238,850 results match your criteria Building Research And Information[Journal]


One panel to rule them all: DArTcap genotyping for population structure, historical demography, and kinship analyses, and its application to a threatened shark.

Mol Ecol Resour 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Ellengowan Drive, Darwin, NT, 0909, Australia.

With recent advances in sequencing technology, genomic data are changing how important conservation management decisions are made. Applications such as Close-Kin Mark-Recapture demand large amounts of data to estimate population size and structure, and their full potential can only be realised through ongoing improvements in genotyping strategies. Here we introduce DArTcap, a cost-efficient method that combines DArTseq and sequence capture, and illustrate its use in a high resolution population analysis of Glyphis garricki, a rare, poorly known and threatened euryhaline shark. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13204DOI Listing

Application of purple phototrophic bacteria in a biofilm photobioreactor for single cell protein production: Biofilm vs suspended growth.

Water Res 2020 May 18;181:115909. Epub 2020 May 18.

Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Gehrmann Building, Brisbane, Queensland, 4072, Australia.

Single cell protein (SCP), has been proposed as alternative to effectively upgrade and recycle organics and nutrients from wastewater. Biomass recovery is a critical issue, and recovery as a biofilm is effective in comparison with sedimentation of suspended biomass. This study aims to determine the applicability of purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) biofilm on infra-red irradiated, submerged surfaces for the treatment of pre-settled red meat processing wastewater, and SCP generation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.115909DOI Listing

Sustainability of antimicrobial stewardship programs in Australian rural hospitals: a qualitative study.

Aust Health Rev 2020 Jun;44(3):415-420

National Centre for Antimicrobial Stewardship, Peter Doherty Research Institute for Infection and Immunity, Level 5, 792 Elizabeth Street, Melbourne, Vic. 3000, Australia. Email: and Department of Medicine - Royal Melbourne Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Royal Parade, Melbourne, Vic. 3050, Australia; and Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 300 Grattan Street, Melbourne, Vic. 3050, Australia.

Objective The aim of this study was to explore the features of sustainable antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs in Australian rural hospitals and develop recommendations on incorporating these features into rural hospitals' AMS programs. Methods Lead AMS clinicians with knowledge of at least one AMS program sustained for >2 years in a health service in rural Australia were recruited to the study. A series of interviews was conducted and the transcripts analysed thematically using a framework method. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AH19097DOI Listing

Reversible Electrochemical Gelation of Metal Chalcogenide Quantum Dots.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

The ability to dictate the assembly of quantum dots (QDs) is critical for their integration into solid-state electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, assembly methods that enable efficient electronic communication between QDs, facilitate access to the reactive surface, and retain the native quantum confinement characteristics of the QD, are lacking. Here we introduce a universal and facile electrochemical gelation method for assembling metal chalcogenide QDs (as demonstrated for CdS, ZnS, and CdSe) into macroscale 3-D connected pore-matter nanoarchitectures that remain quantum confined and in which each QD is accessible to the ambient. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.0c03156DOI Listing

Reelin dorsal horn neurons co-express Lmx1b and are mispositioned in disabled-1 mutant mice.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology, UCLA, Terasaki Life Science Building, 610 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA, 90095-7239, USA.

Mice missing either Reelin or Disabled-1 (Dab1) exhibit dorsal horn neuronal positioning errors and display heat hypersensitivity and mechanical insensitivity. Reelin binds its receptors, Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and Very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, leading to the recruitment and phosphorylation of Dab1 and activation of downstream pathways that regulate neuronal migration. Previously, we reported that 70% of Dab1 laminae I-II neurons co-expressed LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 beta (Lmx1b). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14847DOI Listing

A single-synapse resolution survey of PSD95-positive synapses in twenty human brain regions.

Eur J Neurosci 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Centre for Clinical Brain Sciences, Chancellor's Building, Edinburgh BioQuarter, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, United Kingdom.

Mapping the molecular composition of individual excitatory synapses across the mouse brain reveals high synapse diversity with each brain region showing a distinct composition of synapse types. As a first step toward systematic mapping of synapse diversity across the human brain, we have labelled and imaged synapses expressing the excitatory synapse protein PSD95 in twenty human brain regions, including 13 neocortical, two subcortical, one hippocampal, one cerebellar and three brainstem regions, in four phenotypically normal individuals. We quantified the number, size and intensity of individual synaptic puncta and compared their regional distributions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14846DOI Listing

Structural variations and expression profiles of the SARS-CoV-2 host invasion genes in Lung cancer.

J Med Virol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biology, Nigde, Turkey.

Recent days have seen growing evidence of cancer's susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and of the effect of genomic differences on the virus' entrance genes in lung cancer. Genetic confirmation of the hypotheses regarding gene expression and mutation pattern of target genes, including Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE2), Transmembrane Serine Protease 2 (TMPRSS2), Basigin (CD147/BSG) and Paired Basic Amino Acid Cleaving Enzyme (FURIN/PCSK3), as well as correlation analysis, were evaluated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous carcinoma (LUSC) using in silico analysis. Not only were gene expression and mutation patterns detected, but also there was a correlation and survival analysis between ACE2 and other target genes expression levels. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26107DOI Listing

Efficient growth and characterization of one-dimensional transition metal tellurides inside carbon nanotubes.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan.

Atomically thin one-dimensional (1D) van der Waals wires of transition metal monochalocogenides (TMMs) have been anticipated as promising building blocks for integrated nanoelectronics. While reliable production of TMM nanowires has eluded scientists over the past few decades, we finally demonstrated a bottom-up fabrication of MoTe nanowires inside carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Still, the current synthesis method is based on vacuum annealing of reactive MoTe2, and limits access to a variety of TMMs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03129aDOI Listing

A de novo approach to inferring within-host fitness effects during untreated HIV-1 infection.

PLoS Pathog 2020 Jun 3;16(6):e1008171. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

In the absence of effective antiviral therapy, HIV-1 evolves in response to the within-host environment, of which the immune system is an important aspect. During the earliest stages of infection, this process of evolution is very rapid, driven by a small number of CTL escape mutations. As the infection progresses, immune escape variants evolve under reduced magnitudes of selection, while competition between an increasing number of polymorphic alleles (i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008171DOI Listing

Focused ultrasound for safe and effective release of brain tumor biomarkers into the peripheral circulation.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0234182. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

The development of noninvasive approaches for brain tumor diagnosis and monitoring continues to be a major medical challenge. Although blood-based liquid biopsy has received considerable attention in various cancers, limited progress has been made for brain tumors, at least partly due to the hindrance of tumor biomarker release into the peripheral circulation by the blood-brain barrier. Focused ultrasound (FUS) combined with microbubbles induced BBB disruption has been established as a promising technique for noninvasive and localized brain drug delivery. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0234182PLOS

Radiocarbon dating and microarchaeology untangle the history of Jerusalem's Temple Mount: A view from Wilson's Arch.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233307. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scientific Archaeology Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Radiocarbon dating is rarely applied in Classical and Post-Classical periods in the Eastern Mediterranean, as it is not considered precise enough to solve specific chronological questions, often causing the attribution of historic monuments to be based on circumstantial evidence. This research, applied in Jerusalem, presents a novel approach to solve this problem. Integrating fieldwork, stratigraphy, and microarchaeology analyses with intense radiocarbon dating of charred remains in building materials beneath Wilson's Arch, we absolutely dated monumental structures to very narrow windows of time-even to specific rulers. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233307PLOS

Designing an optimized diagnostic network to improve access to TB diagnosis and treatment in Lesotho.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233620. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Directorate of Laboratory Services, Ministry of Health, Maseru, Lesotho.

Background: To reach WHO End tuberculosis (TB) targets, countries need a quality-assured laboratory network equipped with rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing. Diagnostic network analysis aims to inform instrument placement, sample referral, staffing, geographical prioritization, integration of testing enabling targeted investments and programming to meet priority needs.

Methods: Supply chain modelling and optimization software was used to map Lesotho's TB diagnostic network using available data sources, including laboratory and programme reports and health and demographic surveys. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233620PLOS

Distinct subtypes of inhibitory interneurons differentially promote the propagation of rate and temporal codes in the feedforward neural network.

Chaos 2020 May;30(5):053102

Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, 145 Anam-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 02841, South Korea.

Sensory information is believed to be encoded in neuronal spikes using two different neural codes, the rate code (spike firing rate) and the temporal code (precisely-timed spikes). Since the sensory cortex has a highly hierarchical feedforward structure, sensory information-carrying neural codes should reliably propagate across the feedforward network (FFN) of the cortex. Experimental evidence suggests that inhibitory interneurons, such as the parvalbumin-positive (PV) and somatostatin-positive (SST) interneurons, that have distinctively different electrophysiological and synaptic properties, modulate the neural codes during sensory information processing in the cortex. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5134765DOI Listing

Germylation of Arenes via Pd(I) Dimer Enabled Sulfonium Salt Functionalization.

Org Lett 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institute of Organic Chemistry, RWTH Aachen University, Landoltweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

While aryl germanes have recently found usage as coupling partners in powerful catalytic applications, the synthetic access to this promising functionality is currently limited. This report details the straightforward synthesis of functionalized aryl triethylgermanes via formal C-H functionalization. Building on the concept of directing-group-free and site-selective C-H functionalization of arenes to thianthrenium salt intermediates, we showcase their efficient couplings with triethylgermane (EtGe-H) at room temperature, which was enabled by the air- and moisture-stable Pd(I) dimer, [Pd(μ-I)(PBu)]. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c01609DOI Listing

Computationally Guided Tuning of Amino Acid Configuration Influences the Chiroptical Properties of Supramolecular Peptide-π-Peptide Nanostructures.

Langmuir 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Self-assembled supramolecular materials derived from peptidic macromolecules with π-conjugated building blocks are of enormous interest because of their aqueous solubility and biocompatibility. The design rules to achieve tailored optoelectronic properties from these types of materials can be guided by computation and virtual screening rather than intuition-based experimental trial-and-error. Using machine learning, we reported previously that supramolecular chirality in self-assembled aggregates from VEVAG-π-GAVEV type peptidic materials was most strongly influenced by hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic packing of the alanine and valine residues. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00961DOI Listing

The majority of the matrix protein TapA is dispensable for Bacillus subtilis colony biofilm architecture.

Mol Microbiol 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Division of Molecular Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of Dundee, Dundee, UK, DD1 5EH.

Biofilm formation is a co-operative behaviour where microbial cells become embedded in an extracellular matrix. This biomolecular matrix helps manifest the beneficial or detrimental outcome mediated by the collective of cells. Bacillus subtilis is an important bacterium for understanding the principles of biofilm formation. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.14559DOI Listing

MRI-Based Radiomics Signature: A Potential Biomarker for Identifying Glypican 3-Positive Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2020 Jun 3:e27199. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research center for Cancer, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin, China.

Background: Glypican 3 (GPC3) expression has proved to be a critical risk factor related to prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.

Purpose: To investigate the performance of MRI-based radiomics signature in identifying GPC3-positive HCC.

Study Type: Retrospective. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27199DOI Listing

Current dietary advice and challenges for adolescents.

Br Med Bull 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Westmead Applied Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Post Office Box 154, The University of Sydney at Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Background: The major risk factors driving the global burden of disease are diet related. Adolescence presents a window of opportunity for establishing healthy dietary trajectories. Yet around the world, adolescents experience many barriers that prevent them from consuming diets that would give them the foundation for long, healthy and productive adult lives. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bmb/ldaa015DOI Listing

Tailorable Electrocatalytic 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural Oxidation and H Production: Architecture-Performance Relationship in Bifunctional Multilayer Electrodes.

ACS Nano 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Water electrocatalytic splitting is considered as an ideal process for generating H2 without byproducts. However, in the water-splitting reaction, a high overpotential is needed to overcome the high energy barrier due to the slow kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). In this study, we selected the 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) oxidation reaction, which is thermodynamically favored, to replace the OER in the water-splitting process. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c00581DOI Listing

Organic Cages as Building Blocks for Mechanically Interlocked Molecules: Towards Molecular Machines.

Chempluschem 2020 Jun;85(6):1145-1155

Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, V. le Taramelli 12, 27100, Pavia, Italy.

The research on systems able to perform controllable motions under external stimuli arises great interest in the scientific community. Over the years, a library of innovative devices has been produced, classified in different categories according to the molecular or supramolecular level of motion. This minireview aims to highlight some representative studies, in which organic cages are used as building blocks for mechanically interlocked molecules, and in which intramolecular motions are triggered by external input. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cplu.202000274DOI Listing

Iron-based multi-catalysis: eco-compatible alternative for complex molecules synthesis.

Authors:
Adrien Quintard

Chemistry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Aix-Marseille University, Aix-Marseille University, iSm2, Service 531 Campus Scientifique de St Jé, 13397, Marseille cedex 20, FRANCE.

In the last decade, multi-catalysis has emerged as an excellent alternative to classical methods, rapidly elaborating complex organic molecules while considerably decreasing steps and waste generation. In order to further decrease costs, the application of cheaper and more available iron-based catalysts has recently arisen. Through these iron-based multi-catalytic combinations, greener transformations have been developed that generates complex organic scaffolds from simple building blocks at lower costs. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202002092DOI Listing

Peripheral groups of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) core-based dendrimers: a crucial factor for higher-level supra-architecture building.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

College of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, 18 Chaowang Road, Hangzhou 310014, China.

The role of peripheral groups (PGs) on dendrimers in the spontaneous higher-level organization of hierarchically assembled nanofibers was investigated in a series of POSS-based dendritic gelators (POSS-Lys-X, X: -Boc, -Cbz, -Fmoc, etc.). We demonstrate that the PGs not only affect the gelation ability in solutions, but also the construction of orderly entangled fibrous supramolecular networks, e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03216fDOI Listing

Flexible and tensile microporous polymer fibers for wavelength-tunable random lasing.

Nanoscale 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

The Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Polymer micro-/nanofibers, due to their low-cost and mechanical flexibility, are attractive building blocks for developing lightweight and flexible optical circuits. They are also versatile photonic materials for making various optical resonators and lasers, such as microrings, networks and random lasers. In particular, for random lasing architectures, the demonstrations to-date have mainly relied on fiber bundles whose properties are hard to tune post-fabrication. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02484hDOI Listing

Function-oriented synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) covalent organic frameworks - from 3D solids to 2D sheets.

Chem Soc Rev 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are constructed from the precise integration of small organic blocks into an extended, porous framework via covalent linkages. COFs can also be viewed as an organic solid consisting of a periodic array of one dimensional (1-D) channels. Although a wide range of applications have been envisioned for COFs, understanding the structure-property correlation at the level of chemical linkages, topology, pore size and functionality is needed to unlock the potential of these materials. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00236dDOI Listing

Microhydration of protonated biomolecular building blocks: protonated pyrimidine.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, Germany.

Protonation and hydration of biomolecules govern their structure, conformation, and function. Herein, we explore the microhydration structure in mass-selected protonated pyrimidine-water clusters (H+Pym-Wn, n = 1-4) by a combination of infrared photodissociation spectroscopy (IRPD) between 2450 and 3900 cm-1 and density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the dispersion-corrected B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ level. We further present the IR spectrum of H+Pym-N2 to evaluate the effect of solvent polarity on the intrinsic molecular parameters of H+Pym. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp02110eDOI Listing

Engineering liposomal nanoparticles of cholesterol-tethered amphiphilic Pt(iv) prodrugs with prolonged circulation time in blood.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Kent State University, 236 Integrated Sciences Building, Kent, Ohio 44242, USA.

Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent widely used in the treatment of various solid tumors. However, a major challenge in the use of cisplatin and in the development of cisplatin derivatives, namely Pt(iv) prodrugs, is their premature reduction in the bloodstream before reaching cancer cells. To circumvent this problem, we designed liposomal nanoparticles coupled with a cholesterol-tethered amphiphilic Pt(iv) prodrug. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0dt01297aDOI Listing

Detrimental effect of zwitterionic buffers on lysosomal homeostasis in cell lines and iPSC-derived neurons.

AMRC Open Res 2020 May;2:21

School of Biosciences, Sir Martin Evans Building, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3AX, UK.

Good's buffers are commonly used for cell culture and, although developed to have minimal to no biological impact, they cause alterations in cellular processes such as autophagy and lysosomal enzyme activity. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons, this study explores the effect of zwitterionic buffers, specifically HEPES, on lysosomal volume and Ca levels. Certain zwitterionic buffers lead to lysosomal expansion and reduced lysosomal Ca. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/amrcopenres.12903.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266671PMC

Factors that motivate individuals to volunteer to be dispatched as first responders in the event of a medical emergency: A systematic review protocol.

HRB Open Res 2019 3;2:34. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Discipline of General Practice, Clinical Science Institute, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG), Galway, H91 TK33, Ireland.

Voluntary First Response is an important component of prehospital care for medical emergencies, particularly cardiac arrest, in many countries. This intervention entails the mobilisation of volunteers, known as Community First Responders (CFRs), by the Emergency Medical Services to respond to medical emergencies in their locality. They include lay responders and/or professional responders (e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.12969.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236422PMC
December 2019

Methods for Estimating Wet Bulb Globe Temperature From Remote and Low-Cost Data: A Comparative Study in Central Alabama.

Geohealth 2020 May 21;4(5):e2019GH000231. Epub 2020 May 21.

Division of Preventive Medicine University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham AL USA.

Heat stress is a significant health concern that can lead to illness, injury, and mortality. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index is one method for monitoring environmental heat risk. Generally, WBGT is estimated using a heat stress monitor that includes sensors capable of measuring ambient, wet bulb, and black globe temperature, and these measurements are combined to calculate WBGT. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2019GH000231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240860PMC

Insights into the gut microbiota of Nigerian elderly with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic elderly persons.

Heliyon 2020 May 29;6(5):e03971. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a prevalent non-communicable disease among the world's growing elderly population. The contribution of the gut microbiota to T2D in several Westernized countries has been established. However, there is little information on the role of the gut microbiota in T2D from the African continent where lifestyle and life expectancy are different. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262409PMC

Phenolic profile, in vitro antimicrobial activity and antioxidant capacity of swartz pomace.

Heliyon 2020 May 18;6(5):e03845. Epub 2020 May 18.

Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, 2650 Young Ave, Fayetteville, AR, 72704, USA.

Berries of Swartz contain a variety of phytochemicals, which are believed to account for their bioactive properties. The potential of Swartz pomace as a source of bioactive compounds was investigated. The dietary fiber (DF) content was assessed by the AOAC method, phenolic compounds were characterized and quantified via HPLC-PDA and UPLC-QTOF-MS. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260138PMC

Biomimetic anisotropic polymeric nanoparticles coated with red blood cell membranes for enhanced circulation and toxin removal.

Sci Adv 2020 Apr 15;6(16):eaay9035. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, and Oncology, Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 400 N Broadway, Smith Building 5017, Baltimore, MD 21231, USA.

The design of next-generation nanobiomaterials requires precise engineering of both physical properties of the core material and chemical properties of the material's surface to meet a biological function. A bio-inspired modular and versatile technology was developed to allow biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to circulate through the blood for extended periods of time while also acting as a detoxification device. To mimic red blood cells, physical and chemical biomimicry are combined to enhance the biological function of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay9035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239698PMC

Fabrication of Photoresponsive Crystalline Artificial Muscles Based on PEGylated Covalent Organic Framework Membranes.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 May 21;6(5):787-794. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China.

Seeking new photoresponsive materials with high energy conversion efficiency, good mechanical properties, as well as well-defined photoactuation mechanisms is of paramount significance. To address these challenges, we first introduced crystalline covalent organic frameworks (COFs) into the photoactuator field and created a facile fabrication strategy to directly install photoresponsive functional groups (i.e. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256951PMC

An Epoxide Intermediate in Glycosidase Catalysis.

ACS Cent Sci 2020 May 16;6(5):760-770. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

School of Chemistry and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia.

Retaining glycoside hydrolases cleave their substrates through stereochemical retention at the anomeric position. Typically, this involves two-step mechanisms using either an enzymatic nucleophile via a covalent glycosyl enzyme intermediate or neighboring-group participation by a substrate-borne 2-acetamido neighboring group via an oxazoline intermediate; no enzymatic mechanism with participation of the sugar 2-hydroxyl has been reported. Here, we detail structural, computational, and kinetic evidence for neighboring-group participation by a mannose 2-hydroxyl in glycoside hydrolase family 99 -α-1,2-mannanases. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscentsci.0c00111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256955PMC

Exposure to conflict-related violence and nutritional status of children in Iraq.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Aug 13;11:100585. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW Washington, DC, 20433, USA.

There is limited empirical evidence of the health effects of war-related violence on child nutritional status. Using unique micro-level data from Iraq, we create measures of cumulative exposure to violence since conception for children ages two to five based on their date of birth and geographic location. We examine the relationship between height-for-age z-scores, a measure of chronic malnutrition, and four indicators of violence in a regression framework, adjusting for potential confounders and trends. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256318PMC

Is less more? Examining the relationship between food assistance benefit levels and childhood weight.

SSM Popul Health 2020 Aug 25;11:100573. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, University of Utah, United States.

Background: The Supplementary Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a critical lifeline for millions of low-income US families, but some studies suggests that it may inadvertently increase obesity risk. Building on research contesting the SNAP-obesity link, we examine the effect of SNAP participation on BMI among multiyear participants at varying levels of SNAP benefit levels to provide some of the first evidence on the relationship between SNAP participation, state-level SNAP resources, and body weight. We focus on children given the strong links between early-life obesity and later-life health. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7252206PMC

"We Are Here to Assist All Individuals Who Need Hospice Services": Hospices' Perspectives on Improving Access and Inclusion for Racial/Ethnic Minorities.

Gerontol Geriatr Med 2020 Jan-Dec;6:2333721420920414. Epub 2020 May 19.

Seattle University, WA, USA.

Racial/ethnic minority populations in the United States are less likely to utilize hospice services nearing their end of life, potentially diminishing their quality of care while also increasing medical costs. Explore the minority hospice utilization gap from the hospice perspective by examining perceived barriers and facilitators as well as practices and policies. Qualitative surveys were conducted with 41 hospices across the United States. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2333721420920414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238442PMC

Spirituality and effective factors in education: A qualitative study.

J Educ Health Promot 2020 31;9:52. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Spiritual Health Research Center, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.

Background And Aim: Spirituality in education, as a necessity in improving the quality of teaching and learning, is affected by various personal, social, religious, and cultural factors. Since the identification of these factors can empower the faculties and facilitate the transfer of spiritual concepts through teaching, the aim of this study is explanation of the factors affecting the spirituality transfer in education process.

Materials And Methods: This qualitative content analysis approach study included 22 faculty members of medical universities, 25 faculty members of seminary, and 19 medical students interested in participating in the study. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_430_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255563PMC

Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the distal ureteral stump beyond recommended baseline surveillance duration.

Urol Case Rep 2020 Sep 19;32:101266. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Surgery - Division of Urology, 1 Hospital Drive, MC 301E, Columbia, MO, 65212, USA.

A 71-year-old male with history of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) 6-years status post nephrectomy presented for gross hematuria. Cystoscopy revealed a bulge of the right ureteral orifice, and transurethral resection confirmed RCC metastasis to the ureteral stump. Ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision was performed, and the patient is currently undergoing aggressive imaging surveillance. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2020.101266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256291PMC
September 2020

Broadcast reach and self-reported exposure to court-ordered corrective statements on cigarette harms.

Prev Med Rep 2020 Sep 19;19:101127. Epub 2020 May 19.

The Paul Merage School of Business, University of California, Irvine, 4293 Pereira Drive, Irvine, CA 92697, United States.

In August 2006, U.S. District Court Judge Gladys Kessler ordered four tobacco companies to disseminate court-approved corrective statements on five topics pertaining to health hazards of cigarette smoking. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2020.101127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260579PMC
September 2020

Levothyroxine prescriptions trends may indicate a downtrend in prescribing.

Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab 2020 19;11:2042018820920551. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of Biostatistics and Biomedical Informatics, MedStar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA.

Background: There has been a trend for increased prescribing of levothyroxine (LT4) in many countries, including the United States. Several different factors have been suggested to be the cause of this practice pattern. These factors include increased size of the United States population, more diagnosis of hypothyroidism, more treatment of minimally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, more use of LT4 in older patients, and use of LT4 for treatment of euthyroid patients with non-thyroidal conditions. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2042018820920551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238309PMC

Serious Conditions in COVID-19 Accompanied With a Feature of Metabolic Syndrome.

Authors:
Kei Nakajima

J Clin Med Res 2020 May 8;12(5):273-275. Epub 2020 May 8.

School of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health and Social Services, Kanagawa University of Human Services, 1-10-1 Heisei-cho, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 238-8522, Japan.

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jocmr4187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239577PMC

Exploring perceived costs and benefits of first aid for youth with depression: a qualitative study of Japanese undergraduates.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2020 24;14:34. Epub 2020 May 24.

College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, 3-25-40 Sakurajosui, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, 156-8550 Japan.

Background: Early interventions for depression among youth are greatly needed. Although Youth Mental Health First Aid (YMHFA) program has been developed to teach the public how to help young people with mental disorders, including depression, it has assumed human altruism and overlooked the possibility that participants would experience conflict between the costs and benefits of helping behaviors. The present qualitative study, therefore, initially explored content of the costs and benefits perceived by youth in terms of helping their peers with depression. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-020-00366-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7247138PMC

Case-only trees and random forests for exploring genotype-specific treatment effects in randomized clinical trials with dichotomous endpoints.

J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat 2019 Nov 8;68(5):1371-1391. Epub 2019 Jul 8.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Discovering gene-treatment interactions in clinical trials is of rising interest in the era of precision medicine. Nonparametric statistical learning methods such as trees and random forests are useful tools for building prediction rules. In this article, we introduce trees and random forests to the recently proposed case-only approach for discovering gene-treatment interactions and estimating marker-specific treatment effects for a dichotomous trial endpoints. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rssc.12366DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266264PMC
November 2019

Efficient Synthesis of Asymmetric Miktoarm Star Polymers.

Macromolecules 2020 Jan 8;53(2):702-710. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106, United States.

Asymmetric miktoarm star polymers comprising an unequal number of chemically-distinct blocks connected at a common junction produce unique material properties, yet existing synthetic strategies are beleaguered by complicated reaction schemes that are restricted in both monomer scope and yield. Here, we introduce a new synthetic approach coined "μSTAR" - Miktoarm Synthesis by Termination After Ring-opening metathesis polymerization - that circumvents these traditional synthetic limitations by constructing the block-block junction in a scalable, one-pot process involving (1) grafting-through polymerization of a macromonomer followed by (2) enyne-mediated termination to install a single mikto-arm with exceptional efficiency. This modular μSTAR platform cleanly generates AB and A(BA') miktoarm star polymers with unprecedented versatility in the selection of A and B chemistries as demonstrated using many common polymer building blocks: poly(siloxane), poly(acrylate), poly(methacrylate), poly(ether), poly(ester), and poly(styrene). Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.macromol.9b02380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7266137PMC
January 2020

End-of-life care in rural and regional Australia: Patients', carers' and general practitioners' expectations of the role of general practice, and the degree to which they were met.

Health Soc Care Community 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Primary Care Clinical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

The study objective was to explore the characteristics of rural general practice which exemplify optimal end-of-life (EOL) care from the perspective of people diagnosed with cancer, their informal carers and general practitioners (GPs); and the extent to which consumers perceived that actual EOL care addressed these characteristics. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with six people diagnosed with cancer, three informal carers and four GPs in rural and regional Australia. Using a social constructionist approach, thematic analysis was undertaken. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13027DOI Listing

Boronate Ester-Capped Helicates.

Chemistry 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Institut des Sciences et Ingénierie Chimiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Triple-stranded helicates were obtained by metal-templated multicomponent reactions of bispyridyloxime ligands with arylboronic acids. The helicates feature two hexa-coordinated M ions (M=Fe, Zn, or Mn), which are embedded in a macrobicyclic ligand framework, and two arylboronate ester capping groups. The latter can be used to introduce functional groups such as pyridines, aldehydes, nitriles, and carboxylic acids in apical position. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202001392DOI Listing

Biopsy pathology and immunohistochemistry of a case of immune-mediated drug-induced liver injury with Atabecestat.

Hepatology 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, Dept Molecular & Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, Sherrington Building, Ashton Street, L69 3GE, UK.

The development of the Janssen BACE inhibitor Atabecestat for people who have preclinical stage Alzheimer's disease was stopped following concerning liver enzyme elevations in some participants in Phase 2/3 trials. 24% of treated subjects had ALT elevations above 1.5-fold ULN, and 10. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31403DOI Listing

Modeling of the immune response in the pathogenesis of solid tumors and its prognostic significance.

Cell Oncol (Dordr) 2020 Jun 2. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Division of Histology and Embryology, Department of Human Morphology and Embryology, Wroclaw Medical University, ul. Chalubinskiego 6a, 50-368, Wroclaw, Poland.

Background: Tumor initiation and subsequent progression are usually long-term processes, spread over time and conditioned by diverse aspects. Many cancers develop on the basis of chronic inflammation; however, despite dozens of years of research, little is known about the factors triggering neoplastic transformation under these conditions. Molecular characterization of both pathogenetic states, i. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13402-020-00519-3DOI Listing

Racial Discrimination, Inflammation, and Chronic Illness Among African American Women at Midlife: Support for the Weathering Perspective.

J Racial Ethn Health Disparities 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Georgia, 157 IBR Psychology Building, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

It is widely accepted that socioeconomic status (SES) is a fundamental cause of health inequality. There is evidence, however, that race is also a fundamental cause of disparities in health. Based on this idea, the weathering hypothesis developed by Geronimus and her colleagues views the elevated rates of illness and disability seen among Black Americans as a physiological response to the structural barriers, daily slights, and other threats to identity that comprise the Black experience. Read More

View Article

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40615-020-00786-8DOI Listing