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    10440 results match your criteria Bulletin of the World Health Organization[Journal]

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    Pandemic risk: how large are the expected losses?
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 5;96(2):129-134. Epub 2017 Dec 5.
    Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    There is an unmet need for greater investment in preparedness against major epidemics and pandemics. The arguments in favour of such investment have been largely based on estimates of the losses in national incomes that might occur as the result of a major epidemic or pandemic. Recently, we extended the estimate to include the valuation of the lives lost as a result of pandemic-related increases in mortality. Read More

    Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 27;96(2):122-128. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Infectious Hazard Management, World Health Organization, avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. Read More

    Lessons learnt from implementation of the International Health Regulations: a systematic review.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 11;96(2):110-121E. Epub 2017 Dec 11.
    Department of Pediatrics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.
    Objective: To respond to the World Health Assembly call for dissemination of lessons learnt from countries that have begun implementing the International Health Regulations, 2005 revision; IHR (2005).

    Methods: In November 2015, we conducted a systematic search of the following online databases and sources: PubMed®, Embase®, Global Health, Scopus, World Health Organization (WHO) Global Index Medicus, WHO Bulletin on IHR Implementation and the International Society for Disease Surveillance. We included identified studies and reports summarizing national experience in implementing any of the IHR (2005) core capacities or their components. Read More

    Antibiotic distribution channels in Thailand: results of key-informant interviews, reviews of drug regulations and database searches.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 2;96(2):101-109. Epub 2018 Jan 2.
    International Health Policy Programme, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 110000, Thailand.
    Objective: To analyse how antibiotics are imported, manufactured, distributed and regulated in Thailand.

    Methods: We gathered information, on antibiotic distribution in Thailand, in in-depth interviews - with 43 key informants from farms, health facilities, pharmaceutical and animal feed industries, private pharmacies and regulators- and in database and literature searches.

    Findings: In 2016-2017, licensed antibiotic distribution in Thailand involves over 700 importers and about 24 000 distributors - e. Read More

    Antibiotic use in poultry: a survey of eight farms in Thailand.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 27;96(2):94-100. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, 420/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.
    Objective: To investigate antibiotic use in poultry farms in Thailand and estimate the total amount of antibiotics used annually in Thai production of chicken meat.

    Methods: In a single province, we surveyed eight farms in which chickens were raised for meat and interviewed the farms' owners in 2016. The antibiotic use for each chicken was defined as the amount of antibiotic given to the chicken over its entire lifetime divided by the target weight of the chicken at the time of its slaughter. Read More

    Implementation research: reactive mass vaccination with single-dose oral cholera vaccine, Zambia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Feb 19;96(2):86-93. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Médecins sans Frontières, 78, rue de Lausanne, Case Postale 1016, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.
    Objective: To describe the implementation and feasibility of an innovative mass vaccination strategy - based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine - to curb a cholera epidemic in a large urban setting.

    Method: In April 2016, in the early stages of a cholera outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia, the health ministry collaborated with Médecins Sans Frontières and the World Health Organization in organizing a mass vaccination campaign, based on single-dose oral cholera vaccine. Over a period of 17 days, partners mobilized 1700 health ministry staff and community volunteers for community sensitization, social mobilization and vaccination activities in 10 townships. Read More

    Praziquantel for the treatment of schistosomiasis during human pregnancy.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 27;96(1):59-65. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Department of Clinical Research, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England.
    In 2014, an estimated 40 million women of reproductive age were infected withand/or. In both 2003 and 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that all schistosome-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women be offered treatment, with praziquantel, either individually or during treatment campaigns. In 2006, WHO also stated the need for randomized controlled trials to assess the safety and efficacy of such treatment. Read More

    Controlling hepatitis C in Rwanda: a framework for a national response.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 27;96(1):51-58. Epub 2017 Nov 27.
    Division of Global Health Equity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, United States of America.
    With the introduction of direct-acting antiviral drugs, treatment of hepatitis C is both highly effective and tolerable. Access to treatment for patients, however, remains limited in low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of supportive health infrastructure and the high cost of treatment. Poorer countries are being encouraged by international bodies to organize public health responses that would facilitate the roll-out of care and treatment on a national scale. Read More

    A life-course approach to health: synergy with sustainable development goals.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 23;96(1):42-50. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Office of the Assistant Director-General, Family, Women's and Children's Health, World Health Organization, avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    A life-course approach to health encompasses strategies across individuals' lives that optimize their functional ability (taking into account the interdependence of individual, social, environmental, temporal and intergenerational factors), thereby enabling well-being and the realization of rights. The approach is a perfect fit with efforts to achieve universal health coverage and meet the sustainable development goals (SDGs). Properly applied, a life-course approach can increase the effectiveness of the former and help realize the vision of the latter, especially in ensuring health and well-being for all at all ages. Read More

    Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 23;96(1):29-41L. Epub 2017 Nov 23.
    Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Objective: To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities.

    Methods: We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. Read More

    Trends in catastrophic health expenditure in India: 1993 to 2014.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 30;96(1):18-28. Epub 2017 Nov 30.
    Public Health Foundation of India, Plot 47, Sector 44, Institutional Area, Gurugram 122 002, National Capital Region, India.
    Objective: To investigate trends in out-of-pocket health-care payments and catastrophic health expenditure in India by household age composition.

    Methods: We obtained data from four national consumer expenditure surveys and three health-care utilization surveys conducted between 1993 and 2014. Households were divided into five groups by age composition. Read More

    Activity-based costing of health-care delivery, Haiti.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jan 16;96(1):10-17. Epub 2017 Nov 16.
    Harvard Business School, Boston, USA.
    Objective: To evaluate the implementation of a time-driven activity-based costing analysis at five community health facilities in Haiti.

    Methods: Together with stakeholders, the project team decided that health-care providers should enter start and end times of the patient encounter in every fifth patient's medical dossier. We trained one data collector per facility, who manually entered the time recordings and patient characteristics in a database and submitted the data to a cloud-based data warehouse each week. Read More

    Mental health care during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Dec 31;95(12):842-847. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Sierra Leone Psychiatric Hospital, Ministry of Health and Sanitation, Government of Sierra Leone, Freetown, Sierra Leone.
    Problem: Reported levels of mental health and psychosocial problems rose during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone.

    Approach: As part of the emergency response, existing plans to create mental health units within the existing hospital framework were brought forward. A nurse-led mental health and psychosocial support service, with an inpatient liaison service and an outpatient clinic, was set up at the largest government hospital in the country. Read More

    Health-care workers' occupational exposures to body fluids in 21 countries in Africa: systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Dec 13;95(12):831-841F. Epub 2017 Oct 13.
    Department of Demography and Social Statistics, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.
    Objective: To estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of occupational exposure to body fluids among health-care workers in Africa.

    Methods: Embase®, PubMed® and CINAHL databases were systematically searched for studies published between January 2000 and August 2017 that reported the prevalence of occupational exposure to blood or other body fluids among health-care workers in Africa. The continent-wide prevalence of exposure was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. Read More

    Systematic review of dietary trans-fat reduction interventions.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Dec 19;95(12):821-830G. Epub 2017 Oct 19.
    Department of Public Health and Policy, Whelan Building, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GB, England.
    Objective: To systematically review published studies of interventions to reduce people's intake of dietary trans-fatty acids (TFAs).

    Methods: We searched online databases (CINAHL, the CRD Wider Public Health database, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Ovid®, MEDLINE®, Science Citation Index and Scopus) for studies evaluating TFA interventions between 1986 and 2017. Absolute decrease in TFA consumption (g/day) was the main outcome measure. Read More

    Access to maternal health services: geographical inequalities, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Dec 31;95(12):810-820. Epub 2017 Oct 31.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, England.
    Objective: To determine if improved geographical accessibility led to increased uptake of maternity care in the south of the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Methods: In a household census in 2007 and another large household survey in 2013, we investigated 22 243 and 13 820 women who had had a recent live birth, respectively. The proportions calculated from the 2013 data were weighted to account for the sampling strategy. Read More

    Zika virus in semen: a prospective cohort study of symptomatic travellers returning to Belgium.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Dec 6;95(12):802-809. Epub 2017 Jul 6.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Kronenburgstraat 43/3, B-2000, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Objective: To prospectively monitor Zika viral loads in semen from Belgian travellers with confirmed Zika virus infection, who returned from the Americas during the 2016 Zika virus epidemic.

    Methods: We recruited symptomatic travellers consulting our clinic and we confirmed infection with either reverse-transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay or virus neutralization test. The participants produced semen samples weekly, either at the clinic or at home. Read More

    Lower incidence of myocardial infarction after smoke-free legislation enforcement in Chile.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Oct 28;95(10):674-682. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA 02139, United States of America.
    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a complete smoking ban in enclosed spaces on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Chile.

    Methods: The population-based study involved residents of urban areas, where 80% of the Chilean population live, aged 20 years or older who had a myocardial infarction. Monthly myocardial infarction incidence and mortality rates at health-care facilities between January 2011 and December 2014 were derived from admission and mortality databases. Read More

    The need to monitor actions on the social determinants of health.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 12;95(11):784-787. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

    Tetanus in adult males, Bugando Medical Centre, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 3;95(11):779-783. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States of America.
    Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported.

    Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016.

    Local Setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus. Read More

    Volunteer provision of long-term care for older people in Thailand and Costa Rica.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 26;95(11):774-778. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Hospital Nacional de Geriatría y Gerontología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Problem: Demand for long-term care services for older people is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Countries need to establish national long-term care systems that are sustainable and equitable.

    Approach: The Governments of Costa Rica and Thailand have implemented broadly comparable interventions to deploy volunteers in long-term home care. Read More

    Lessons learnt during 20 years of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 3;95(11):764-773. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Monitoring and Evaluation, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Increasing use of antibiotics and rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics are a challenge to global health and development. Successful initiatives for containing the problem need to be communicated and disseminated. In Sweden, a rapid spread of resistant pneumococci in the southern part of the country triggered the formation of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance, also known as Strama, in 1995. Read More

    Organizing integrated health-care services to meet older people's needs.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 26;95(11):756-763. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Ageing and Life Course, World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    In most countries, a fundamental shift in the focus of clinical care for older people is needed. Instead of trying to manage numerous diseases and symptoms in a disjointed fashion, the emphasis should be on interventions that optimize older people's physical and mental capacities over their life course and that enable them to do the things they value. This, in turn, requires a change in the way services are organized: there should be more integration within the health system and between health and social services. Read More

    Assistive technologies for people with dementia: ethical considerations.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 12;95(11):749-755. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Australian Centre for Health Law Research, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, Queensland, 4000, Australia.
    The sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 include a new target for global health: SDG 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages." Dementia care of good quality is particularly important given the projected increase in the number of people living with the condition. A range of assistive technologies have been proposed to support dementia care. Read More

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