2006 to 2015, comprehensive patient data of thermally injured children in Germany and Austria were collected prospectively. Retrospective analysis of age, gender, mechanism of injury, total body surface area burned, way of admission and length of stay was performed, followed by the comparative analysis between designated burn centers and other pediatric hospitals. Read More
Background: Thermal injury is the main cause of pulmonary disease in stroke after burn and can be life threatening. Heat-induced inflammation is an important factor that triggers a series of induces pathological changes. However, this mechanism underlying heat-induced inflammation in thermal inhalation injury remains unclear. Read More
Background: Visual assessment of burn wound appearance is the standard of care to determine the depth of thermal injury but often incorrectly predicts wound healing potential. Histologic evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained burn tissue is prone to subjectivity and is challenging for the novice. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) staining may offer a simplified and consistent technique to identify burn tissue viability. Read More
*Department of Dermatology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH; †Miraca Life Sciences Research Institute, Irving, TX; and ‡Department of Dermatology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL.
Factitious dermatitis (FD) (dermatitis artefacta) is rare and often difficult to diagnose because of conflicting history and nonspecific clinical and histologic findings. It can present with varied clinical features including geometric ulcers, erosions, and less commonly bullae secondary to external trauma from chemicals, electric burns, heat, and suction. Herein, we describe a case of bullous FD due to thermal burn with histologic features demonstrating overlap with fixed drug eruption. Read More
The mortality caused by sepsis is high following thermal injury. Diagnosis is difficult due to the ongoing systemic inflammatory response. Previous studies suggest that cellular parameters may show promise as diagnostic markers of sepsis. Read More
Objective: To identify the primary disease spectrum and trends of surgical procedure of keratoplasty patients. Methods: Retrospective case series study. To review all patients who underwent keratoplasty at Department of ophthalmology in Tongji Hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2015. Read More
Fungal infections in the intensive care unit are becoming a more common occurrence, especially in the care of the burn patient. Fungal infections in the critically burned patient, who by nature have a heightened inflammatory state and impaired immune response, have been found to carry a profound degree of morbidity and mortality. We present our experience in the care of severe thermal injuries; a series of patients with endodontic fungal infection which, as we found, pose a significant risk for the development of systemic infection and sepsis. Read More
Burn injury affects a half million people in the United States annually. The severe thermal injury can have long-term debilitating effects. The management of burn patients in austere and operational environments is more complex. Read More
Background: Measurement of C-peptide by immunoassay contributes to the diagnosis of a number of disorders related to β cell function. Stocks of the current international reference reagent (IRR) for C-peptide, used to calibrate these immunoassays, are exhausted, and this report summarises the international study to establish a replacement World Health Organization (WHO) international standard (IS) to maintain the availability of a globally available reference material and support efforts to standardise C-peptide assays.
Methods: The study was conducted in three phases; phase I involved the assignment of a value to a primary calibrant in mass units by amino acid analysis and phase II applied this value to the calibration of a candidate standard, 13/146, by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay. Read More
Burns in infants are rare. The majority of neonatal burns occur in the hospital setting. The immaturity of their immune system, their fragile and thin skin, difficulties in resuscitation, engraftment paucity limited by donor sites, and long-term complications make taking care of burned newborns extremely difficult. Read More
There are two types of prognostic model - burn-specific and general - to predict mortality risk in burn patients. Most prediction models were devised in developed countries. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of six outcome models in a developing country. Read More