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    10376 results match your criteria Bulletin of the World Health Organization[Journal]

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    Monetary incentives for provision of syphilis screening, Yunnan, China.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 1;95(9):657-662. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    National Center for Sexually Transmitted Disease Control, China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China.
    Problem: Early detection of syphilis-infected people followed by effective treatment is essential for syphilis prevention and control.

    Approach: Starting in 2010 the local health authority in Yunnan province, China, developed a network of 670 service sites for syphilis testing, diagnosis and treatment or for testing-only with referral for further diagnosis and treatment. Point-of-care tests for syphilis and syphilis interventions were integrated into the existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control programme. Read More

    Integrated morbidity management for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis, Ethiopia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):652-656. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    NTD case team, Diseases Prevention and Control Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Problem: Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The diseases require a similar provision of care, but until recently the Ethiopian health system did not integrate the morbidity management.

    Approach: To establish health-care services for integrated lymphoedema morbidity management, the health ministry and partners used existing governmental structures. Read More

    A data platform to improve rabies prevention, Sri Lanka.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 19;95(9):646-651. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Network for Improving Critical Care Systems and Training, 2nd Floor, YMBA Building, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.
    Problem: In Sri Lanka, rabies prevention initiatives are hindered by fragmented and delayed information-sharing that limits clinicians' ability to follow patients and impedes public health surveillance.

    Approach: In a project led by the health ministry, we adapted existing technologies to create an electronic platform for rabies surveillance. Information is entered by trained clinical staff, and both aggregate and individual patient data are visualized in real time. Read More

    A guide to aid the selection of diagnostic tests.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):639-645. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    In recent years, a wide range of diagnostic tests has become available for use in resource-constrained settings. Accordingly, a huge number of guidelines, performance evaluations and implementation reports have been produced. However, this wealth of information is unstructured and of uneven quality, which has made it difficult for end-users, such as clinics, laboratories and health ministries, to determine which test would be best for improving clinical care and patient outcomes in a specific context. Read More

    Estimated economic impact of vaccinations in 73 low- and middle-income countries, 2001-2020.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 27;95(9):629-638. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA.
    Objective: To estimate the economic impact likely to be achieved by efforts to vaccinate against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases between 2001 and 2020 in 73 low- and middle-income countries largely supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

    Methods: We used health impact models to estimate the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae and yellow fever. In comparison with no vaccination, we modelled the costs - expressed in 2010 United States dollars (US$) - of averted treatment, transportation costs, productivity losses of caregivers and productivity losses due to disability and death. Read More

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and hospitalization of children for pneumonia: a time-series analysis, South Africa, 2006-2014.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):618-628. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, York Road, Parktown, 2193, South Africa.
    Objective: To assess the impact of immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children in Soweto, South Africa.

    Methods: We used data collected at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto between 2006 and 2014 - i.e. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 11;95(8):599-603. Epub 2017 May 11.
    International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Soi Satharanasook 6, Tiwanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
    Problem: In Thailand, antimicrobial resistance has formed a small component of national drug policies and strategies on emerging infectious diseases. However, poor coordination and a lack of national goals and monitoring and evaluation platforms have reduced the effectiveness of the corresponding national actions.

    Approach: On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand. Read More

    Threats posed by stockpiles of expired pharmaceuticals in low- and middle-income countries: a Ugandan perspective.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):594-598. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, Makerere University, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
    In some low- and middle-income countries, the national stores and public-sector health facilities contain large stocks of pharmaceuticals that are past their expiry dates. In low-income countries like Uganda, many such stockpiles are the result of donations. If not adequately monitored or regulated, expired pharmaceuticals may be repackaged and sold as counterfeits or be dumped without any thought of the potential environmental damage. Read More

    Decentralized care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug;95(8):584-593
    Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of decentralized treatment and care for patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, in comparison with centralized approaches.

    Methods: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane library, Embase®, Google Scholar, LILACS, PubMed®, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's portal of clinical trials for studies reporting treatment outcomes for decentralized and centralized care of MDR tuberculosis. Read More

    A cohort study of low birth weight and health outcomes in the first year of life, Ghana.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):574-583. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, England.
    Objective: To investigate the effect of birth weight on infant mortality, illness and care seeking in rural Ghana.

    Methods: Using randomized controlled trial data, we compared infants weighing 2.00-2. Read More

    Malaria in China, 2011-2015: an observational study.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):564-573. Epub 2017 May 26.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Dongan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Objective: To ascertain the trends and burden of malaria in China and the costs of interventions for 2011-2015.

    Methods: We analysed the spatiotemporal and demographic features of locally transmitted and imported malaria cases using disaggregated surveillance data on malaria from 2011 to 2015, covering the range of dominant malaria vectors in China. The total and mean costs for malaria elimination were calculated by funding sources, interventions and population at risk. Read More

    The impact of the roll-out of rapid molecular diagnostic testing for tuberculosis on empirical treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 28;95(8):554-563. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Objective: To investigate the impact of introducing a rapid test as the first-line diagnostic test for drug-sensitive tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Methods: Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert®), an automated polymerase-chain-reaction-based assay, was rolled out between 2011 and 2013. Data were available on 102 007 adults treated for pulmonary tuberculosis between 2010 and 2014. Read More

    Critical gaps in laboratory leadership to meet global health security goals.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug;95(8):547-547A
    Division of Global Health Protection, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States of America (USA).

    Proactive community case-finding to facilitate treatment seeking for mental disorders, Nepal.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jul 25;95(7):531-536. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Faculty of Social & Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Problem: Underutilization of mental health services is a major barrier to reducing the burden of disease attributable to mental, neurological and substance-use disorders. Primary care-based screening to detect people with mental disorders misses people not frequently visiting health-care facilities or who lack access to services.

    Approach: In two districts in Nepal, we trained lay community informants to use a tool to detect people with mental, neurological and substance-use disorders during routine community service. Read More

    Improving water, sanitation and hygiene in health-care facilities, Liberia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jul 25;95(7):526-530. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Service Delivery and Safety Department, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    Problem: The lack of proper water and sanitation infrastructures and poor hygiene practices in health-care facilities reduces facilities' preparedness and response to disease outbreaks and decreases the communities' trust in the health services provided.

    Approach: To improve water and sanitation infrastructures and hygiene practices, the Liberian health ministry held multistakeholder meetings to develop a national water, sanitation and hygiene and environmental health package. A national train-the-trainer course was held for county environmental health technicians, which included infection prevention and control focal persons; the focal persons acted as change agents. Read More

    Systematic analysis of protein identity between Zika virus and other arthropod-borne viruses.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jul 18;95(7):517-525I. Epub 2016 Jul 18.
    Department of Epidemiology, Center for Communicable Disease Dynamics, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Ave, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To analyse the proportions of protein identity between Zika virus and dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile and chikungunya viruses as well as polymorphism between different Zika virus strains.

    Methods: We used published protein sequences for the Zika virus and obtained protein sequences for the other viruses from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) protein database or the NCBI virus variation resource. We used BLASTP to find regions of identity between viruses. Read More

    Observations of infection prevention and control practices in primary health care, Kenya.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jul 9;95(7):503-516. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
    Development Economics Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H St NW, Washington DC, 20433, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To assess compliance with infection prevention and control practices in primary health care in Kenya.

    Methods: We used an observational, patient-tracking tool to assess compliance with infection prevention and control practices by 1680 health-care workers during outpatient interactions with 14 328 patients at 935 health-care facilities in 2015. Compliance was assessed in five domains: hand hygiene; protective glove use; injections and blood sampling; disinfection of reusable equipment; and waste segregation. Read More

    Implementation research to improve quality of maternal and newborn health care, Malawi.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jul 22;95(7):491-502. Epub 2017 Feb 22.
    Institute of Public Health, Ruprecht-Karls Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 130.3, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a performance-based financing scheme on maternal and neonatal health service quality in Malawi.

    Methods: We conducted a non-randomized controlled before and after study to evaluate the effects of district- and facility-level performance incentives for health workers and management teams. We assessed changes in the facilities' essential drug stocks, equipment maintenance and clinical obstetric care processes. Read More


    Maternal and neonatal services in Ethiopia: measuring and improving quality.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 25;95(6):473-477. Epub 2017 Apr 25.
    Global Health Leadership Institute, Yale University School of Public Health, 2 Church Street South, New Haven, Connecticut, 06519, United States of America.
    Problem: Maternal and neonatal mortality remains high in low- and middle-income countries, with poor quality of intrapartum care as a barrier to further progress.

    Approach: We developed and tested a method of measuring the quality of maternal and neonatal care that could be embedded in a larger national performance management initiative. The tool used direct observations and medical record reviews to score quality in nine domains of intrapartum care. Read More

    Quality of care: measuring a neglected driver of improved health.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 21;95(6):465-472. Epub 2016 Feb 21.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, United States of America.
    The quality of care provided by health systems contributes towards efforts to reach sustainable development goal 3 on health and well-being. There is growing evidence that the impact of health interventions is undermined by poor quality of care in lower-income countries. Quality of care will also be crucial to the success of universal health coverage initiatives; citizens unhappy with the quality and scope of covered services are unlikely to support public financing of health care. Read More

    Community-based approaches for neonatal survival: meta-analyses of randomized trial data.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 24;95(6):453-464C. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, England.
    Objective: To analyse the impact of community approaches to improving newborn health and survival in low-resource countries.

    Methods: We updated previous meta-analyses of published cluster randomized trials of community-based interventions for neonatal survival. For each study we extracted baseline data on the context: geographical area; available facilities and staffing; immediate breastfeeding and facility births; and neonatal mortality. Read More

    Developing global indicators for quality of maternal and newborn care: a feasibility assessment.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 13;95(6):445-452I. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Centre for Maternal and Newborn Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, Liverpool, L3 5QA, England.
    Objective: To assess the feasibility of applying the World Health Organization's proposed 15 indicators of quality of care for maternal and newborn health at health-facility level in low- and middle-income settings.

    Methods: Six of the indicators are about maternal health, five are for newborn health and four are general cross-cutting indicators. We used data collected routinely in facility registers and obtained as part of facility assessments from 963 health-care facilities specializing in maternity services in 10 countries in Africa and Asia. Read More

    A geospatial evaluation of timely access to surgical care in seven countries.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 16;95(6):437-444. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
    Department of Surgery, Division of General Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, S067, Stanford, CA 94305, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To assess the consistent availability of basic surgical resources at selected facilities in seven countries.

    Methods: In 2010-2014, we used a situational analysis tool to collect data at district and regional hospitals in Bangladesh (n = 14), the Plurinational State of Bolivia (n = 18), Ethiopia (n = 19), Guatemala (n = 20), the Lao People's Democratic Republic (n = 12), Liberia (n = 12) and Rwanda (n = 25). Hospital sites were selected by pragmatic sampling. Read More

    Records of medical malpractice litigation: a potential indicator of health-care quality in China.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 13;95(6):430-436. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
    Duke Kunshan University, No 8 Duke Avenue, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province, 215316, China.
    Objective: To assess the characteristics and incidence of medical litigation in China and the potential usefulness of the records of such litigation as an indicator of health-care quality.

    Methods: We investigated 13 620 cases of medical malpractice litigation that ended between 2010 and 2015 and were reported to China's Supreme Court. We categorized each case according to location of the court, the year the litigation ended, the medical specialization involved, the severity of the reported injury, the type of allegation raised by the plaintiff - including any alleged shortcomings in the health care received - and the outcome of the litigation. Read More

    Quality of routine essential care during childbirth: clinical observations of uncomplicated births in Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 24;95(6):419-429. Epub 2017 Apr 24.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, England.
    Objective: To evaluate the quality of essential care during normal labour and childbirth in maternity facilities in Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Methods: Between 26 May and 8 July 2015, we used clinical observations to assess care provision for 275 mother-neonate pairs at 26 hospitals. Data on 42 items of care were collected, summarized into 17 clinical practices and three aggregate scores and then weighted to obtain population-based estimates. Read More

    Variation in quality of primary-care services in Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Jun 9;95(6):408-418. Epub 2017 May 9.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115, United States of America.
    Objective: To analyse factors affecting variations in the observed quality of antenatal and sick-child care in primary-care facilities in seven African countries.

    Methods: We pooled nationally representative data from service provision assessment surveys of health facilities in Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania (survey year range: 2006-2014). Based on World Health Organization protocols, we created indices of process quality for antenatal care (first visits) and for sick-child visits. Read More

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