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    10495 results match your criteria Bulletin of the World Health Organization[Journal]

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    Oral cholera vaccine in cholera prevention and control, Malawi.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 23;96(6):428-435. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street E6003 Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Problem: With limited global supplies of oral cholera vaccine, countries need to identify priority areas for vaccination while longer-term solutions, such as water and sanitation infrastructure, are being developed.

    Approach: In 2017, Malawi integrated oral cholera vaccine into its national cholera control plan. The process started with a desk review and analysis of previous surveillance and risk factor data. Read More

    Postgraduate training for trauma prevention, injury surveillance and research, Uganda.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 12;96(6):423-427. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Johns Hopkins International Injury Research Unit, Health Systems Program, Department of International Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Suite E-8132, Baltimore, Maryland, 21205, United States of America (USA).
    Problem: The burden of trauma and injuries in Uganda is substantial and growing. Two important gaps that need addressing are the shortage of trained people and a lack of national data on noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors in Uganda.

    Approach: We developed and implemented a new track within an existing master of public health programme, aimed at developing graduate-level capacity and promoting research on key national priorities for trauma and injuries. Read More

    The global burden of kidney disease and the sustainable development goals.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 20;96(6):414-422D. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, United States of America.
    Kidney disease has been described as the most neglected chronic disease. Reliable estimates of the global burden of kidney disease require more population-based studies, but specific risks occur across the socioeconomic spectrum from poverty to affluence, from malnutrition to obesity, in agrarian to post-industrial settings, and along the life course from newborns to older people. A range of communicable and noncommunicable diseases result in renal complications and many people who have kidney disease lack access to care. Read More

    Prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection: a systematic review.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 27;96(6):402-413D. Epub 2018 Apr 27.
    Pan American Health Organization, Washington, United States of America.
    Objective: To conduct a systematic review to estimate the prevalence of asymptomatic Zika virus infection in the general population and in specific population groups.

    Methods: We searched PubMed®, Embase® and LILACS online databases from inception to 26 January 2018. We included observational epidemiological studies where laboratory testing was used to confirm positive exposure of participants to Zika virus and in which Zika virus symptom status was also recorded. Read More

    Health-system-adapted data envelopment analysis for decision-making in universal health coverage.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 23;96(6):393-401. Epub 2018 Apr 23.
    Program in Global Surgery and Social Change, Harvard Medical School, 641 Huntington Ave #411, Boston, Massachusetts, 02115, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To develop and test a method that allows an objective assessment of the value of any health policy in multiple domains.

    Methods: We developed a method to assist decision-makers with constrained resources and insufficient knowledge about a society's preferences to choose between policies with unequal, and at times opposing, effects on multiple outcomes. Our method extends standard data envelopment analysis to address the realities of health policy, such as multiple and adverse outcomes and a lack of information about the population's preferences over those outcomes. Read More

    Implementation of tuberculosis prevention for exposed children, Burkina Faso.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 20;96(6):386-392. Epub 2018 Apr 20.
    Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Objective: To develop and test a simple system for recording and reporting the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection and to compare the effects of passive and active tracing of child contacts on indicators of such infection.

    Methods: We revised Burkina Faso's latent tuberculosis infection register and quarterly tuberculosis reporting form. Subsequently, coverage of the routine screening of contacts, who were younger than five years, for active tuberculosis and the corresponding percentages of such contacts who, if eligible, initiated preventive therapy were measured, nationwide, between 1 April 2016 and 31 March 2017. Read More

    Monographs for medicines on WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Jun 28;96(6):378-385. Epub 2018 Mar 28.
    Global Public Health Division, United States Pharmacopeia, 12601 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, Maryland 20852, United States of America.
    Objective: To raise awareness about the importance of public pharmaceutical standards, identify if and, if so, where current pharmacopeias are falling short in the development of new and complete monographs and foster collaboration among the various pharmacopeias, to prioritize, develop and make available standards for those key medicines for which no complete monographs exist.

    Methods: In August 2017, we mined eight pharmacopeias to identify which of the 669 medicines in the 20th edition of the World Health Organization's Model List of Essential Medicines were covered by complete or incomplete monographs. The pharmacopeias we included were the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia, the British Pharmacopoeia, the Indian Pharmacopeia Commission, the International Pharmacopoeia, the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, the Mexican Pharmacopoeia, the Pharmacopeia of the People's Republic of China and the United States Pharmacopeia. Read More

    Rabies control in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 12;96(5):360-365. Epub 2018 Apr 12.
    Neglected Zoonotic Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Problem: Urbanization, large dog populations and failed control efforts have contributed to continuing endemicity of dog-mediated rabies in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa.

    Approach: From 2007 to 2014 we used a OneHealth approach to rabies prevention, involving both the human and animal health sectors. We implemented mass vaccination campaigns for dogs to control canine rabies, and strategies to improve rabies awareness and access to postexposure prophylaxis for people exposed to rabies. Read More

    The G7 presidency and universal health coverage, Japan's contribution.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 19;96(5):355-359. Epub 2018 Mar 19.
    Department of Global Health Policy, Medical Building No. 3, Hongo Campus, University of Tokyo,7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.
    Problem: If universal health coverage (UHC) is to be achieved globally, it needs sustained promotion and political awareness and support.

    Approach: During its presidency of the Group of Seven (G7) industrialized nations in 2016, Japan aimed to raise the issue of UHC to the top of the global health agenda.

    Local Setting: Japan has promoted a health agenda at all of the G7 summits since 2000 that it has hosted. Read More

    International travel between global urban centres vulnerable to yellow fever transmission.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 11;96(5):343-354B. Epub 2018 Apr 11.
    Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael's Hospital, 30 Bond Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada.
    Objective: To examine the potential for international travel to spread yellow fever virus to cities around the world.

    Methods: We obtained data on the international flight itineraries of travellers who departed yellow fever-endemic areas of the world in 2016 for cities either where yellow fever was endemic or which were suitable for viral transmission. Using a global ecological model of dengue virus transmission, we predicted the suitability of cities in non-endemic areas for yellow fever transmission. Read More

    Single episode of alcohol use resulting in injury: a cross-sectional study in 21 countries.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 20;96(5):335-342. Epub 2018 Mar 20.
    Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Objective: To examine the empirical basis for including the diagnostic category of "a single episode of harmful substance use" in the 11th revision of the (ICD-11).

    Methods: We used data on patients admitted to emergency departments in 21 countries with alcohol-related injuries (i.e. Read More

    Evaluation of the EpiCore outbreak verification system.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 16;96(5):327-334. Epub 2018 Mar 16.
    International Society for Infectious Diseases, 9 Babcock Street, Brookline, Massachusetts, 02446, United States of America (USA).
    Objective: To describe a crowdsourced disease surveillance project (EpiCore) and evaluate its usefulness in obtaining information regarding potential disease outbreaks.

    Methods: Volunteer human, animal and environmental health professionals from around the world were recruited to EpiCore and trained to provide early verification of health threat alerts in their geographical region via a secure, easy-to-use, online platform. Experts in the area of emerging infectious diseases sent requests for information on unverified health threats to these volunteers, who used local knowledge and expertise to respond to requests. Read More

    Poisoning deaths in China, 2006-2016.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May;96(5):314-326A
    Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Xiangya School of Public Health, Central South University, Changsha, China.
    Objective: To provide a comprehensive overview of poisoning mortality patterns in China.

    Methods: Using mortality data from the Chinese national disease surveillance points system, we examined trends in poisoning mortality by intent and substance from 2006 to 2016. Differences over time between urban and rural residents among different age groups and across external causes of poisoning were quantified using negative binomial models for males and females separately. Read More

    Zika virus infection estimates, Mexico.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 May 28;96(5):306-313. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Centro Universitario de los Altos, Universidad de Guadalajara, Carretera a Yahualica, Km 7.5, Tepatitlán de Morelos, Jalisco 47600, Mexico.
    Objective: To assess the magnitude of the Mexican epidemic of Zika virus infection and the associated risk of microcephaly.

    Methods: From the reported number of laboratory-confirmed symptomatic infections among pregnant women and the relevant birth rate, we estimated the number of symptomatic cases of infection that occurred in Mexico between 25 November 2015, when the first confirmed Mexican case was reported, and 20 August 2016. We used data from the birth certificates to compare mean monthly incidences of congenital microcephaly before (1 January 2010-30 November 2015) and after (1 December 2015-30 September 2017) the introduction of Zika virus, stratifying the data according to whether the mother's place of residence was at an altitude of at least 2200 m above sea level. Read More

    Post-earthquake health-service support, Nepal.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 5;96(4):286-291. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Nepal Country Office, World Health Organization, United Nations House, Pulchowk, Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Post Box Number 108, Nepal.
    Problem: Seven months after the April 2015 Nepal earthquake, and as relief efforts were scaling down, health authorities faced ongoing challenges in health-service provision and disease surveillance reporting.

    Approach: In January 2016, the World Health Organization recruited and trained 12 Nepalese medical doctors to provide technical assistance to the health authorities in the most affected districts by the earthquake. These emergency support officers monitored the recovery of health services and reconstruction of health facilities, monitored stocks of essential medicines, facilitated disease surveillance reporting to the health ministry and assisted in outbreak investigations. Read More

    Regulatory evaluation of biosimilars throughout their product life-cycle.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 28;96(4):281-285. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Essential Medicines and Health Products, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    The World Health Assembly in 2014 adopted a resolution that recognized the importance of increasing access to biotherapeutic products, of improving their affordability and of ensuring their quality, safety and efficacy. Biosimilars are biotherapeutic products similar to already licensed reference products and are usually developed after patents on the original products have expired. Their introduction into the market is likely to reduce the costs of medicines substantially, thereby improving the availability of treatment for patients. Read More

    Antibiotic stewardship interventions in hospitals in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 28;96(4):266-280. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    Unit of Tropical Laboratory Medicine, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Objective: To review the effectiveness of antibiotic stewardship interventions in hospitals in low- and middle-income countries.

    Methods: We searched MEDLINE®, Embase®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and regional indexes for studies of interventions to improve appropriate prescribing and use of antibiotics for hospitalized patients in low- and middle-income countries. We included controlled trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time-series studies published up to December 2017. Read More

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV: a cross-sectional study in Malawi.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 28;96(4):256-265. Epub 2018 Feb 28.
    United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Objective: To estimate the use and outcomes of the Malawian programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    Methods: In a cross-sectional analysis of 33 744 mother-infant pairs, we estimated the weighted proportions of mothers who had received antenatal HIV testing and/or maternal antiretroviral therapy and infants who had received nevirapine prophylaxis and/or HIV testing. We calculated the ratios of MTCT at 4-26 weeks postpartum for subgroups that had missed none or at least one of these four steps. Read More

    Untreated depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability, Ethiopia.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 5;96(4):243-255. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Psychiatry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Objective: To investigate the association between comorbid depression and tuberculosis treatment outcomes, quality of life and disability in Ethiopia.

    Methods: The study involved 648 consecutive adults treated for tuberculosis at 14 primary health-care facilities. All were assessed at treatment initiation (i. Read More

    Multicontaminant air pollution in Chinese cities.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Apr 5;96(4):233-242E. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.
    Objective: To investigate multicontaminant air pollution in Chinese cities, to quantify the urban population affected and to explore the relationship between air pollution and urban population size.

    Methods: We obtained data for 155 cities with 276 million inhabitants for 2014 from China's air quality monitoring network on concentrations of fine particulate matter measuring under 2.5 μm (PM), coarse particulate matter measuring 2. Read More


    Knowledge integration in One Health policy formulation, implementation and evaluation.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):211-218. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Epidemiology Section, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 270, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland.
    The One Health concept covers the interrelationship between human, animal and environmental health and requires multistakeholder collaboration across many cultural, disciplinary, institutional and sectoral boundaries. Yet, the implementation of the One Health approach appears hampered by shortcomings in the global framework for health governance. Knowledge integration approaches, at all stages of policy development, could help to address these shortcomings. Read More

    Fiscal policy to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases: from recommendations to action.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):201-210. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University, New York, USA.
    The World Health Organization has recommended that Member States consider taxing energy-dense beverages and foods and/or subsidizing nutrient-rich foods to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases. Numerous countries have either implemented taxes on energy-dense beverages and foods or are considering the implementation of such taxes. However, several major challenges to the implementation of fiscal policies to improve diets and prevent noncommunicable diseases remain. Read More

    Integrating tuberculosis and antimicrobial resistance control programmes.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):194-200. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Department of Global Health & Development, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, England.
    Many low- and middle-income countries facing high levels of antimicrobial resistance, and the associated morbidity from ineffective treatment, also have a high burden of tuberculosis. Over recent decades many countries have developed effective laboratory and information systems for tuberculosis control. In this paper we describe how existing tuberculosis laboratory systems can be expanded to accommodate antimicrobial resistance functions. Read More

    Medicine procurement and the use of flexibilities in the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, 2001-2016.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):185-193. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Global Health Unit, Department of Health Sciences, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, Groningen, 9700 RB, the Netherlands.
    Millions of people, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, lack access to effective pharmaceuticals, often because they are unaffordable. The 2001 Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization (WTO) adopted the Doha Declaration on the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement and Public Health. The declaration recognized the implications of intellectual property rights for both new medicine development and the price of medicines. Read More

    National policies on the management of latent tuberculosis infection: review of 98 countries.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):173-184F. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Global Tuberculosis Programme, World Health Organization, Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
    Objective: To review policies on management of latent tuberculosis infection in countries with low and high burdens of tuberculosis.

    Methods: We divided countries reporting data to the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Programme into low and high tuberculosis burden, based on WHO criteria. We identified national policy documents on management of latent tuberculosis through online searches, government websites, WHO country offices and personal communication with programme managers. Read More

    Lead poisoning outbreak among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2016-2017.
    Bull World Health Organ 2018 Mar 5;96(3):165-172. Epub 2018 Feb 5.
    Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.
    Objective: To describe an outbreak of lead poisoning among opium users in the Islamic Republic of Iran and estimate the number of affected people in the country.

    Methods: We used data from the country's largest poison treatment centre to illustrate the epidemiology of an outbreak of lead poisoning in oral opium users. We describe the government's referral and treatment guidelines in response to the outbreak. Read More

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