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    10402 results match your criteria Bulletin of the World Health Organization[Journal]

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    Lower incidence of myocardial infarction after smoke-free legislation enforcement in Chile.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Oct 28;95(10):674-682. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Department of Economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts, MA 02139, United States of America.
    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a complete smoking ban in enclosed spaces on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in Chile.

    Methods: The population-based study involved residents of urban areas, where 80% of the Chilean population live, aged 20 years or older who had a myocardial infarction. Monthly myocardial infarction incidence and mortality rates at health-care facilities between January 2011 and December 2014 were derived from admission and mortality databases. Read More

    The need to monitor actions on the social determinants of health.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 12;95(11):784-787. Epub 2017 Sep 12.
    Department of Public Health, Environmental and Social Determinants of Health, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.

    Tetanus in adult males, Bugando Medical Centre, United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 3;95(11):779-783. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, United States of America.
    Problem: In the United Republic of Tanzania, the incidence of non-neonatal circumcision-related tetanus is probably underreported.

    Approach: We analysed charts and extracted information on outcome and wound location for non-neonatal cases of tetanus admitted to the intensive care unit of Bugando Medical Centre between 2001 and 2016.

    Local Setting: Bugando Medical Centre, which is one of four teaching referral hospitals in the United Republic of Tanzania, has a 13-bed intensive care unit that manages all admitted patients with tetanus. Read More

    Volunteer provision of long-term care for older people in Thailand and Costa Rica.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 26;95(11):774-778. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Hospital Nacional de Geriatría y Gerontología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.
    Problem: Demand for long-term care services for older people is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Countries need to establish national long-term care systems that are sustainable and equitable.

    Approach: The Governments of Costa Rica and Thailand have implemented broadly comparable interventions to deploy volunteers in long-term home care. Read More

    Lessons learnt during 20 years of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 3;95(11):764-773. Epub 2017 Oct 3.
    Department of Monitoring and Evaluation, Public Health Agency of Sweden, Solna, Sweden.
    Increasing use of antibiotics and rising levels of bacterial resistance to antibiotics are a challenge to global health and development. Successful initiatives for containing the problem need to be communicated and disseminated. In Sweden, a rapid spread of resistant pneumococci in the southern part of the country triggered the formation of the Swedish strategic programme against antibiotic resistance, also known as Strama, in 1995. Read More

    Organizing integrated health-care services to meet older people's needs.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 26;95(11):756-763. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Ageing and Life Course, World Health Organization, 20 avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    In most countries, a fundamental shift in the focus of clinical care for older people is needed. Instead of trying to manage numerous diseases and symptoms in a disjointed fashion, the emphasis should be on interventions that optimize older people's physical and mental capacities over their life course and that enable them to do the things they value. This, in turn, requires a change in the way services are organized: there should be more integration within the health system and between health and social services. Read More

    Assistive technologies for people with dementia: ethical considerations.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 12;95(11):749-755. Epub 2017 May 12.
    Australian Centre for Health Law Research, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, Brisbane, Queensland, 4000, Australia.
    The sustainable development goals (SDGs) adopted by the United Nations in 2015 include a new target for global health: SDG 3 aims to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages." Dementia care of good quality is particularly important given the projected increase in the number of people living with the condition. A range of assistive technologies have been proposed to support dementia care. Read More

    Service readiness of health facilities in Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Nov 5;95(11):738-748. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To evaluate the service readiness of health facilities in Bangladesh, Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Nepal, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Methods: Using existing data from service provision assessments of the health systems of the 10 study countries, we calculated a service readiness index for each of 8443 health facilities. This index represents the percentage availability of 50 items that the World Health Organization considers essential for providing health care. Read More

    Postpartum depression in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Oct 5;95(10):706-717C. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Department of Psychiatry, Patna Medical College, Patna, Bihar, India.
    Objective: To provide an estimate of the burden of postpartum depression in Indian mothers and investigate some risk factors for the condition.

    Methods: We searched PubMed®, Google Scholar and Embase® databases for articles published from year 2000 up to 31 March 2016 on the prevalence of postpartum depression in Indian mothers. The search used subject headings and keywords with no language restrictions. Read More

    Insecticide-treated nets and malaria prevalence, Papua New Guinea, 2008-2014.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Oct 5;95(10):695-705B. Epub 2017 Sep 5.
    Division of Population Health and Immunity, Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Australia.
    Objective: To investigate changes in malaria prevalence in Papua New Guinea after the distribution of long-lasting Insecticide-treated nets, starting in 2004, and the introduction of artemisinin-based combination therapy in 2011.

    Methods: Two malaria surveys were conducted in 2010-2011 and 2013-2014. They included 77 and 92 randomly selected villages, respectively. Read More

    Using health-facility data to assess subnational coverage of maternal and child health indicators, Kenya.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Oct 28;95(10):683-694. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
    Center for Global Public Health, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, 750 Bannatyne Avenue, R3E0W2 Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Objective: To develop a systematic approach to obtain the best possible national and subnational statistics for maternal and child health coverage indicators from routine health-facility data.

    Methods: Our approach aimed to obtain improved numerators and denominators for calculating coverage at the subnational level from health-facility data. This involved assessing data quality and determining adjustment factors for incomplete reporting by facilities, then estimating local target populations based on interventions with near-universal coverage (first antenatal visit and first dose of pentavalent vaccine). Read More

    Monetary incentives for provision of syphilis screening, Yunnan, China.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 1;95(9):657-662. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
    National Center for Sexually Transmitted Disease Control, China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention, Nanjing, China.
    Problem: Early detection of syphilis-infected people followed by effective treatment is essential for syphilis prevention and control.

    Approach: Starting in 2010 the local health authority in Yunnan province, China, developed a network of 670 service sites for syphilis testing, diagnosis and treatment or for testing-only with referral for further diagnosis and treatment. Point-of-care tests for syphilis and syphilis interventions were integrated into the existing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control programme. Read More

    Integrated morbidity management for lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis, Ethiopia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):652-656. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    NTD case team, Diseases Prevention and Control Directorate, Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Problem: Lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis are the major causes of tropical lymphoedema in Ethiopia. The diseases require a similar provision of care, but until recently the Ethiopian health system did not integrate the morbidity management.

    Approach: To establish health-care services for integrated lymphoedema morbidity management, the health ministry and partners used existing governmental structures. Read More

    A data platform to improve rabies prevention, Sri Lanka.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 19;95(9):646-651. Epub 2017 May 19.
    Network for Improving Critical Care Systems and Training, 2nd Floor, YMBA Building, Colombo 08, Sri Lanka.
    Problem: In Sri Lanka, rabies prevention initiatives are hindered by fragmented and delayed information-sharing that limits clinicians' ability to follow patients and impedes public health surveillance.

    Approach: In a project led by the health ministry, we adapted existing technologies to create an electronic platform for rabies surveillance. Information is entered by trained clinical staff, and both aggregate and individual patient data are visualized in real time. Read More

    A guide to aid the selection of diagnostic tests.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):639-645. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    In recent years, a wide range of diagnostic tests has become available for use in resource-constrained settings. Accordingly, a huge number of guidelines, performance evaluations and implementation reports have been produced. However, this wealth of information is unstructured and of uneven quality, which has made it difficult for end-users, such as clinics, laboratories and health ministries, to determine which test would be best for improving clinical care and patient outcomes in a specific context. Read More

    Estimated economic impact of vaccinations in 73 low- and middle-income countries, 2001-2020.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 27;95(9):629-638. Epub 2017 Jun 27.
    Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Seattle, USA.
    Objective: To estimate the economic impact likely to be achieved by efforts to vaccinate against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases between 2001 and 2020 in 73 low- and middle-income countries largely supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

    Methods: We used health impact models to estimate the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae and yellow fever. In comparison with no vaccination, we modelled the costs - expressed in 2010 United States dollars (US$) - of averted treatment, transportation costs, productivity losses of caregivers and productivity losses due to disability and death. Read More

    Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and hospitalization of children for pneumonia: a time-series analysis, South Africa, 2006-2014.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Sep 26;95(9):618-628. Epub 2017 Jun 26.
    Medical Research Council: Respiratory and Meningeal Pathogens Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, York Road, Parktown, 2193, South Africa.
    Objective: To assess the impact of immunization with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children in Soweto, South Africa.

    Methods: We used data collected at the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital in Soweto between 2006 and 2014 - i.e. Read More

    Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 11;95(8):599-603. Epub 2017 May 11.
    International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Soi Satharanasook 6, Tiwanon Road, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand.
    Problem: In Thailand, antimicrobial resistance has formed a small component of national drug policies and strategies on emerging infectious diseases. However, poor coordination and a lack of national goals and monitoring and evaluation platforms have reduced the effectiveness of the corresponding national actions.

    Approach: On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand. Read More

    Threats posed by stockpiles of expired pharmaceuticals in low- and middle-income countries: a Ugandan perspective.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):594-598. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Pharmacy, School of Health Sciences, Makerere University, PO Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
    In some low- and middle-income countries, the national stores and public-sector health facilities contain large stocks of pharmaceuticals that are past their expiry dates. In low-income countries like Uganda, many such stockpiles are the result of donations. If not adequately monitored or regulated, expired pharmaceuticals may be repackaged and sold as counterfeits or be dumped without any thought of the potential environmental damage. Read More

    Decentralized care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug;95(8):584-593
    Central Clinical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of decentralized treatment and care for patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis, in comparison with centralized approaches.

    Methods: We searched ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane library, Embase®, Google Scholar, LILACS, PubMed®, Web of Science and the World Health Organization's portal of clinical trials for studies reporting treatment outcomes for decentralized and centralized care of MDR tuberculosis. Read More

    A cohort study of low birth weight and health outcomes in the first year of life, Ghana.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):574-583. Epub 2017 May 26.
    Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Faculty of Epidemiology and Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London, WC1E 7HT, England.
    Objective: To investigate the effect of birth weight on infant mortality, illness and care seeking in rural Ghana.

    Methods: Using randomized controlled trial data, we compared infants weighing 2.00-2. Read More

    Malaria in China, 2011-2015: an observational study.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 26;95(8):564-573. Epub 2017 May 26.
    School of Public Health, Fudan University, Dongan Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.
    Objective: To ascertain the trends and burden of malaria in China and the costs of interventions for 2011-2015.

    Methods: We analysed the spatiotemporal and demographic features of locally transmitted and imported malaria cases using disaggregated surveillance data on malaria from 2011 to 2015, covering the range of dominant malaria vectors in China. The total and mean costs for malaria elimination were calculated by funding sources, interventions and population at risk. Read More

    The impact of the roll-out of rapid molecular diagnostic testing for tuberculosis on empirical treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.
    Bull World Health Organ 2017 Aug 28;95(8):554-563. Epub 2017 Apr 28.
    The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Institute for Infectious Diseases and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town, 7925, South Africa.
    Objective: To investigate the impact of introducing a rapid test as the first-line diagnostic test for drug-sensitive tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Methods: Xpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert®), an automated polymerase-chain-reaction-based assay, was rolled out between 2011 and 2013. Data were available on 102 007 adults treated for pulmonary tuberculosis between 2010 and 2014. Read More

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